In the process of complex mechanization and automation of production, individual machines and apparatuses are combined into aggregates and production lines. A set of specialized technological machines arranged in accordance with a certain technological process and interconnected by transport devices is called a flow line.
Mechanization and automation of production processes in the organization of production lines can be partial or complex.
With partial mechanization or automation, the flow line only covers the main production processes.
With integrated mechanization and automation, all major and auxiliary production processes are mechanized or automated, including operations for control, regulation and management. The mechanization of the main production is hampered by the fact that the domestic machine building serially does not produce complex mechanized lines for the production of bread, pasta and confectionery. As a result, part of the production lines is completed from disparate machines and devices.
Increasing the level of mechanization and automation in the bakery industry is usually associated with the need for specialization of production and more or less rigid fixation, consistency and rhythm of performing production operations. Therefore, bakery plants are introducing production lines of two types:
Complex mechanized and automated lines designed for specialized production of the main varieties of mass production, which include molded breads, loaves and round bottomed bread. The volume of production of these products is about 75 ... 85% of the total production of grain products in the Russian Federation, and in some regions reaches an even greater value;
Fig. 7.1. Scheme of the line for the production of molded bread with a large-capacity stove-oven unit
Mechanized lines for the production of bread products in the range with the possible transition from one class to another within the limits of certain assortment groups of products.
By type of product and purpose, the production lines of bakery enterprises are classified as follows:
For the production of shaped bread;
For the production of semi-finished products;
For the production of small-piece and bakery products;
For the production of special varieties of products (dried and barbecue products, straws, breadsticks, etc.).
According to the technical and economic indicators, the lines correspond to the current level of technology development, provide a high production culture, labor productivity and allow the production of high-quality products.
Lines for the production of shaped bread.
A line for the production of molded bread with a dead-end furnace or heavy-duty stove-oven unit (Figure 7.1) includes a bunker dough preparation unit 7. Control of the work of 2 kneaders, 4 flour dispensers, 3 water, 6 salt solution and 77 10, 9 and 5 mixer for feeding water for batch doughing is automated and is carried out according to the time program with command instruments (CEP) installed at the central The XNUMX.
The mechanical packing of dough pieces into 7 molds by means of a slot machine and the discharge of finished products onto the 8 belt conveyor exclude manual operations in these areas.
The line for the production of shaped bread with tunnel kilns (Figure 7.2) is available in two sizes with an 25 filing area or50 m2 and consists of the 14 dividing and packing machine, 4 final proofing unit 3 tunnel baking oven, 7 drive, 8 finished product conveyor and 9 offtake conveyor, and 11 control panel.
Fig. 7.2. Scheme of a line for the production of shaped bread with tunnel kilns
The final proofing unit is a structure consisting of separate interconnected sections. Inside the sections there is a drive 6 and tension shafts 10, 15, air conditioners and guides. Stretch and rotary sprocket covers two "endless" traction chains 12 140 mm increments that its rollers move along the guide rails. The 13 cradles are hinged on the chains, on each of which 17 bakery forms are fixed.
In the unloading section 2 of the unit, a mechanism for spraying finished products with water is mounted. The cradle coming out of the oven interacts with the switch-on mechanism, as a result of which it gives a signal for feeding water into the nozzle. The water supply is regulated by a solenoid valve.
Unloading of finished products from molds occurs by tipping and shaking the cradle passing through the tipping stop and the shaking comb. Under the unloading mechanism, a 1 cross conveyor with an individual drive is installed to transfer the unloaded bread to the finished product conveyor. By the discharge section adjacent the intermediate section and a discharge conveyor 5 9 individually driven. In this zone is the operator's workplace, which controls the complete excavation of bread from molds.
Loading of forms by the test is carried out in the course of conveyor movement by means of the deliberation-laying machine. The temperature and humidity of the dispensing medium are maintained by means of air conditioners.
The tunnel oven is made on the basis of the RZ-HPU oven and is installed directly on the dough sections of the final proofing unit at the level of 700 mm from the floor.
Dividing-packing machine is a construction mounted on a four-wheeled truck, consisting of a screw dough divider, a loading hopper and a lubrication mechanism for molds. It moves reciprocatingly along the guides set at an angle of 4 ° to the longitudinal axis of the cradle of the stove-oven conveyor. The reciprocating movement of the dividing-packing machine is carried out by means of a continuously moving two-circuit chain conveyor.
Lines for the production of hearths.
For the production of loaves and round bottomed bread, lines with dead-end and tunnel kilns can be used.
The line with the stub oven for the production of loaves (Figure 7.3) contains the 1 bunker-type dough preparation unit, the 2 paddle-type divider, the 3 conic type rounding machine, the 4 preliminary proofing cabinet, the 5 embossing machine, the 6 pendulum stirrer in the cradles of the final proof cage, Conveyor cabinet proofing 7 with a mechanism for unloading test billets, planter 8 blanks on the cradles of the oven and furnace 10 type FTL-2 with the device 9 for unloading baked bread
The line with the tunnel oven for the production of round bottom bread (Fig. 7.4) is completed from the following commercially available technological equipment: 7 dough preparation unit, 2 dividing machine, 3 rounder, 4 feed conveyor, 5 final proof conveyor with machines for laying test billets in cradles Proofing cabinet and transplanting them under the 6 oven and 7 belt conveyor for the finished product.
Fig. 7.3.The circuit of the line with a dead-end furnace for the production of loaves
Fig. 7.4. Scheme of a line with a tunnel kiln for the production of a roundBaking underground
The section of the line for cutting and forming the dough can work in automatic and manual modes. In automatic mode, the dough dividing machine operates periodically, stops for the time necessary to place the test pieces in the cradle of the final proofing conveyor. Start the dough divider by a sensor located on the conveyor of the furnace. The cycle of operation is designed so that after the final proofing of the test pieces is placed in the cradle of the cabinet, the sensor switches on the conveyor drive, which moves one step and brings another cradle for loading.
During the next conveyance of the proofing conveyor, the cradle with the distanced test billets meets the abutments and capsizes, and the test billets are transferred to the mesh under the furnaces.
The line for the production of loaves according to accelerated technology has a significant difference from traditional technology, which consists in the fact that fermentation of the dough occurs not in bulk, but in molded pieces of dough after all the mechanical effects on it.
The operational stock of flour is stored in the production silo. From the water treatment units and dispensers are fed liquid components, cold water and flour into the kneading machine, where in the bowls there is an intensive kneading test with a lowered to 22 ... .24 оС
After mixing with the given program, the dough enters the divider with the help of a de-tumbler. In the funnel of the divider, the level of the test is maintained automatically - when it is lowered, a signal is given, allowing another batch. Then the dough pieces are processed in the rounder, are short-lived (10 ... 15 min) pre-proofed in a cabinet and rolled into a belt-type machine. After that, the stacker directs the blanks to the cradles of the stove-oven unit, where the products are left and baked.
The operation of the line is controlled and regulated from a single control panel, while the operation of the units is automatically synchronized, the specified number of components is dosed, the temperature of the water fed to the dough is regulated,Temperature-humidity parameters in the proofing cabinets along the zones of the furnace.
During the work of the line, the mechanical effect on the dough (division, rounding) occurs immediately after its kneading, while a lower temperature slows the fermentation process. The test billets enter the preliminary proofing cabinet, where the fermentation process begins. Then the billets undergo the last processing - rolling and landing in a stove-oven unit. Only after this, fermentation of the dough in separate pieces and baking of loaves takes place on a single conveyor belt.
The implementation of such a "soft" process of production of wheat products made it possible to obtain a noticeable improvement in quality indicators.
Lines for the production of small-pieces and bakery products.
For the production of ordinary and Vyborg baking, as well as other small items at small-scale enterprises, lines are used with mechanization of individual processes: dough preparation with raw material dosing, dough preparation, preliminary and final proofing. Forming and laying test pieces on sheets, planting them in the final proofing cabinet, and then into the oven, the subsequent removal of the products from the oven and the surface finish (sprinkling with powdered sugar, lipstick lubrication, etc.) are usually done manually.
A higher degree of mechanization is typical for production lines for small-piece and bakery products. Such lines are used in specialized shops of bakeries.
The line for baking and bakery production (Figure 7.5) provides mechanization of operations, from the preparation of the dough to the placement of finished products in trays.
Preparation of the test is carried out on two ring conveyors: fusion 16 and test 75 in bowls with a capacity of 140 l. Each conveyor is equipped with automatic stations for dosing flour and liquid components, as well as a kneading machine 14 with a mechanism for lifting and rotating the bowl.
The unloading of the opaque from the bowl of the 16 pan conveyor and loading it into the bowl of the 75 test conveyor, as well as loading the finished test into a dividing machine, is carried out using two 1 and 3 tilts. After unloading the dough, the bowls are cleaned of its residues by the 2 cleaner.
Fig. 7.5. Line layout for baking and bakery production
The pieces of the dough obtained in the 13 dividing machine arrive in the 12 rounding machine and then into the 4 preliminary proofing cabinet. After that, the test billets enter the 11 dough forming mechanism corresponding to each type of product, where they are molded into five pieces in a row. Then, using the 5 unloading mechanism, the workpieces are fed into the 6 final proofing cabinet. The adjustment of the duration of the proofing is achieved by moving the mechanism pushing the sheets with the test pieces. From the final proofing cabinet, sheets with workpieces are pushed by the 7 mechanism to the dead end of the deadlock furnace 8. Simultaneously sheets with products are unloaded from the furnace to the conveyor, which feeds them to the machine 9 for packing products in trays.
After being released from the products, the sheets are fed into the 10 for cleaning and lubrication, and then through the conveyor they return to the dough-forming machine for loading.
The line for the production of layered bakery products is used for the production of a wide range of products with various fillings from 0,07 to 0,11 kg.
The dough from the intensive kneading machine after being dumped in a test bunker by a bucket conveyor is fed into the bunker of the molding machine to which the refrigerating communications are connected. From this machine, dough in the form of a strip of cooled puffy layer is sent to a puff pastry unit where double lateral rolling occurs, hot air defrosting, longitudinal and transverse rolling, filling and manual molding.
Sheets with test billets from the manual molding section along the upper conveyor are fed to the loading table in the conveyor cabinet, where they are combined in three pieces and sent to the two-way cradles of the dispenser. Duration of proofing about 120 min. From the test cabinet, the sheets with test billets are fed to the finishing area of the products for
Before loading in the oven, the sheets are again completed with 3 pcs. On the table, and then sent to the tunnel tunnel. From the belt conveyor, the worker manually drops the products into the tray mounted on the stacker, and places the empty sheets on the chain conveyor to feed the cleaning and lubricating machine into the machine. After that they are conveyed by the transporter to the station where the sheets are laid.
Line for the production of small items (Figure 7.6) is distinguished by a rational combination of the breadth of the range of manufactured products and high productivity.
Fig. 7.6. Scheme of the line for the production of small pieces
This is achieved through the use of dough preparation in sub-bowls and universal molding equipment.
The line consists of the dough preparation equipment, the 1 chipper, the 2 dividing and rounding machine, the 3 test batching machine, the 4 stacker of test pieces on the sheets, the 5 sheet planter in the proofing cabinet, the final proofing conveyor 6, the 7 sheet planter on the mesh under the tunnel 8 furnaces. At the end of the line to accommodate 9 orientation sheets, 11 machine for cleaning and lubrication sheets 12 conveyor for return to the loading of sheets, stacker and conveyor 13 10 for finished products.
To prepare the dough in the line, kneaded dough kneading machines were used. After loading the test into the funnel of the 2 rounding machine, the 3 preforms formed on the 5 unit are molded in 4 pcs. In a row, the conveyor is fed to the 5 stacking mechanism, which operates on the "runaway tape" principle, by which they are transferred to sheets. Sheets with workpieces with a special mechanism 6 are moved to the cradles of the final proofing cabinet 8. At the end of the proofing, the sheets automatically move under the XNUMX tunnel kiln.
After baking sheets with finished products are mechanically unloaded from the oven to the 10 belt conveyor, from which the products are moved to trays. The released sheets enter the machine 11 for cleaning and lubrication and then along the conveyor are sent to the loading point near the dough forming unit.
Lines for the production of special types of products.
The line for the production of bar products is shown in Fig. 7.7. A dough having a relatively low humidity is prepared on a special
Fig. 7.7. Scheme of the line for the production of bar products
Continuously renewed ferment ("porch") or on the spoon with the use of pressed yeast. Due to the low water content, the dough preparation process consists of two operations: kneading in a kneader, structurally designed for kneading a steep dough, and additional machining on a slicing machine to ensure homogeneity and high plasticity of the semi-finished product structure.
After the dough, the dough should have a period of digging-fermentation (30 ... 60 min). Then, the dough enters the separating-sealing machine, from which the formed test billets come out.
The molded test billets are provided with the necessary time (for machine molding from 30 to 90 min) for proofing, followed by boiling in boiling water or an oshpark in appropriate steam chambers. At the same time as a result of heating in the test billets, gelatinization and protein denaturation processes are carried out, especially those occurring intensively in the surface layer of the dough. As a result, the surface of the product after baking becomes shiny, glossy.
Barchnye products are baked in conveyor cradle or belt furnaces. Baking, depending on the type, grade and mass of products, usually lasts 10 ... 20 min.
The line consists of 1 kneading kneading machine with 2 dosing station and 3 truck mixer, 4 bucket lifter, two 5 vane conveyors for 6 veneer and 7 dies, 9 dough kneading machine with 8 dosing station, 77 chopping machine, 10 chopper divider , The distributor of pieces of dough XNUMX13 dividing and sealing machine and 12 belt conveyor for feeding the test to the batching machines.
For doughboards with test billets, the 14 belt conveyor is provided, which feeds them to the final proofing conveyor cabinet 15. Using 16, the test billets are transferred to the 17 scalding machine and then fed to the 18 tunnel kiln with a mesh bottom. The finished products are unloaded onto the 19 cooling conveyor and then forwarded to the packing department by ribbon conveyors: the steering-wheels to the nisal machines, drying to the packing and packing machine, where they are packed in bags of polyethylene film according to 200 ... 250. Packages with finished products for The conveyor goes to the control and rejection device, then along the conveyor - to the counter of the packages with the finished product and to the laying table. Here the packages are packed in a container or other container.
Line for the production of biscuits (Fig. 7.8) consists of the following machines and mechanisms: 1 intermittent batching machine with 2 bowl, 3 tilting machine, 4 tilting machine, 9 belt conveyor for dryplate billet, 10 roller table for semi-finished products, 5 conveyor cabinet for final proofing, Planters 6 sheets on the under the furnace with mechanisms of tattooing and lubrication of semi-finished products, tunnel furnace 7 with a mesh hearth, conveyor cabinet 8 for plate cooling, 15 belt conveyor for hard plates, 11 cutting machine, l ntochnogo 12 conveyor layout for chunks into sheets, 13 14 return conveyor and machines for packing them in packaging. Among the auxiliary equipment used machines for cleaning and lubricating sheets.
Fig. 7.8. Scheme of the line for the production of breadcrumbs
To return sheets, use the return conveyor 15.
In the line under consideration it is possible to use aggregates of continuous action instead of bowls. Rich biscuits contain a significant amount of fat and sugar, so the processes of fermentation of test semi-finished products and proofing of billets of slabs require a longer duration.
After molding and laying on metal sheets (trays), the test billets of the slabs are subjected to proofing in the conveyor cabinet 5. When transplanted on a tunnel tunnel / the test pieces are punctured and their upper surface is smeared with melange. Baking of dried plates is done without steam humidification under low temperature conditions. Exposure of the slabs in the 8 conveyor cabinet for cooling is necessary to increase the rigidity and ductility of their structure, which ensures a minimum amount of waste and reject during cutting. With the use of supply and exhaust ventilation, the exposure of the slabs is usually 6 ... 16 h. When the baked plates are reloaded into the cooling cabinet, the metal sheets are returned to the cleaning and lubrication machine by the return conveyor 13, and then again to the 4 molding machine.
The one shown in Fig. 7.8 set of line-line equipment with one oven corresponds to three-shift operation mode: 1-I shift - baking of dry boards, 2-I and 3-I shift - drying of biscuits. Thus, the cooling cabinet fulfills the function of the storage device, and the furnace is reconfigured into two different modes - baking and drying.
Drying biscuits is possible only in baking ovens, since the presence of a radiant component of heat exchange ensures that the sides of the biscuit are obtained in accordance with the requirements of the standard. High-performance production lines of biscuits are completed with two furnaces: one for baking plates, the second for drying biscuits. At the same time, for the coordinated work of the line, the area of the second furnace should be 2 times larger.
After cutting into slices, the semi-finished product is laid out on sheets or under the stoves on the side by means of the 12 layout mechanism. After drying, the crackers are stabilized and then packed on 14 machines.
On the line for the production of bread sticks (Figure 7.9) produce products that, by their organoleptic characteristics, are brittle dry oblong products of rounded cross-section. They are made of several names - simple, sweet, salted, with cumin from wheat flour of the highest and 1 sorts. Bread sticks have a thickness of 8 ... 12 mm, the length of 150 ... 270 mm. By physical properties and possibilitiesLong-term storage sticks can be attributed to the biscuit products.
Fig. 7.9. Scheme for the production of bread sticks
The line consists of the following basic equipment: 7 intermittent batching machine, 2 pre-rolling machine, 3 for folding the test tape and reducing its width in half, machines with four pairs of 4 rolls on a common belt conveyor to further unroll the test strip and molding machine 5
The dough is kneaded in a batch machine, after which it is left to ferment. After fermentation, the dough is passed through the wiper, then held for 15 ... 20 min.
The dough is cut on a special grooving molding machine, where between dough grooves the dough is cut into thin bundles with a diameter of 6 ... 8 mm, which are then cut lengthwise into lengths (270 ± 15) mm and laid on grooved sheets with dimensions of 1380x800 mm.
For the final proofing of the test pieces in the line, a cabinet with a vertical conveyor 9 is provided, on the cradles of which the sheets are loaded mechanically. The formed test billets are subjected to hygrothermal treatment before baking. Duration of proofing 50 test pieces min. The products are baked for 10 ... 12 min at temperature 200 ... 250 ° С.
For baking products is used tunnel furnace 8 with a ribbon hearth and electric heating. After baking sheets with finished products are fed to the closed chain conveyor 7 for cooling and packaging, and then again fed to the molding machine for loading. Packaging of products in cellophane bags is made on the 6 machine.
The line for making straws (Figure 7.10) consists of 4 press for forming dough harnesses, 3 brewing unit, 2 electric furnace and 7 control panel. On the press frame 4 mounted
Fig. 7.10. The scheme of the line for the production of straw.
Electric motor with a variator and a worm gearbox, a hopper with two auger chambers ending with a matrix through which the tows are squeezed out.
The dough is loaded into the receiving hopper, from where it enters the chambers located below it and through the matrix with holes of diameter 6,2 mm in the form of bundles is squeezed onto the belt conveyor, which is driven by the electric motor of the brewing unit. The 3 cooker is a bath with a mesh conveyor. On the frame of the brewing unit, an electric motor, bundle cutting units and sprinkling them with salt and a conveyor belt are mounted.
The dough rods fall on a conveyor belt passing through a bath with an 2% soda solution, during 50, cooked at a temperature of 85 ... 89 ° C and directed to the cutting unit. Then the blanks with a length of 280 mm are sprinkled with salt and conveyed to the wire mesh under an electric furnace along a belt conveyor. In the production of sweet straws the node for sprinkling is switched off.
The electric furnace 2 for baking straws consists of separate isolated sections with electric heaters fixed in them, drive and tension drums, wire mesh, mesh cleaning unit, exhaust duct with fan.
Electric heaters are mounted across the movement of the bundles over the working branch of the mesh box and under it. The upper heaters are located in the focus of the reflectors made of polished aluminum. The number of electric heaters in the sections depends on the temperature in the various zones of the furnace. The furnace is conditionally divided into three zones in which the temperature is maintained, respectively, 210 ... 220, 220 ... 230 and 200 ... 220 ° С.
The steam-air medium is removed from the baking chamber by a fan mounted between the first and second zones.
Dough rods from the cooker get on the mesh under the oven, are baked and arrive for packaging.