100 years ago opened the first supermarket in the world. "Spark" is understood why the supermarket for a century - is "our everything" and how he would have to change in the near future.
First, the historical detective: the debate about what to consider first supermarket not subsided, it seems so far. Participants rife: Well, for example, an American grocer Clarence Saunders opened supermarket 6 September 1916, in Memphis (Tennessee, USA), for its time, it was a revolution, because earlier shopping list simply gave the seller and he collected them himself.
On this side of the Atlantic - its pioneers. One of the first supermarket in Europe is the one that was opened by the former military sailor Patrick Galvani in 1951, in South London, he, incidentally, is also the anniversary - 65 years. The format has proven wildly popular if the average British shop brought about 100 pounds in a week, a supermarket Galvani earned during the same period of 1000 pounds.
There is another version: researchers from the Smithsonian believe that the first supermarket was founded in 1930-m in New York (USA), a Michael Cullen, then the store itself was located in a former garage. Under this statement - a scientific basis: to determine what constitutes a supermarket, the experts identified its key features - a self-service, a distinction by department, discount price, marketing and sales of large volumes.
All this, however, is already on the verge of "in the process," and in any case, whoever was the first, in the past century, supermarkets quickly conquered the world, including Russia. What's the secret?
According to Marina Krasilnikova, head of the department for studying income and consumption of Levada Center, the popularity of supermarkets was influenced, on the one hand, by the development of retail sales technology, on the other - the desire of buyers and sellers to minimize their costs, but most importantly - the emergence of a mass consumer for the first time in history of humanity! It's hard to imagine, but even in the XIX century, buying food in stores was the privilege of a narrow layer of well-off people, and here's a breakthrough. It is no coincidence that such a popularity was gained by the format cash and carry - extremely simplified retail trade, which does not provide for either lending, packaging, or any other related services: bought, taken away and carried away.
- The thing that came together two models - the self-service model and network model - says Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Economics and Social Research of HSE Zoe Kotelnikova.- This predetermined the popularity of supermarkets.
The expert, however, offers the look and the way they were built: in supermarkets were erased the barriers between the consumer and the product, the goods in the store got into the hands of the buyer, and it occurred "sense of ownership" - go and then give up. In addition, immediately after his appearance supermarkets began to "control" the behavior of people.
- Without the buyer to the seller have to tell where to go and what to take - explains Zoe Kotelnikova.- entrance was isolated from the output, the consumer "forced" to get around the whole store, seeing the proposed goods, the goods themselves are distributed across departments, but their location is constantly changing, to a person's gaze is not zamylivaetsya - all these practices are relevant to this day. And, of course, another small revolution was the emergence of food trucks: in the hands of the buyer he could carry a little bit, but with a cart - to recruit, as you want!
In supermarkets the goods immediately fell into the hands of the buyer, and it occurred "sense of ownership" - then go and give up
Golden age? Not really, lately supermarkets have cause for concern. The popular portal Epicurious.com for consumers interested in food and cooking, puts the question squarely: in 5 years you will not recognize a supermarket next door. All the fault, as usual, new technology. Here are the figures: according to the analytical company Mintel, 31, the percentage of American buyers last year made online purchases (for comparison, in 2014 they were only 19 percent), having mastered new delivery services for products and goods, like AmazonFresh or Instacart. Moreover, the process of purchasing is more and more automated: for example, the popular mobile application Rosie allows you not only to order food from stores in the neighborhood, but also remembers your consumer characteristics (for example, it will be aware of when you need to buy coffee or toilet paper again) ... In the conditions of competition with online classic supermarkets, too, have to change: for example, in the network of Shanghai supermarkets recently presented smart carts. The buyer synchronizes his phone with a tablet installed on such a cart, and receives information about discounts or goods passed by. Well, in the future smart carts will follow you through the store with the help of special sensors and even offer the best route depending on what you want to buy.
And how do you no supermarket products in general? Instead grocery shelves in the virtual supermarket Korean relating to Tesco network - Monitors with the image of the goods, and the supermarket is in the subway: customer simply scans the QR-code waiting for a train. China went a step further: there were supermarkets augmented reality YiHaoDian, to see them, you need to download a special application, and then find the location of a supermarket on the GPS and, being in a virtual building, to buy all that is needed.
Modern buyer require more information about what they buy, and very soon even be able to personally this witness: to grow food will be right in the supermarket, for example on the roof, using 3D-printer ... A key trend that experts say: the drift of supermarkets from adjusted to automatism impersonal process of buying food to greater personalization and targeting specific consumer, whose shopping trip will be nothing less than a new life experience. For the supermarkets themselves - it seems to be a new era.
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