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food mycotoxicoses

food mycotoxicosesFood mycotoxicoses - disorders resulting from ingestion of products containing toxic substances (mycotoxins) of certain species of microscopic mold, fungi.
Toxigenic fungi and their toxins are widely distributed in different geographical areas. They are found in foods and feeds on all continents. Trade relations contribute to the spread of mold and contamination by them. and mycotoxins number of food and feed. In many countries, there is considerable annual economic damage from the destruction of food raw materials for farm animals and humans.
In recent years 20 published a lot of data characterizing the structure, physico-chemical properties, the conditions of formation and biological effects of mycotoxins, methods of detection; The frequency of detection and level zagryazne¬niya food, proposed methods of detoxification. The role of individual mycotoxins in human pathology. Opened new mycotoxins.
From food and feed have about 3000 different species of fungi, of which some species produce more than 250 100 toxic compounds that cause human and animal mycotoxicosis.
Mold can affect products such as vegetable or animal origin at any stage of their production, transport and storage, in production and home. Late harvest or insufficient drying it to storage, storage and trdnsportirovanie products in low to protect them from moisture leads to duplication mikromitcetov and education in food of toxic substances.
Mycotoxins may enter the body through the human digestive system and the meat and milk of animals fed the feed contaminated by mold fungi.
Multiplying on food products, many mold fungi mik¬roskopicheskie not only contaminate them that Xenu, but also impair the organoleptic characteristics of these products, reduce the nutritional value, lead to deterioration rendering them unfit for technological processing. The use of livestock feed, affected by fungi, leading to death or disease of livestock and poultry.
Mycotoxins pose a danger to human health, since in humans they can cause acute (food toxicoses) and chronic diseases. They are capable of violating the functions of individual organs and systems. Some of them affect the development of the fetus in pregnant women, others act on the genetic apparatus. Some mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Aspergillus (aflatoxins) affect the liver and cause primary liver cancer. A dangerous mycotoxin is the patulin, with different types of microscopic fungi of the genus penicillium. Patulin has a mutagenic (genetic information change), teratogenic (leading to deviations in development) and necrotic (necrosis) effect. It is found in spoiled fruits, vegetables, berries and processed products (juices, jams, purees, compotes). Fusarioxins produced by fusarium fusarium can cause toxicoses of humans and animals.
The most studied aflatoxins. These poisons cause disease, called aflatoxicosis. For products subject to contamination producers of aflatoxins are ara¬his, corn, millet, rice, wheat, barley, pistachios, almonds, nuts, grains cocoa and coffee, some fruits and vegetables, cotton seed and other oil crops. Aflatoxins are detected in cereal products in a small amount - in milk, meat, eggs.
The optimum for the formation of toxins is the temperature 27-30 ° C, humidity of the product - 18%, humidity - 97-99%. Therefore, most of aflatoxins are produced in tropical and subtropical countries, although there is a possibility of formation of favorable conditions in the temperate climate of a number of Asian and African countries. The relationship between the frequency of diseases of primary liver cancer and the content of aflatoxins in foodstuffs.

Milk, meat and eggs zhkivotnyh consuming contaminated food may contain residual amounts of toxins (up to 1 mcg / kg), but even this seemingly insignificant, the number of young children poses a risk.
For aflatoxin susceptible pigs, calves. high sensitivity among poultry have them turkeys, utyaha, goslings. aflatoxicosis Outbreaks occur in cattle, horses, sheep, goats. In acute poisoning killed by 30 100% to poultry.
At the use of processed products overwintered under snow cereals containing fuzariotoksiny may be a blood disease. Fuzariotoksiny resistant to heat, are not destroyed by boiling, the temperature impact 200 ° C and more. Resistant to chemical agents, have the ability to persist in corn for many years.
Central to prevention is the prevention of mycotoxin molds and toxin production in food products. In recent years, in this field, intensive national events. Established a strict sanitary control both for domestic and for imported products. Explore ways of neutralization of contaminated food and feed.
Conventional methods of processing of grain products, such as grinding, reduce the amount of aflatoxins on 25-49%. Baking bread from contaminated meal reduces the amount of aflatoxins on 60-80%. Nuts, peanuts, corn neutralize by sorting. At the same time remove the nuts and grains with a visible damage (color change, the presence of mold, wrinkling). There are also chemical methods of inactivation of aflatoxins in food and feed.

It is necessary to carry out the day to day life in the prevention of mycotoxin. These rare toxicosis occurs acutely, more often they become chronic, appearing long after getting the toxins in the body. Therefore, it is difficult to establish a direct connection with the use of ailments affected product mold.
It must be remembered that the main factors of fungal growth are relatively high temperature and humidity. Therefore, you must constantly be prevented zaplesneveniya products: keep them clean and in optimum conditions of temperature and humidity.
Do not store perishable foods for a long time, even in the refrigerator. Not allowed eating foods with signs of growth of molds.

Of course, not all mushrooms are toxic, not every mold produces a poisonous substance, but that such a risk exists, it must be remembered. At home, it is impossible to figure out the toxins in there appeared rot or not. Therefore, in order not to risk, it is not necessary to eat fruits, vegetables and berries with signs of damage. This also applies to the feed, which is fed zhirotnym. Substandard food can pri¬vesti to disease and even death of the animals.

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