Currently, the production of fat-equivalents and fat substitutes for cocoa butter is engaged in a large number of companies, which in their branded materials lead many recipes. For details on the properties of these fats, see chapter 9.
In tab. 6.1,6.2 and 6.3 are some typical formulations that can serve as a basis for novice technologists.
CMS can be partially or completely replaced by COM, and, accordingly, the proportion of added fat in the recipe can also change.
6.1 table. Cocoa Butter Equivalent
|Fat equivalent of cocoa butter||9,5||21,5||26,5|
6.2 table. Cocoa butter substitute based on lauric fat
|Low Fat Cocoa Powder (10-12% Cocoa Butter)||14,0||5,0||—|
6.3 table. Cocoa butter substitute fat based on non-lauric fats
|Low Fat Cocoa Powder (10-12% Cocoa Butter)||12,5||—|
Skimmed milk powder (COM),
Whole milk powder (SCM).
Since part of the recipe includes SPM, a third component appears - milk fat, in connection with which enterprises need to pay attention to preserving the texture (structure) of the product.
Nelauric fat based mixtures are usually used for glazing. Because of their structure and insufficient compression during curing, these fats are less suitable for molding.
In a warm climate, the presence of SCM contributes to the softening of the final product, and therefore it is better to use COM.
Due to its elastic structure, these mixtures are quite suitable for icing cakes, pastries and cookies.
People who are prone to obesity and watching calorie intake, as well as suffering from certain diseases (such as diabetes), have to limit the consumption of chocolate and confectionery. So that they could not exclude such delicious products from their diet, special dietary coatings for confectionery products were developed.
Traditionally, confectionery products are not very balanced food products - they contain a lot of carbohydrates (and in the case of chocolate and fats), but they are poor in proteins and vitamins.
Along with products developed specifically for medical purposes, a large number of sweets are produced, which (according to the manufacturers) are inherent to healthy properties, and they supposedly help control weight. Sugar substitutes intended for diabetics (sorbitol and fructose), as well as caries-free xylitol have become widespread (for more details on sugar substitutes, see chapter 8).
Chocolate is criticized because of its caffeine and theobromine content, and in some cases cocoa powder is replaced with ceratonia or low-fat wheat germ. To increase the content of chocolates and chocolate bars protein, soy protein derivatives are increasingly used.
For people with diabetes, chocolate and confectionery ingredients such as sugar, dextrose, invert sugar, and starch conversion products are generally contraindicated. As a substitute for sugar in chocolate, which constitutes 40-50% of the mass of the whole product, many ingredients have been tested. When using intensive artificial sweeteners (such as saccharin), the volume occupied by sugar must be replaced by other ingredients, as otherwise it will cause bitterness due to the excessive content of cocoa liquor.
Adding nuts (whole or ground) to chocolate is acceptable (soybean powder was also added at one time), but even the best of these ingredients cannot replace sugar. A significant achievement in the production of diabetic products was the introduction of sorbitol, which has a good sweetening ability and is able to replace the volume of sugar. Later, crystalline fructose appeared on the market, which, like sorbitol, is absorbed without the participation of insulin. The degree of sweetness of sorbitol is almost half that of sugar, and fructose is much sweeter than it. Fructose, like sorbitol, is very hygroscopic, which creates some technological problems. Synthetic intensive sweeteners such as saccharin must be added to sorbitol formulations to give the desired sweetness, but this is not required when using fructose.
Diabetic chocolate production. Ingredients (cocoa liquor, sorbitol, synthetic sweetener such as saccharin, nuts and fat) are mixed to a pasty state for grinding. The grinding process in this case is not quite usual, since sorbitol crystals differ from sugar crystals, being oblong in shape and relatively soft. They are usually ground to flat plates, and not to rounded particles. This factor, along with sorbitol hygroscopicity, can lead to the absorption of moisture from the air, which causes problems at the conching stage.
After grinding, the mass is conched to add an additional amount of fat and flavorings. At the end of conching, it is desirable to immediately proceed to the processes of molding or glazing, since such chocolate during intermediate storage exhibits clear signs of thixotropy and strongly thickens or partially hardens. This effect is exacerbated by the presence of moisture in sorbitol or other ingredients (soy powder or dried milk), as well as its absorption during grinding. During conching, the temperature should not exceed 46 ° C - otherwise, the viscosity rises rapidly, the chocolate thickens and it is inconvenient to work with it.
Diabetic confectionery production. The range of cases of confectionery with sorbitol is inevitably limited, since the physical properties of sorbitol solutions differ from the properties of sugar solutions. Nevertheless, it is quite possible to make some confectionery masses and sweets with sorbitol. Industry uses sorbitol syrup (70-80%), as well as crystalline sorbitol, which is slightly more expensive. Sorbitol does not crystallize in supersaturated syrups like sugar, and a mixture of sorbitol powder with syrup is used in the preparation of confectionery masses and sweets. From a mixture of sorbitol syrup and ground nuts, poured on cooled trays, the iris is made by subsequent cutting (see the section “Confectionery Production”, chapter 19).
Chocolate glazes are usually applied to these shells with their hands or with a fork, but glazing is possible only if they comply with the measures against the thickening of the glazes (viscosity increase), which may occur due to moisture absorption or intermediate long-term storage of melted chocolate.