Proofing furnaces

Proofers and furnaces are a structure consisting of a proofer and oven, united by a common conveyor. The units are designed to produce tin bread from rye and wheat flour and provide .

Equipment for laying bread.

From the sorting table, bread products are sent to tray or bezlotkovye containers. For tray containers, three- or four-sided trays with lattice (for rye, rye-wheat, tin and bottom) are used. .

The device and the work of pasta presses.

The presses differ in the design of the dispensers, the number of chambers in the kneading machine and their location, the number of pressing screws, the design of the pressing heads, the shape of the dies and the place of evacuation.

The device and the work of matrices for pasta.

The dies are made of corrosion-resistant, durable materials, such as brass LS59-1 (GOST 15527 - 70), solid phosphorous bronze BrAZh9-4l and stainless steel 1X18Н9Т (GOST 5949-XNXXXXXUMXXUMXXX75-XNUMX) In the absence of stainless steel, it is replaced by less .

The equipment for molding candy

For forming the caramel from the harness, the following main types of molding machines:

  • chain caramel-cutting machines for forming cushion shape "cushion";
  • chain caramel-stamping machines for forming caramel in the form of a “ball”, oval, elongated-oval, flat-oval - “brick” and other figured caramel;
  • chain carameleforming-rolling machines for forming curly caramel;
  • roll caramel forming machines for the same caramel; rotary caramel forming machines for forming various curly caramel and tablets;
  • monpanse machines (rollers) for shaping figured drops and other candy products (Orange Slices, Peas, Mindalek, stick figures, etc.);
  • forming-wrapping units IZM-2 and others for molding and wrapping candy caramel and toffee (see chapter VII for description).

In addition to these, there are a number of varieties of caramel forming machines that have a smaller distribution. Most common in pastry shops .

Nutrition and Health

Since ancient times, people have understood the great importance of healthy food. The thinkers of antiquity, Hippocrates,

Celsus, Galen, and others dedicated whole treatises to the healing properties of various types of food and its reasonable consumption. .

pelleting chocolate

The coating is a special process of consistently applying layers of chocolate or sugar using rotating surfaces ( by stencil method). Suraging sugar is considered in different sections of this book, and below we consider only chocolate coating.

Chocolate is often coated with nuts (almonds, hazelnuts and peanuts, as a rule, are first roasted, and Brazil nuts are not). Raisins, condensed milk balls, canned ginger or cherries, various pastes and nougat are also used as fillings. Filling .

TASTE AND FLAVORING PRODUCTS.

GELING AGENTS

To improve the quality of confectionery products, spices, wine and seasonings are used. They are used in very small quantities, because otherwise you can spoil the taste of the products and distort their characteristic smell.

Spices. Spices represent .

PREPARATION OF MASSES (BEGINNING)

Pies, pies, pies, pies, chicken cookers and other flour culinary products are prepared with various fillings from meat, offal, fish, vegetables, mushrooms, cereals, eggs, etc.

Minced meat is prepared from meat or offal, which is crushed using a cutter or .

Sand-dummy butter biscuits from premium flour.

RECIPE

Cookies "squares"

Sand-dummy butter biscuits from premium flour. It has a square shape. Available in bulk and in packaging. 1 kg contains at least 80 pieces. Humidity 4,5 ± 1,5%.

name of raw materials

Solids,%

Feed consumption, kg

downloading

on 1 tonnes of finished products

actually

in dry matter

actually

in dry matter

Flour

85,5

80,0

68,40

540,04

461,73

Starch of maize

87,0

9,91

8,62

66,90

58,20

Powdered sugar

99,85

31,2

31,15

210,61

210,29

invert syrup

70,00

2,0

1,40

13,50

9,45

Condensed milk

74,0

8,0

5,92

54,0

39,96

Melange

27,0

8,0

2,16

54,0

14,58

Sol.

96,5

0,30

0,29

2,03

1,95

Soda

50,0

0,40

0,20

2,70

1,35

ammonium

-

0,30

-

2,03

-

Essentsiya

-

0,10

-

0,67

__

cocoa powder

95,0

6,0

5,70

40,50

38,47

Corn oil .

100,0

25,0

25,0

168,76

168,76

Cognac

-

0,40

-

2,70

-

Red paint

-

0,01

-

0,07

-

Total

-

171,62

148,84

1158,51

1004,74

Log out

95,0

148,1383

141,472

1000,0

955,0

RECIPE

SUNRISE cookies

Sand-dummy butter biscuits from premium flour. .

Typical glaze recipes for beginners.

formulations Currently, a large number of companies are engaged in the production of fat equivalents and substitute fats for cocoa butter, which cite many recipes in their proprietary materials. For more information on the properties of these fats, see chapter 9. In the table. 6.1,6.2 and 6.3 presented several typical recipes that can serve as the basis for novice technologists. SCM can be partially or completely replaced by COM, and, accordingly, the proportion of added fat in the formulation can also change. 6.1 table. Cocoa Butter Equivalent
Content,%Dark
glaze
Dairy
glaze
White
glaze
grated cocoa4010-
Fat equivalent of cocoa butter9,521,526,5
SCM-20,025,0
Sugar50,048,048,0
lecithin0,50,50,5
6.2 table. Cocoa butter substitute based on lauric fat
Content,%Dark
glaze
Dairy
glaze
White
glaze
Low Fat Cocoa Powder (10-12% Cocoa Butter)14,05,0-
Lauric Fat29,531,031,5
COM8,017,520,0
Sugar48,046,048,0
lecithin0,50,50,5
6.3 table. Cocoa butter substitute fat based on non-lauric fats
Content,%Dark
glaze
Dairy
glaze
White
glaze
Low Fat Cocoa Powder (10-12% Cocoa Butter)12,5-
grated cocoa10,010,0
SCM-5,020,0
COM-13,05,0
Non-lauric fat30,027,529,5
Sugar4,044,045,0
lecithin0,50,50,5
Note: Skimmed milk powder (COM), Whole milk powder (SCM). Since part of the formulations includes SCM, a third component appears - milk fat, and therefore, enterprises must pay attention to maintaining the texture (structure) of the product. Mixtures based on non-lauric fats are usually used for glazing. Due to their structure and insufficient compression during curing, these fats are less suitable for molding. In warm climates, the presence of SCM contributes to the softening of the final product, and therefore it is better to use COM. Due to their elastic structure, these mixtures are quite suitable for glazing cakes, pastries and cookies. Diet glaze People who are prone to obesity and watching calorie intake, as well as suffering from certain diseases (such as diabetes), have to limit the consumption of chocolate and confectionery. So that they could not exclude such delicious products from their diet, special dietary coatings for confectionery products were developed. Traditionally, confectionery is not a very balanced food product - they have a lot of carbohydrates (and in the case of chocolate and fats), but they are poor in proteins and vitamins. Along with products developed specifically for medical purposes, a large number of sweets are produced, which (according to the manufacturers) are inherent to healthy properties, and they supposedly help control weight. Sugar substitutes intended for diabetics (sorbitol and fructose), as well as caries-free xylitol have become widespread (for more details on sugar substitutes, see chapter 8). Chocolate is criticized for its caffeine and theobromine content, and in some cases cocoa powder is replaced with ceratonia or skimmed wheat germ. To increase the protein content in sweets and chocolate bars, soy protein derivatives are increasingly being used. Diabetic chocolate For people with diabetes, chocolate and confectionery ingredients such as sugar, dextrose, invert sugar, and starch conversion products are generally contraindicated. As a substitute for sugar in chocolate, which constitutes 40-50% of the mass of the whole product, many ingredients have been tested. When using intensive artificial sweeteners (such as saccharin), the volume occupied by sugar must be replaced by other ingredients, as otherwise it will cause bitterness due to the excessive content of cocoa liquor. Adding nuts (whole or ground) to chocolate is acceptable (soybean powder was also added at one time), but even the best of these ingredients cannot replace sugar. A significant achievement in the production of diabetic products was the introduction of sorbitol, which has a good sweetening ability and is able to replace the volume of sugar. Later, crystalline fructose appeared on the market, which, like sorbitol, is absorbed without the participation of insulin. The degree of sweetness of sorbitol is almost half that of sugar, and fructose is much sweeter than it. Fructose, like sorbitol, is very hygroscopic, which creates some technological problems. Synthetic intensive sweeteners such as saccharin must be added to sorbitol formulations to give the desired sweetness, but this is not required with fructose. Diabetic chocolate production. The ingredients (cocoa mass, sorbitol, a synthetic sweetener such as saccharin, nuts and fat) are mixed to a paste-like state for grinding. The grinding process in this case is not quite usual, since sorbitol crystals differ from sugar crystals, being oblong in shape and relatively soft. They are usually crushed to flat plates, and not to rounded particles. This factor, along with the hygroscopicity of sorbitol, can lead to the absorption of moisture from air, which causes problems at the conching stage. After grinding, the mass is conched with an additional amount of fat and flavorings. At the end of conching, it is advisable to immediately proceed to the processes of molding or glazing, since such chocolate during intermediate storage shows obvious signs of thixotropy and strongly thickens or partially hardens. This effect is exacerbated by the presence of moisture in sorbitol or other ingredients (soybean powder or milk powder), as well as its absorption during grinding. During conching, the temperature should not exceed 46 ° C - otherwise the viscosity increases rapidly, the chocolate thickens and it is inconvenient to work with it.

Production .

Baking Equipment

The complex of thermophysical, biochemical and colloidal processes taking place in the working chambers of the baking ovens determines the quality of the products produced: appearance, baking and volumetric yield of baked bread.

Bakery ovens can be .