Jelly candies, chewing gums, pastilles, Turkish delight

Here we look at a large group of confectionery products, which include various products - from hard chewing gum to soft jelly candies, and the characteristics of each product in this group are mainly determined by the content of the gelling agent and the moisture content.

Main used gelling agents are summarized in Table. 19.4
Other gums are used in the food industry, but they are used to a lesser extent in the confectionery industry. This applies to guar gum and locust bean gum (carob), which are products of seeds, and tragacanth gum, a selection from astragalus bush. These gums are used as thickeners and stabilizers, as well as in chocolate pastes or syrups. Similarly, xanthan gum is used - natural resin formed during biosynthesis.
Furthermore, there is methylcellulose which, when the water absorption increases greatly in volume. It is used in some confectionery, as well as in diet products and slimming products. In the production of chewing gum used chicle-gum (chicle) - natural latex. Increasingly, modified starches are used in the production of jelly sweets. Starch with a high content of amylose in combination with boiling under pressure gives jelly sweets with a significantly shorter structure formation time.
19.4 table. Gelling agents - source and application

View gelling agent Source Application
GelatinAnimal protein derived from bones and skinGeneral (to be added to warm syrups for freezing during cooling). Non-boiling
If AlьginatыDifferent algaeVarious. It gives a crisp neutral jelly. Action is attenuated by boiling in acidic solutions
Gum arabic (arabic or acacia)wood selectionFor making hard chewing gums and as a filler and thickener in products such as marshmallows (marshmallows)
Starch and modified starchesSeeds of various plants and rootsFully or partially replaced by other gelling agents in chewing gum, Turkish Delight and glazes
PectinFruit pomace (especially citrus and apples)Mainly for the production of sour fruit jelly, but the low methoxylated pectin is used for the production of neutral jelly

In the production of jelly candies, especially soft, certain general precautions must be observed.

Dissolution of a gelling agent

Jelly candies, chewing gums, pastilles, Turkish delight

Obviously, the gelling agent must be properly dissolved, and the solution must be filtered to remove any foreign bodies. Some gelling agents, such as gelatin, agar and gum arabic (gum arabic), require first soaking in cold water. After this, it is necessary to carefully check whether the solid substance has not healed at the bottom of the soaking tank. When soaking, careful mixing is necessary (this applies especially to powdered gelatin and agar). Gelatin solutions must be heated, but not boiled. Arabian gum requires slow dissolution in warm conditions (excessive mixing or boiling leads to uncontrolled foaming). Agar for dissolution must be boiled, but boiling should not be long. Unmodified starches require boiling to dissolve, but first, a thin suspension should be prepared from them and cold water. Some modified starches
work in cold water. High amylose starch needs boiling under pressure to dissolve. Pectin, when dissolved, requires special conditions — the powder must be thoroughly mixed with the solution, and the ratio “pectin / sugar / acid” must be correct.
Syneresis, pH, gel destruction
Syneresis is a property of some gels to allocate syrup after a certain period of storage (“enticing”), which not only impairs the taste properties of the products, but also causes the product to stick to the wrappers, and this has a bad effect on the sale of products. This defect occurs in agar jelly with the addition of excess acid, and in pectin gels - with incomplete dissolution of pectin, an excess of acid, or as a result of precipitation at a temperature below the gelation temperature.
Some starch gels are also susceptible to syneresis, and therefore another gelling agent is usually added to them as a stabilizer. High amylose starch gels are usually not susceptible to syneresis.
Any jelly can exhibit this defect, as well as granulation, if the finished confectionery product is mixed after the start of gel formation. Granulation occurs when jelly candies are cast into starch, chocolate molds, or other forms at a temperature below the gelling temperature of the mixture. In any mixture, the gelling temperature should be known before precipitating.
Chewable products
Hard chewables are another type of confectionery that owes its appearance in the market to pharmacists who have combined medicines with gum arabic, sugar syrups and honey. The presence of gum provided a slow dissolution - quality, especially useful in the treatment of diseases of the throat.
Most formulations of chewable products based on gum arabic or a mixture of gelatin, which act as gelling agents, but are used and certain modified starches.

A typical recipe and technology is presented below.

Gum arabic 12,7 kg Soak with low heat and stirring until the gum dissolves. Strain through a fine sieve to remove foreign material.
Water 11,3 kg
Sugar 6,8 kg

Glucose syrup 1,8 kg solution and boil until 124 ° C

Water 2,26 kg

Glycerol 0,45-0,68 kg (can be added to prevent overdrying in the hot shop)

The syrup mixture is poured into the gum solution and mixed gently. After the mixture has stood, some scale will rise on its surface, which must be removed. After the second heating, scaling will again appear, which is also removed, and the pure gum solution is extracted for casting in starch, which must be dried to 4-5% moisture content. Then the products are dried 6-10 days in a dry hot room at 49 ° C until the desired texture (texture) is achieved. Next, the products are removed from the starch, sifting it, and well cleaned, after which the products are glazed by placing on wire sieves and treating with steam, which makes the surface shine, but this should not be done longer than necessary because the surface will become too soft. Then the product is dried further. For this technology, a continuous machine has been created, and the traditional practice of “lubricating with oil” is no longer required. The above basic formulation requires the addition of flavors and acids, and a variety of substances can be used. Good citrus aromas give lemon, orange and lime oils, and concentrated juices are widely used to add other fruit flavors. Licorice juice, honey and other substances (for example, menthol, eucalyptus and anise oil) are used in special products for the treatment of the throat.

Soft chewable products. In softer chewable products (along with Arabian gum) include gelatin, and the content of glucose syrup in them is higher; the rest of the technology is similar. For fruit pastilles apply the following recipe:

Sugar4,1 kg]Dissolve and boil at 121S water (if necessary, depending on the concentration of the pulp or juice, may be used for some amount of citric acid)
Glucose4,1 kg I
Concentrate fruit juice or pulp3,1 kg of fruit
gum arabic3,1 kgDissolve and filter
Water3,1 kg
Gelatin0,45 kgSoak dissolve, then add to a solution of gum
Add the gum / gelatin solution to the syrup and mix well, then pour into dry starch and dry in a hot room until the desired texture is obtained.

Lozenges are usually sprinkled with granulated sugar or powder. This process begins with the treatment of products with steam after being extracted from starch, as in the case of hard chewable products, but before drying they are covered with sugar in a rotating drum, and the excess sugar is removed by sieving on a sieve. Sugar coated lozenges are then dried on a wire mesh (the sugar forms a surface layer). After coating with sugar, re-treatment with steam is carried out before drying, which gives a solid icing.
Jelly products based on starch
Starch of various types for many years used for the manufacture of jelly products. In its original unmodified form (for example, corn starch, wheat flour) it was used to make Turkish Delight, for which it was boiled for a long time (4-5 h) in water or diluted syrup to destroy starch grains.
The first special types of starch were boiled starches. They are chemically softened by acid treatment and are still widely used in the confectionery industry. They are suitable for cooking in an open boiler, as well as for pressure cooking or using the reactive principle. In recent years, genetically modified starches have been developed. The most interesting is high amylose starch, which requires boiling under high pressure and temperature. Jelly products prepared in this way have become very popular (especially in the USA), and the use of these technologies gives a great saving of time and energy. Such products come out with different taste and texture - they are sprinkled with sugar, steamed, dried or oiled and used in as buildings for the drageeing.
A boiler with a steam jacket can be used as processing equipment. «Chemetator"Or jet cooker.

Chemetator®. A premix is ​​made that contains only as much water as is necessary for boiling and dissolving the ingredients, and with a moisture content of only 1-2% more than in the finished jelly. This premix is ​​heated to 70 ° C (and pumped into «ChemetatorWhere it heats up to 140 ° C under pressure. Uniform cooking is ensured by a paddle shaft, which distributes the suspension over the internal heating surface. From the cooker, the suspension is fed to a cooling«Chemetator», And then through the backpressure valve - into the slugging system.

Cooking using the reactive principle. The premix suspension is prepared in accordance with the required formulation, preheated to 82 ° C and fed into the reaction chamber, where it is continuously cooked at a pressure of about 80 pounds / sq. inch at 140 ° C. Discharged product is flavored and painted in a separate boiler or continuously in the pipeline.
Some information about the technology and formulations

Cooking in an open boiler. Processing in an open boiler has been used for many years - the starch / sugar slurry has been boiled in boilers with a steam jacket and a mechanical stirrer. In order not to accumulate the film, forming a heat insulating layer that slows the cooking, these mechanical agitators must thoroughly clean the surface of the boiler.
With this cooking method, liquid starch is used with enough water to ensure the destruction of the starch kernels. If not enough water is used, the sugar present slows down the gelation of starch.
Cooking in an open kettle (typical recipe and technology)

Sugar 22,6 kg

Glucose syrup (DE 42) 28 kg

Invert Syrup 5,4 kg

Starch for cooking in a thin layer 7,25 kg

Water 56,7 kg

Citric acid 14 г

Flavor Dye on demand

Dissolve sugar, glucose and invert syrups in half the required amount of water and bring to a boil. Prepare a suspension of starch and the remainder of the water (cold). Pour this suspension in a thin stream into the boiling syrup. Boil up to 7 content.6-78% NE on refractometer. Deposited into starch.

Pressure boiling. In the first developments in the field of pressure cooking, heat exchangers with a surface to be cleaned were used.«Chemetator". Later, steam injection was invented, in which steam under pressure is continuously injected into the starch / sugar slurry through radially disposed nozzles. This technology provides very fast mixing and cooking. Disadvantages of cooking in an open boiler, they are eliminated when boiling under pressure (when boiling starch in an open boiler, a large excess of water should be used, followed by a long cooking period, and when boiling under pressure at high temperature, starch can be gelled with much less water in the presence of Sakharov). When using steam jet injection technology, small amounts of the suspension are boiled continuously into the spray booth for a few seconds. .

Jelly products based on starch obtained by cooking under pressure

Formulation A - the use of starch for cooking in a thin layer (principle «Chemetator");

Sugar 18,1kg

Glucose syrup (DE 64) 27,2 kg

Starch for cooking in a thin layer 5,9 kg

Water 7,7 kg
Pour water into the slurry tank. Then add glucose syrup and then other ingredients. Mix well and pre-heat to 82 ° C, being careful not to evaporate moisture on the edges of the boiler. After the sugar has dissolved, the suspension is ready for pressure cooking at 138 ° C.

Formulation B - the use of high-amylose starch (jet cooker)

Sugar 18,1kg

Glucose syrup 64 DE 27,2 kg

Starch for cooking in a thin layer 1,8 kg

High amylose starch 27 kg

Water 5,4 kg

Prepare a suspension according to the formula A, but pre-heat it to 93 ° C and boil under pressure at 168 ° C.

In each case the product after cooking is applied for introducing aroma and color to the appropriate mixer. You can TaklaBehold continuously feed them in the discharge pipe. Note the higher temperature cooking high amylose starch.
Rahat bow. This very popular confection has a very long history from the East, where it was made from honey with flour and flavored with rose essential oil.{eight), which for this product is still accepted flavoring.
Turkish Delight recipes are of two types. The product of the first type is poured onto tables for cooling and solidification, after which it is cut into cubes and coated with fine sugar. In this form, it is usually sold (in boxes with an exotic design). Second type product lyut starch and then coated with milk chocolate extract.
Starch yavlyaetsI am a necessary component of Turkish Delight, as it gives the opacity of a traditional product. Turkish delight, made only from starch, does not have a long shelf life. Syneresis can occur in it, and if the product is not covered with chocolate, it can dry out. Gelatin or agar can be used to improve gelation.
Low-methoxylated pectin and starch are used successfully for the manufacture of Turkish Delight by casting into starch.
Typical technologies and formulation are given below:

1. Only the starch

Starch for cooking in a thin layer 2,26 kg

Water 13,6 kg

Mix in the cold to obtain a suspension, and then bring to a balestirring continuously and cook 2 min. Then add:

Sugar 13,6 kg
Glucose 3,6 kg
Invert sugar 0,90 kg

Continue cooking until the solution reaches the soluble content. SW in 78-80%, then pour it on the tables for cooling. After cessation of boiling, it is necessary to add flavoring agents, which should include little rose essential or synthetic rose fragrance and a small amount citric acid.

2. Starch with additional zheliruyuschiE substances.

According to item. 1, and after the completion of boiling, add:

Gelatin 340 g (pre-soaked in water).

You can also use agar. In this case, the solution is prepared as described above and added to the main syrup until completion of cooking. This composition can be cooked to a lower content of soluble ST (75-76%).

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