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mushroom poisoning

mushroom poisoningEdible mushrooms have long been considered a valuable food. They include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, macro- and microelements. Proteins in mushrooms are larger than in potatoes and cabbage, and in dried ones, for example in boletus, their amount reaches 35,4% (in white dried - up to 20,1%). Fats in mushrooms are represented by such important substances as lecithin, cholesterol, ergosterol, carbohydrates - animal starch glycogen. Fungi contain from 0,7 to 2,5% of dietary fiber. Of the vitamins in the mushrooms are mainly vitamins of group B, and in the largest number in them is niacin. Especially high is the content of niacin in honey agarics and boletus. Mineral composition of fungi is distinguished by a significant amount of phosphorus, iron, zinc.
High edibility of mushrooms due to the presence in them. nitrogenous extractives. Mushrooms, especially fungal broths, significantly increase appetite, enhance the secretion of gastric.
High soderzhanie.v mushrooms water (up to 83 92%) causes their rapid spoilage.
Mushrooms are harvested for future use: 1 salted, pickled, dried, canned.
Young mushrooms contain significantly more nutrients than the old; to cap them much more than in the leg. However, due to the fact that a lot of mushrooms soaked chitin fiber, they refer to products that are difficult to digest, so the mushrooms are not recommended to use in diseases of the digestive and cardiovascular systems, liver, kidneys.
Mushrooming requires awareness and a lot of attention. Ignorance of the hallmarks of edible and poisonous mushrooms, negligence in collecting, ignoring the rules of cooking certain types of fungi cause severe poisoning, often fatal.
Fungi are divided into edible, conditionally edible and poisonous. Edible mushrooms can be eaten without any special pretreatment. These include most of the tubular mushrooms (white, boletus, orange-cap boletus, greasers) and some plate (champignon, honey agaric real, fox, etc.).
Conditionally edible mushrooms before cooking is necessary to boil, and pour the broth (morels, russula) or soak them in cold water, changing it frequently (mlechniki, volnushki, black cumin, etc.). Improper cooking conditionally eatable mushrooms can cause poisoning.
Mushrooms mlechniki belonging to the group of conditionally edible (Gruzdev volnushki, Nigella, podgruzd, Gladyshev) contain resinous veschestba, burning or bitter taste, are irritating to the mucous membrane of the digestive system. In order not to poison mushrooms freshly harvested this group, they need to boil for at least 15 minutes (pour the broth) or soak in cold water for 2-3 days, changing the water every day. Only after this treatment, they can pickle, used for the preparation of mushroom dishes.
Russula Emetica, ocher and Valuoja contain bitter substances that can cause a short-term illness. To this did not happen, these mushrooms are also pre-boiled or soaked for a long time, then salted, roasted or stewed.
To include inedible mushrooms, characterized by adverse organoleptic (taste, smell, and so on. D.) Properties (gall fungus, etc..), And poisonous mushrooms.
The most severe poisoning observed with the use of pale toadstool, toadstools, morels.
Death cap - the most poisonous mushroom from all occurring on the territory of European countries. In 90% of cases, poisoning caused by a pale toadstool ends with the death of the victims. Under the name "pale toadstool" is usually meant three kinds of mushrooms: green, yellow and white fawns. Grow these mushrooms from July until late autumn. Poisons of pale toadstool - amanitotoxins and phallotoxins - are resistant to heat, do not become a decoction, do not break down during drying and under the action of enzymes. All parts of this fungus are extremely poisonous and no type of cooking treatment releases them from poisonous substances. The use of even a small part of the fungus can cause disease. Especially poisonous are raw fungi, which, in addition to amanitotoxin, contain amanito-hemolysin (the activity of this poison decreases rapidly during heat treatment of fungi).
The literature describes the case of a boy of twelve fatal poisoning third crude cap pale toadstool.
Pale toadstool refers to lamellar fungi, and in appearance can be mistaken for a champignon or russula. In order not to be mistaken, it is necessary to remember the characteristic distinctive signs of a pale toadstool: at the base of a thin cylindrical Leg there is a tuberous thickening (mace) and a collar (the mushroom grows out of a cover), and in the middle of the leg is a ring of film. There are no such signs for russula and mushrooms. Plates of pale grebes are white (both in young and old specimens), the spores are colorless. At the mushrooms, the plates are initially pale pink, with the growth of the fungus - brownish-red, and then black-brown, spores - brown.
That pale toadstool toxic, known to all. However, few people know that the danger is also its spores. Since the wind can bring them close to the growing plants need to be careful, gathering in the neighborhood with a pale toadstool mushrooms, berries, herbs. Of course, we can not agree with those; who calls destroy encountered pale toadstool. As with everything on the ground, they play a specific ecological role.
Given the risk of poisoning pale toadstool, forbidden to sell in the markets of dried and processed mushrooms plate; sale of mushrooms is allowed only in fresh form, with legs to be able to reveal the pale toadstool by her distinctive external features.
No less dangerous amanita poisoning. Externally amanita differ sharply from the edible mushrooms. Their toxic effects due to the content in these mushrooms and muscarinic mikoatropina, which are not destroyed by boiling, salting and other types of processing. It should be remembered that the mushroom, except for white spots on the cap, like a pale toadstool, there thickening at the base of the legs and the top of her - ring.
Very dangerous lines that appear in the spring or early summer. In appearance, these mushrooms are like morels, with which they are often confused. In morels, hats have a more or less regular conical or round shape with a mesh-cellular surface. Unlike the morels, the lines of the cap are shapeless, with a wavy or sinuous surface, the edges of the bonnet only partially fuse with a cylindrical, sometimes very short leg. Both have a brown hat. Smorchki contain poisonous helvellic acid, which dissolves very well in water, especially when boiling, so when preparing dishes from morels, they must be welded pre-barily with 10-15 min and thoroughly rinsed with clean hot water. After that, the mushrooms become suitable for frying, pickling, quenching. Morphets cause poisoning only when they are used together with decoction. Lines, in addition to helvellic acid, contain a toxic heat-resistant compound gyromitrin, which does not dissolve in hot water and is destroyed only by prolonged drying.
In practice it is very difficult to distinguish the lines of morels. Therefore, when there is no absolute certainty that the morel fungi are instead lines best to dry them, and at least 3 weeks. Dried mushrooms before eating should be well boil and drain the broth.
Poisonous mushrooms include a thin pig, which until recently was considered edible. It was known that the swine contains hemolysin and hemagglutinin - poisons, which interact with hemoglobin of the blood. But since these poisons are unstable to high temperatures, nutritionists have limited their recommendations: before consumption, mushrooms boil for 25 min, and decoction decoction. However, it is now proved that the pig is able to accumulate (accumulate) yet another poison - muscarin. The amount of this toxin depends on the climatic and geographical conditions of the growth of fungi. In addition, this fungus has a specific antigen, the accumulation of which in the body leads to severe blood disease. At the same time, it has been established that the pig has the ability to accumulate in considerable quantities toxic compounds of heavy metals - lead, mercury, cadmium, contained in the exhaust gases of cars, waste from many industries polluting the environment (soil, water, air). Currently, this fungus is classified as poisonous. This situation extends to swine thick.
Most edible mushrooms have toxic twins. So, the white fungus has two poisonous companion - a bilious mushroom and satanic, the use of which can cause poisoning. Externally, these fungi are very similar, but the flesh of the fungus gall to break quickly turns pink and satanic - first turns pink, then turn blue. Toxic double chanterelles chanterelle is false; toxic double Armillaria - false estimates of location. The lower surface of the cap from the false chanterelle brighter than the upper surface and a leg. Edible chanterelle, all painted in a uniform egg-yellow color.
Occasionally, usually due to negligence, instead of the present autumn honey agaric false tear. To distinguish true from false mushrooms can be the color of the upper and lower surface of the cap. In the edible honey agaric hat ocher or brown-yellow plate on the bottom surface of white or light-clay, on top of the legs have a ring. In the false Armillaria hat yellowish gray, greenish-yellow plates. False honey agaric brick-red hat has a yellow-red color, plate or smoky black and olive, the ring on the leg he is absent.
Keep in mind that sometimes even edible mushrooms can cause poisoning. This happens in cases where use old or long-term storage after harvesting mushrooms. Mushrooms are perishable products, so they must be processed as a rule, the day of collection. This is due to the fact that after maturing rapidly becoming fungi
a good breeding ground for the development of microorganisms, including pathogens. Long-term storage of mushrooms at room temperature promotes the growth of microbes. Harvested mushrooms for future use and should not be stored more than 1 years.
It was found that some kinds of edible fungi belonging to the most valuable (white, chanterelles Armillaria, Russula, Lactarius, and others.), Also contains toxic substances, but they are at cooking cut flesh destroyed.
Toxic substances found in fungi such as blewits, poddubniki, Govorushko, but they do not cause poisoning as do not dissolve in liquid secretory human digestive system. However, if made with these fungi dishes combine with alcohol, which dissolves the toxins poisoning symptoms occur immediately and the consequences could be the saddest.
To prevent mushroom poisoning, should be guided by the basic rules of their collection and processing.
First of all, it is very important to learn to distinguish edible, conditionally edible and poisonous mushrooms, and at home they should be carefully sorted. Collect only those mushrooms that do not raise doubts about their edibility. Some people mistakenly believe that the onion or garlic head, added to the pan during cooking mushrooms, turns brown if there are poisonous things among the mushrooms, and silver objects (spoons, coins) turn black. This is a dangerous delusion. It is also erroneous to claim that insect larvae and snails do not eat poisonous mushrooms and therefore a fungus infected with worms or a snail is supposedly safe.
Do not add salt and marinate mushrooms in galvanized containers. Before marinating mushrooms boil must be carefully pre-cut into pieces. Jars with pickles, pickled mushrooms enough to cover two layers of paper, one of which - the parchment, and tie tightly. They must be stored in the cold. Each type of mushroom need to conserve Separately.
It is best to store mushrooms in dried form, and before cooking crush them into a powder.
In recent years, canning of mushrooms at home in hermetically sealed cans has become popular. Procurement of fungi in hermetically sealed cans is unacceptable, since in the absence of oxygen favorable conditions are created for the development of the pathogen of botulism, an extremely dangerous disease. The use of these fungi can have serious consequences. The fact is that mushrooms are difficult to clean from the smallest pieces of earth and sand, along with which the spores of botulinum causative agent, which persists in the soil for a period of five hours, can get into the canned mushrooms. Heat treatment in the conditions of home preservation does not destroy the spore forms of the microbe. In a hermetically sealed container, without access to air, conditions are created for germination of botulinum spores, bacterial growth and accumulation of botulinum toxin. The production of canned products on an industrial basis completely eliminates this danger, since sterilization occurs at a temperature of 120 ° C for 30 min in special autoclaves. It is impossible to reach such a temperature by methods of home preservation.
Thus, in most home safely salted or pickled mushrooms. To salt the mushrooms should be in a solution containing not less than 15% of salt (tablespoon to 1 100 ml of water) with the mandatory addition of acetic acid. Store mushrooms harvested for future use, should be in the refrigerator or in the cellar in leaking ukuporennyh banks.
To prevent poisoning of children by fungi, can not be left alone in the woods or a park in the mushroom season. Children should not collect mushrooms without adult supervision. children collected mushrooms require thorough / sorting experienced people.
Collection of industrial harvesting of mushrooms produced in an organized, under the supervision of specialists. The conditions of production are carried out more qualitative sorting and processing of mushrooms, as well as the production of canned food. Therefore, cases of mushroom poisoning industrial harvesting is not registered.
If after the consumption of the mushroom dish signs of poisoning (vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, sweating, dyspnea, etc.) begin to develop, immediate medical attention is needed. With any poisoning by mushrooms, even if at first glance, not light, you should take the victim to a medical institution or call an ambulance to him. Before the doctor comes, the patient must be put in bed. To prevent the absorption of poison, the patient needs to rinse his stomach, for which he should drink a small sip of cold strong tea or coffee; The stomach and legs should be warmed with heaters. Absolutely contraindicated in this case, alcoholic beverages, which accelerate the absorption of poison. To determine the cause of poisoning, one should keep the remains of the mushroom dish, raw mushrooms and their purification, as well as vomit. All this should be transferred to a medical professional for analysis.

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