Wafers - flour confectionery products, which are finely porous sheets, sandwiched with filling or without filling.
Technological scheme of production of wafers
The process of producing wafers with filling consists of two main phases: the preparation of wafer sheets and the preparation of the filling.
All raw materials in a certain sequence are loaded into a whipping machine, where the dough is prepared.
The finished batter is poured into waffle irons — ovens in which waffle sheets are baked. Baked wafer sheets stand or immediately after baking smeared with pre-cooked filling. The wafer layers are layered with a filling, stand, and then cut on a cutting machine and wrapped in bundles.
Figured waffles after jigging of the filling and vystoyki cut down from a solid layer and placed in boxes.
Individual types of waffles ("Dynamo") are not sandwiched with filling; in this case, the wafer sheets after baking and cooling are divided into parts and placed in boxes.
At a number of enterprises in the process of implementation is the technological scheme of the flow-mechanized production of wafers (Fig. 95).
The dough for wafer sheets is prepared by a P two-section continuously operating chipper machine by pre-mixing and then churning flour with the prepared emulsion from the rest of the raw materials.
The finished dough from the intermediate tank enters the wafer furnace receiving tanks. After baking, the wafer sheets are removed from the waffle irons and placed on a mesh conveyor for cooling and moving to a double-head spreading machine. The wafer sheet in a strictly fixed position is fed under the first head of the spreading machine, where a layer of filling is applied on its surface. After that, another wafer sheet is placed on the lubricated sheet and the sandwiched layer goes under the second spreading head, where these operations are repeated again.
Wafer layers cool in the refrigerator and subjected to cutting. Waffles fed to wrapping and packing in boxes.
dough, baking and cooling wafer sheets
A fitting is installed in the bottom of the trough, through which the dough is unloaded.
The dough is prepared in a whipping machine (fig. 96), which is a metal trough, inside of which there is a shaft with T-shaped blades mounted on it.
Waffle dough has a liquid consistency; This ensures a normal dosage and quick filling of the wafer forms with dough.
The consistency of the dough is influenced by the order of loading the raw materials and especially the flour into the churning machine. The dough for wafer sheets, interleaved with filling, is prepared as follows. First, food phosphatides are loaded into the whipping machine in the form of a pre-prepared emulsion with water, then yolks and bicarbonate soda. Raw materials are mixed no more than 30 sec and at the working time of the whisk, water is loaded with a temperature not higher than 18 ° C, milk (for waffles with milk), edema (waste during baking), salt and finally flour in 3 — 4 reception. The duration of the churning test at the speed of the blades of the 180 whisk per minute is at least 18 minutes.
The dough for sugar waffles without filling (Dynamo) is prepared as follows.
Water with a temperature not higher than 18 ° С, sugar, a part of flour and bicarbonate soda are successively loaded into a whipping machine. The mixture of raw materials mixes 2 — 3 min, then add the yolks and beat another 10 — 12 min, then load the fat in a melted machine, melt the rest, flour and flavor, and beat another 5 — 8 min.
When loading raw materials into the Belling Machine, special attention should be paid to the need for a gradual loading of flour. With the simultaneous loading of all the flour into the machine as a result of the uneven distribution of water in the flour mash, a thick, tightened dough is formed. As a result, sticking of individual separate particles of gluten and the formation of gluten threads, which impart high viscosity to the dough, occurs. The gradual loading of flour during mixing promotes the formation of water shells around the particles of swollen gluten, which prevent them from sticking together in aggregates.
Great attention should be paid to obtaining a dough with optimum moisture. Reducing the humidity of the dough leads to a decrease in the thickness of the water shells around the particles of gluten, which can also lead to their sticking.
In addition, a decrease in the moisture content of the dough is accompanied by an increase in its viscosity, which makes it difficult to meter the dough into wafer molds. An increase in the humidity of the dough is also undesirable, since it leads to a decrease in the productivity of the furnace and an increase in the number of edemas.
Optimum humidity of the test for the wafer sheets interlaid with a stuffing, 60 — 65%. The dough for waffles without filling should have a moisture content within 42 — 44%. The lower humidity of this dough is explained by the content of sugar in its composition, which limits the swelling of the gluten of flour.
Wafer dough should have a temperature in the range of 15 — 20 ° C. A higher temperature increases the viscosity of the dough due to the greater swelling of gluten, which leads to a deterioration in the quality of the waffles.
When kneading dough in a continuously operating chipping machine, pre-prepare an emulsion of all raw materials with the exception of flour. The preparation of the emulsion consists of two successive phases: the preliminary preparation of an emulsion from edible phosphatidone (raw lecithin) and water and the subsequent preparation of an emulsion from all types of raw materials (excluding flour), including a phosphatidic emulsion.
Preliminary preparation of the emulsion is necessary because food phosphatides have a thick consistency, making it difficult to evenly distribute them in raw materials.
Preparation of the emulsion is carried out periodically shake up machines operating with a T-shaped lobes.
The properties of the dough and the production process are influenced by certain types of raw materials.
Thus, the gluten of flour affects the consistency of the dough and the quality of the wafer sheets. The dough made from flour with a large amount of gluten, has a more viscous consistency. The properties of dough change most noticeably depending on the quality of the gluten of flour. The most satisfactory consistency of dough is obtained from flour with a weak gluten, whereas dough made from flour with stronger gluten becomes so thick that it makes it difficult to bake the dough, and the quality of the wafer sheets is deteriorating. When baking wafer sheets, it is most advisable to use flour with weak gluten and its content is not more than 32%.
Egg yolks help to separate the sheets from the wafer form and reduce the number of edemas during baking sheets. Egg yolks without sacrificing quality can be replaced with a whole egg. You can also recommend the replacement of egg products with food phosphatides and fat, due to the presence of which the sheets are well separated from the waffle irons and the wafer sheets are of satisfactory quality.
Wafer sheets are baked between two massive metal plates in a contact way.
The most common is a semi-automatic gas oven with 18 — 24 pairs of plates, mounted on a chain conveyor. The plates move above the burners, which alternately heat the lower and upper sides of the gas (fig. 97). The dough from the receiving tank of the oven with the help of a dosing pump is fed to the surface of the bottom plate and poured over the entire length of it. Then the top plate is automatically superimposed on the bottom plate, after which the baking process begins. During a full turn of the chain conveyor (2 — 3 min), wafer sheets are baked, the top plate is automatically separated from the bottom and the sheets are removed from the mold.
Plates can be smooth, figured or with an engraved pattern, thanks to which the waffles acquire the appropriate shape, and their surface is a different pattern.
During baking of the dough must be removed in a very short time a considerable amount of moisture (180% by weight dry matter). Baking wafer sheet consists of two simultaneous processes: baking and drying.
Fig. 97. Semi-automatic oven for baking waffles.
In contrast to the process of baking cookies when baking waffles, there is no period of constant speed of moisture return, and the whole process is characterized by a period of falling speed of moisture return. The warming up stage of the dough is very slight. The most intensive moisture return in the contact layer is observed at the beginning of baking.
The pores in the wafer sheets are formed mainly as a result of the phase transformation of water into steam, and the role of chemical disintegrants in this process is extremely small.
The optimal baking conditions for wafer sheets intended for interlayer fillings should be considered the temperature of the heating surface of the oven 170 ° С with a baking duration of about 2 min.
Duration of baking sugar waffles without filling (Dynamo type) 3 — 4 min.
The moisture content of baked wafer sheets 3 — 4,5%.
Wafer sheets after baking are exposed to vystoyka, and depending on the duration and conditions of the vystoyka, as well as the residual moisture in them, the process of absorption (sorption) or recoil (desorption) of moisture occurs. These processes occur before the onset of equilibrium moisture and are accompanied by a change in the linear dimensions of the sheets, which is the main cause of the distortion and cracking of the sheets observed during their aging. The currently used wafer sheet height in the feet creates conditions for their warping, since the humidity of the peripheral and central parts of the sheet varies unevenly, which entails an uneven change in the linear dimensions of the individual parts of the sheet. In the case of forced blank preparation of sheets for future use and as a result, sheet stacking is recommended to produce them at low relative air humidity (29 — 30%) and elevated temperature (50 — 52 ° С). Under these conditions, the rate of moisture sorption by the peripheral parts of the sheet will decrease and the difference in humidity between its central and peripheral parts will decrease.
The most efficient method of wafer sheet curing is to cool single sheets on a mesh conveyor. Due to the uniform access of air to the surfaces of the sheet, uniform moisture sorption of the sheet occurs in all its zones, which is accompanied by a uniform change in the linear dimensions of the sheet, as a result of which the possibility of warping of sheets is excluded. The duration of cooling sheets to room temperature (30 ° C) is 1 — 2 min.
Preparation of filling and a layer wafer sheets
For wafers used fat layer, praline, fruit, fondant and other fillings. The greatest number of wafers to produce fatty fillings.
The technology of preparation of fatty fillings is as follows. The sbivale or mix machine is loaded with raw materials in the following sequence: crumb (ground wafer cuts), half the amount of powdered sugar, fat and churn 2 — 3 min. Then gradually add the remaining amount of powdered sugar, essence and acid solution. Total duration of churning 15 — 18 min. The coffee filling for waffles “Hockey” is prepared in the same way, but instead of essence and acid, coffee extract is used.
Praline filling is prepared by passing a mixture of pre-fried kernels and powdered sugar two or three times through a three-roll machine. The resulting liquid mass is mixed with melted grated cocoa and cocoa butter at a temperature of 33 — 34 ° C.
Fruit and fondant filling is prepared by pre-preparing the lipstick and then mixing it with the rest of the raw materials provided by the recipe.
Fruit filling is prepared by boiling fruit-bearing raw materials with sugar and molasses or fruit cooking with sugar in a vacuum apparatus or in open steam-heated boilers to a residual moisture content of about 20%.
Layer wafer sheets filling is carried out by machine or by hand.
The layer of wafer sheets in a mechanized way is carried out by a spreading machine consisting of one corrugated and two smooth rolls under the funnel (Fig. 98). The filling is loaded into the funnel, from where it is captured by a grooved roller and transferred to smooth rolls due to the different number of their turns. With the help of an inclined set knife, the filling from the smooth roll is transferred to the wafer sheets moving along the conveyor installed under the spreading head. The operation of lining sheets on layered wafer sheets is carried out manually.
In the manufacture of figured waffles with fillings, wafer sheets are smeared with starch paste at the edges, then the stuffing is deposited into the depressions of the shapes, and then coated with another shaped sheet, smeared with starch paste, so that the edges of the sheet cells coincide. In this way, a wafer layer is obtained, consisting of figured waffles (shells, nuts, etc.) located at an equal distance from each other, between which there is a layer of glued wafer sheets.
Vystoyka and cutting wafer layers, finishing wafers
Wafer layers sandwiched with filling fill the production area in the feet for 6 hours. When the formations hold down in the feet, the liquid fraction of fat contained in the filling is pressed out under the weight of the layers and absorbed by the wafer sheets. Due to this, the filling becomes harder, which contributes to the normal cutting of layers.
Fig. 99. String trimmer for wafers.
However, the process of pressing out the liquid fraction of fat occurs unevenly in the foot. In the lower layers under the weight of the foot, this process proceeds more intensively than in the layers located in the middle of the foot, and in the upper layers it is completely absent. As a result, the consistency of the filling in the wafer formations will be non-uniform, which will affect the conditions of cutting formations and lead to the formation of defects.
It is recommended to apply a more accelerated and rational method of wafer formation by cooling single wafer layers in a refrigerator at a temperature of about 8 ° С and air speed 6 m / s for 4 — 5 min. The fat then crystallizes out, which gives the wafer layers sufficient hardness when cutting.
Cutting wafer layers into rectangular parts is done with string cutting machines' (fig. 99), which have high performance and considerable advantages over cutting machines with wedge-shaped knives.
Figured wafers are cut from the formation hand stamp.
Individual varieties of waffles are glazed with chocolate heated to a temperature of 30 — 31 ° C. In this case, the waffles are wholly or partially immersed in chocolate and then allowed to stand until the chocolate completely hardens on the surface of the waffles.
Packaging of waffles
Wafers are packaged in packs, boxes and bags. When packaging wafers are placed in rows on the edge or flat, the same pattern in one direction,
Wafers with fatty and nut fillings must be wrapped in parchment, parchment, asphalt, cellophane or foil, and waffles with fruit filling must be wrapped in waxed paper.