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botulismbotulism disease occurs infrequently, but the prevention of this disease remains a major challenge, since it takes place in most cases, hard and often ends in death of the patient. Death in botulism associated with deep lesions of the nervous system, which is growing very rapidly and requires immediate of complex therapeutic interventions.
Botulism results from ingestion of foods that contain the botulinum toxin, which is considered the most potent natural poison.
The term "botulism" comes from the Latin word «Botulus» - sausage. He was known in Germany for a long time. Initially, the disease associated with the use of animal products (meat sausage), but later it was found that it occurs after use of substandard products of vegetable origin, as well as fish.
The causative agent of botulism widespread in nature, especially in soil and the aquatic environment, plants and fish so easily infected with spores and vegetative cells of botulism sticks.
For reproduction of microbes and formation of toxin in the food, you must have at the same time a number of conditions: a favorable temperature, lack of oxygen, a longer stay of the pathogen in these conditions, under which he can abundantly multiply and form a botulinum toxin.
Since the causative agent of botulism breeds without access to air, toxin formation occurs inside the large pieces of ham, fish, sausages. Hermetically sealed canned goods - a favorable environment for the development of botulism sticks. Oxygen-free environment may occur in fish and air access, if it took place an abundant proliferation of microbes that consume oxygen and thereby create conditions for the reproduction of the pathogen and toxin production.
To accumulated toxin in food, you need a certain time, and its rate of formation depends on the temperature at which the product is stored. The most favorable for tempe¬raturoy toxin is 30-37 ° C. Under these conditions, the amount of toxin, dangerous to humans, can accumulate in less than a day. The lower the temperature, the slower the toxin formation, and at a temperature below 3 ° C toxin is formed.
It should be remembered that no special features food spoilage, which contain active toxin, usually not observed. Only occasionally change their appearance: they soften and become an unpleasant odor, the gas generated in them, so that cans or lids on glass jars swell ( "bombazh"). More often poisoning occurs when you use "perfect" by their appearance products.
In the soil, feed, food pathogen forms of botulism spores, which are characterized by high heat resistance. For the complete destruction of spores occurs at 120, 0 20S within minutes. Freezing dispute at - 190 ° C does not lead to their death. Resistance to heat spores depends not only on the temperature but also on the heating duration, their number in the product, the acidity of the latter.
In contrast, botulinum toxin spores differs little heat resistance. It breaks when boiled for a few minutes at a temperature 58-60 ° C - during 3 hours at 80 ° C - less than 30 min. It also killed botulism bacillus.
There are cases when after provarkoy product did not cause the disease, but after storing the remainder of his warm during 2-3 days this product was the cause of botulism fatal. This happened because the vegetative form of the microbe, toxin destroyed were destroyed during heat treatment, but remained spores that have germinated and formed toxin.
In most cases, early symptoms of botulism appear through 12-36 h after the consumption of a toxic product, in rare cases - through 2 h, but sometimes - and in 14 days. Gastrointestinal disorders (nausea, vomiting) with subsequent neuralgic symptoms (weakness, fatigue, dizziness) are noted at an early stage of the disease. Often the disease manifests itself blurring of vision, doubling of objects (before the eyes of "fog", "grid"), the expansion and immobility of pupils, the weakening of the reflex to light. In addition, symptoms of eyelid drooping, weakness of facial muscles, speech and swallowing difficulties, constipation, dryness of the tongue, mucous membranes of the larynx and oral cavity, muscular weakness, lowering of arterial pressure are noted. When the disease progresses in case of untimely introduction of specific antibotulinum serum, paralysis of the respiratory muscles and diaphragm occurs. Death occurs most often because of respiratory failure.
In recent years, due to the enthusiasm of botulism cases owing to the use of substandard products home home canning blank population spread. The disease botulism after consuming industrial production is very rare, since canned sterilization in autoclaves mode provides the death of vegetative forms and spores of the pathogen.
Botulism can occur after consuming mushroom and vegetable canned food, as well as salted, smoked, dried, pickled fish, ham, ham, canned meat, filled with pork fat, made at home. Eggplants, eggplant caviar, green peas, beets, tomatoes, tomato juice, apricot compote in hermetically ukuporennye home-made can also be the cause of botulism. This happens most often with long-term storage of products, when spores that have got into them from the soil or from the intestines of animals and fish, multiply and form a toxin.
The home is not always possible to wash food from the dispute. Do not get rid of them and the heat treatment in the home uslo¬viyah as spores are killed by treatment in special autoclaves, which are equipped with canneries. That is why in the home can not be hermetically sealed canned mushrooms in the banks (to close their metal lids). This creates favorable conditions for the development of botulism pathogen.
All canned foods in hermetically sealed jars, as well as sausage and ham cooked at home, the food definitely need to put in a pot, add water and boil over and 30 minutes or fry thoroughly. Subsequent storage of canned food is not allowed.
Perekipyachenny or roasted product is safe for use on the same day, although it disputes remain. Recent germinate only during 1-2 days and begin to form the toxin. Thus, full heat treatment of products in most cases prevents botulism poisoning.
Of course, not all home canned foods contain botulinum toxin, however, of such hazards should always be remembered. Check goodness cans before drinking at home is impossible, since it is necessary to conduct special studies on laboratory animals. Any fruit and vegetable preserves, home-cooked and stored in a sealed package (even cold), the food is recommended to boil for 8-10 minutes.
All pets canned food should be stored no more than 1 years at 8-10 ° C.
Canning of green peas, cucumber, prakti¬cheski not contain organic acids necessary to use fill (pickles) supplemented with at least 2% acetic acid.
It should strictly observe hygienic and technological modes in the manufacture of home-smoked conditions, salted, dried fish. After the catch of fish must be gutted and immediately cooled with ice or in the refrigerator. Salting it should be refrigerated with sufficient salt. When the content of salt in the fish in an amount of not less multiplication 11% botulinum toxin formation, and delayed.

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