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Nutrition for pregnant women

Nutrition for pregnant womenNutrition of pregnant women is of great importance for a favorable course and outcome of pregnancy and labor, for the normal development of the fetus and newborn. It is an effective measure in preventing the birth of a large fetus. It is very important to eat right in the second half of pregnancy and during breastfeeding, when there is a risk of increasing body mass, women and obesity.
In drawing up the diet is necessary to take into account the gestational age, the data on weight, height, age, as well as employment, energy costs, the season of the year. Taking into account the climatic conditions of the place of residence.
In the first half of pregnancy, a woman's diet should not significantly differ from nutrition to pregnancy. It must be full, varied. The energy of the daily ration of pregnant average height (155-160 cm) with the mass of the body 55-60 kg should be 10 048-11 304 kJ. This energy value is achieved by including 110 g proteins, 75 g fats and 350 g carbohydrates. Pregnant high-growth (170-175 cm) with a body weight of 70-75 kg is recommended to eat an energy value 11 304-12 142 kJ, which includes 120-125 g proteins, 75-85 g fat and 360-400 g carbohydrates. Women of low height (150 cm) with a body weight of 50 kg recommend a diet of energy value 8792-9630 kJ, containing 90-100 g protein, 55-65 g fat, 290-320 carbohydrates.
In the second half of pregnancy, in connection with the growth of the uterus and fetus, the need of the organism of the future mother in proteins increases. The diet of pregnant women of medium height and average body weight should contain 110-120 g proteins, including 60 g proteins of animal origin, up to 85 g fats and up to 400 g carbohydrates. The energy of the ration increases to 11723-12 560 kJ. For high pregnancies, the daily protein norm is 120 g, fat is 85-100 g, carbohydrates 410-440 g, energy value of the diet is 12 560-13 816 kJ. For low-growth pregnant women, a diet consisting of 100-110 g proteins, 70-74 g fats, 330-380 g carbohydrates, energy value 10 048-10 886 kJ is recommended.
For pregnant women complete proteins must be used in the diet of milk, kefir, yogurt, low-fat cottage cheese, mild cheese, eggs, meat, fish. Meat and fish are recommended boiled. It should be excluded from the diet of meat, fish, mushroom broth, rich in extractive substances. Useful vegetables, cereals or fruit soups.
Because animal fat is better for pregnant women to eat easily digestible butter. For normal pregnancy is necessary to eat every day 25 g of vegetable oils (sunflower, corn), containing, in addition to polyunsaturated fatty acids, a-tocopherol. Unrefined oils are used in its natural form with vegetable dishes.
Need pregnant carbohydrates provided by foods rich in dietary fiber, which are the source of bread from wheat flour, vegetables, fruits and berries. In order to prevent the birth of children and the largest developing obesity in mothers is very important to limit the nutritional content of digestible carbohydrates: sugars (up to 40-50 grams per day), sla¬dostey, jam, candy. Good sources of carbohydrates are grains: buckwheat, oat, rice, semolina, millet.
Great value for a favorable course of pregnancy and normal fetal development are vitamins. The need of vitamins is satisfied using a wide variety of foods rich in them (vegetables, fruits, liver, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, legumes, cereals) vitamins recommended for pregnant women in the following amounts (per day): thiamine - 1,7 mg riboflavin - 2 mg , pyridoxine - 2 mg cyanocobalamin - 4 mcg folacin - 600 mcg of niacin - 19 mg of ascorbic acid - 72 mg retinol - 1250 mcg, a-tocopherol - IU 15, 500 ergokaltsiferola- IU.
The diet of pregnant women should contain power in optimal amounts and ratios mineral salts (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, iron, etc.). The need for them is met by the use of various products.
The use of food table salt in the first half of pregnancy should be reduced to 10-12 g, in the second - to 6-8 g, in the last months of pregnancy 2 - 5 to grams per day. The amount of liquid should not exceed in the diet 1 -1,2 liters per day.
In the first half of pregnancy is recommended four meals: breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper. In the two hours before bedtime is useful to drink a glass of kefir. In the second half of pregnancy, it is advisable to eat 5-6 times a day. Meat, fish products should be included predominantly in the daytime meals.
An indication of the normal course of pregnancy and the proper organization of nutrition of pregnant is the optimal weight gain, which in the second half of pregnancy is less than 250-300 g per week.
Approximate daily collection of food for the pregnant woman in the second half of pregnancy is as follows: meat - 120 g, eggs - 1, fish - 100 g, cottage cheese - 150 g kefir - 200 g milk - 250 g sour cream - 30 g butter - 15 g, oil ras¬titelnogo - 25 g sugar - 50 g rye bread - 100 g, wheat bread - 100 g, baked goods (muffins, cookies, etc..) - 100 g, cereals and pasta - 60 g potatoes - 200 g, cabbage - 100 g, beet - 100 g carrots - 100 g, tomatoes and other vegetables - 200 g, onions - 35 g, fruits, berries and fruit juice - 200 of

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