Proofing furnaces

Proofers and furnaces are a structure consisting of a proofer and oven, united by a common conveyor. The units are designed to produce tin bread from rye and wheat flour and provide .

Equipment for laying bread.

From the sorting table, bread products are sent to tray or bezlotkovye containers. For tray containers, three- or four-sided trays with lattice (for rye, rye-wheat, tin and bottom) are used. .

The device and the work of pasta presses.

The presses differ in the design of the dispensers, the number of chambers in the kneading machine and their location, the number of pressing screws, the design of the pressing heads, the shape of the dies and the place of evacuation.

The main types of dispensers: .

The device and the work of matrices for pasta.

The dies are made of corrosion-resistant, durable materials, such as brass LS59-1 (GOST 15527 - 70), solid phosphorous bronze BrAZh9-4l and stainless steel 1X18Н9Т (GOST 5949-XNXXXXXUMXXUMXXX75-XNUMX) In the absence of stainless steel, it is replaced by less .

Maintenance of pasta presses. The basics of the technological calculation of pasta press.

Maintenance of auger macaroni presses includes the following list of operational measures: preparation of the press for work, start-up and exit to the operating mode, operating rules and safe operation mode. To prepare the press for work it is necessary:

  • check for lubrication in all friction parts; fill the gears of the main drive, dosing unit and kneading machine with industrial grade 30 oil to the required level;
  • to inject the fittings, lubricate the seating surfaces of the fuses and the other nodes of the press with oil of the Solidol US-2 (L) brand.
  • check the condition of the control mechanisms of oil lines and lubrication devices, fencing and control and measuring
  • check the operation and reliability of locking mechanisms for the kneading machine.
  • stop the water supply to the cooling pressing devices; put in place the pressing augers, after having been lubricated with vegetable oil.


The equipment for molding candy

For forming the caramel from the harness, the following main types of molding machines:

  • chain caramel-cutting machines for forming cushion shape "cushion";
  • chain caramel-stamping machines for forming caramel in the form of a “ball”, oval, elongated-oval, flat-oval - “brick” and other figured caramel;
  • chain carameleforming-rolling machines for forming curly caramel;
  • roll caramel forming machines for the same caramel; rotary caramel forming machines for forming various curly caramel and tablets;
  • monpanse machines (rollers) for shaping figured drops and other candy products (Orange Slices, Peas, Mindalek, stick figures, etc.);
  • forming-wrapping units IZM-2 and others for molding and wrapping candy caramel and toffee (see chapter VII for description).

In addition to these, there are a number of varieties of caramel forming machines that have a smaller distribution. Most common .

Nutrition and Health

Since ancient times, people have understood the great importance of healthy food. The thinkers of antiquity, Hippocrates,

Celsus, Galen, and others dedicated whole treatises to the healing properties of various types of food and its reasonable consumption. .

pelleting chocolate

The coating is a special process of consistently applying layers of chocolate or sugar using rotating surfaces (according to the stencil method). Suraging sugar is considered in different sections of this book, and below we consider only chocolate coating.

Chocolate is often coated with nuts (almonds, hazelnuts and peanuts, as a rule, are first roasted, and Brazil nuts are not). Raisins, condensed milk balls, canned ginger or cherries, various pastes and nougat are also used as fillings. Filling .

Jelly candies, chewing gums, pastilles, Turkish delight

Here we look at a large group of confectionery products, which include various products - from hard chewing gum to soft jelly candies, and the characteristics of each product in this group are mainly determined by the content of the gelling agent and the moisture content.
Main used gelling agents are summarized in Table. 19.4
Other gums are used in the food industry, but they are used to a lesser extent in the confectionery industry. This applies to guar gum and locust bean gum (carob), which are products of seeds, and tragacanth gum, a selection from astragalus bush. These gums are used as thickeners and stabilizers, as well as in chocolate pastes or syrups. Similarly, xanthan gum is used - natural resin formed during biosynthesis.
Furthermore, there is methylcellulose which, when the water absorption increases greatly in volume. It is used in some confectionery, as well as in diet products and slimming products. In the production of chewing gum used chicle-gum (chicle) - natural latex. Increasingly, modified starches are used in the production of jelly sweets. Starch with a high content of amylose in combination with boiling under pressure gives jelly sweets with a significantly shorter structure formation time.
19.4 table. Gelling agents - source and application
View gelling agent Source Application


Animal protein derived from bones and skin

General (to be added to warm syrups for freezing during cooling). Non-boiling

If Alьginatы

Different algae

Various. It gives a crisp neutral jelly. Action is attenuated by boiling in acidic solutions

Gum arabic (arabic or acacia)

wood selection

For making hard chewing gums and as a filler and thickener in products such as marshmallows (marshmallows)

Starch and modified starches

Seeds of various plants and roots

Fully or partially replaced by other gelling agents in chewing gum, Turkish Delight and glazes


Fruit pomace (especially citrus and apples)

Mainly for the production of sour fruit jelly, but the low methoxylated pectin is used for the production of neutral jelly

In the production of jelly candies, especially soft, certain general precautions must be observed.

Dissolution of a gelling agent

Obviously, the gelling agent should be properly dissolved, and to remove any foreign bodies, the solution should be .

Tempering chocolate masses

Tempering chocolate masses
Considering the graying of chocolate mass in the light of the basic concepts of polymorphism of cocoa butter, it should be noted that the cause of graying chocolate is the transformation of the metastable form of cocoa butter in the stable.


Gingerbread dough

Raw Gingerbread Dough. Preparation of gingerbread dough is to obtain a homogeneous mass of uniformly distributed raw materials, viscous consistency.

Ice cream for my granddaughters.

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Proofing furnaces

Figure 3.31. The PSNUMX XPM oven unit

Proofers and furnaces are a structure consisting of a proofer and oven, united by a common conveyor. The units are designed to produce tin bread from rye and wheat flour and provide .