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General characteristic of the basic diets

General characteristic of the basic dietsAll diets are conventionally divided into two groups. The first group includes those in which mainly takes into account only the quantitative content of certain components of the food, while the method of culinary processing does not play a significant role. They are diets characterized by an increase or decrease in the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, or other constituents of food. In the second group of diets, on the contrary, culinary processing, giving new qualities to food, assumes paramount importance. These include diets with a sparing dietary regimen, most commonly used for diseases of the digestive system.
Developed more than 15 different diets Consider the most commonly used ones.

Diet number 1. It is used for gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer in the period of exacerbation, acute gastritis, exacerbation of chronic gastritis, regardless of the secretory and acid-forming functions of the stomach. The energy value of the diet is somewhat reduced by reducing the carbohydrate content. In terms of food composition and cooking, the diet is mechanically, chemically and thermally sparing. It includes wiped boiled or steam products. All dishes are served to the patient in a liquid or mushy state. Proteins are used primarily of animal origin in the normal range. The amount of fat also corresponds to the physiological needs of the body (of which 25% should be vegetable oils), carbohydrates in the daily ration contain 200 g, sodium chloride - no more than 8 — 10 g, free fluid — 1,5 l. The daily ration energy value is 8792 — 9211 kJ. The temperature of food intake should not exceed 60 ° С, but should not be lower than 15 ° С. The number of meals - 6 per day. It is recommended to introduce into the diet mucous soups, dairy, cereal, meat and fish steam soufflé from low-fat meats and fish, milk, soft-boiled eggs, omelets, cottage cheese, butter, sweets, jelly, jelly, non-acidic juices. The diet is calculated on 7 — 12 days.

Diet number 1. It is used in case of peptic ulcer in the period of damped exacerbation process. Prepared mashed or not mashed, boiled or steam food. Low-fat varieties of meat, fish are allowed to serve a piece. The composition of the diet is fully valuable, characterized by moderate mechanical and chemical shchazheniem digestive apparatus. Contains 110 g of proteins, 100 g of fats and 400 — 450 g of carbohydrates. Its energy value 12 142— 12 979 kJ. Consists of a diet of vegetarian and dairy soups, vegetable purees, mashed porridge, low-fat steamed or boiled meat and fish, sausages, 2 — 3 soft-boiled eggs or in the form of omelettes, milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, sour cream and white stale bread, sweet fruit juices . Excluded from it are cabbage, turnips, radishes, cucumbers, strong meat and fish broths, all fried foods, smoked meats, canned food in oil and tomato, fresh bread, spices, beer, vodka, wine. The number of meals - 6.

Diet number 2. It is prescribed for gastritis with insufficient secretory and acid-forming function of the stomach, as well as for chronic diseases of the intestines - colitis and enteritis - in the stage of unsharp exacerbation. Diet helps to improve the function of the stomach and intestines. The inclusion of products with coarse fiber is limited. The introduction of whole milk, as a rule, is not allowed. Meat is carefully separated from the veins, cartilage and bones are removed from the fish. Dishes are prepared mostly pureed or chopped. It is allowed to eat fried foods, but without breading products in flour or breadcrumbs. Salt is added to food in moderation (up to 15 g per day). Energy value of the diet— 12 560 — 13 398 kJ. The number of meals - 4 — 5.

Diet number 4. It is recommended for acute and chronic diseases of the intestines during acute exacerbations, accompanied by diarrhea and severe dyspeptic symptoms. All dishes are cleaned, cooked boiled or steamed. The diet contains 100 g of proteins, 70 g of fats and 250 g of carbohydrates. It consists of mucous soups in water or lean meat broth, mashed porridge on water, meat steam dishes, cottage cheese, three-day sour milk, stale white bread or crackers, berry juices, strong tea, cocoa on water, black coffee. Pure milk and black bread are excluded from the diet. The frequency of eating food - 5— 6 once a day.

Diet number 5. It is used in chronic cholecystitis, cholangitis, hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver during the recovery period, but in the absence of inflammatory diseases of the stomach and intestines. The diet is limited to cholesterol, purine substances. Contains 100 g of proteins, 80 — 100 g of fats and 350 — 400 g of carbohydrates. The third part of the amount of fat is provided by vegetable oils. The diet consists of vegetarian and milk soups, low-fat varieties of boiled meat and fish, dairy and dairy products, butter, vegetable oils, cereals, vegetables and fruits, black and white bread. The use of alcoholic beverages, liver, kidneys, legumes, butter dough, fried foods, smoked meats, marinades, canned goods is not allowed. Salt is limited to 5 — 8 g per day. The number of meals - 6.

Diet number 7 is indicated for kidney disease without marked impairment of function. It is characterized by a sharp restriction of table salt, a decrease in liquid, the elimination of nitrogenous extractive substances from meat, fish, mushrooms, as well as products containing cholesterol. The total amount of liquid contained in the diet is 1,5 l, free liquid - 0,8 l. Boiled or cooked meat dishes are prepared from meat and fish. As seasonings use sour cream, vegetable and fruit gravy, boiled onions. Food is wiped or well boiled without salt. In the diet include salt-free bread. The number of meals - 4 — 5. The composition of dietary nutrients: 80 g of proteins, 85 g of fat and 450 g of carbohydrates, its energy value - 12 142 kJ.

Diet number 8. It is recommended for the treatment of obesity in the absence of diseases of the digestive and circulatory organs. The diet is characterized by reduced energy value of food. But in the conditions of normal labor activity of a person, this decrease in energy value should not be sharp (by 20 — 30%). The energy value of the diet decreases due to a significant restriction of foods rich in carbohydrates: sugar, honey, pasta, confectionery, jelly, jam, sweets, creams. It is also recommended to reduce the consumption of bread and potatoes, cereals. It is useful to include in the diet of protein-bran bread. Spices, strong broths are excluded. In the diet, you must enter a large number of cabbage, carrots, cucumbers containing fiber. The number of meals - 5. Sorbitol or xylitol are used instead of sugar.

Diet number 9. Recommended for the treatment of diabetes. This diet restricts carbohydrate intake and, in part, fat. Sugar and all sweets are excluded from it. Culinary processing of products is recommended ordinary. The nutritional composition of the diet is 100 g of proteins, 70 g of fats and 300 g of carbohydrates. The diet includes foods that contain little carbohydrates: meat, fish, cottage cheese, eggs, butter and vegetable oils, lactic acid products, cabbage, swede, greens, legumes, oatmeal and buckwheat, black bread in a metered amount, sour varieties of berries and fruits. Eating salt is allowed in the amount of 12 g per day. You need to avoid fried foods. Sugar should be replaced with sorbitol or xylitol.

Diet number 10. Recommended for patients with diseases of the cardiovascular system without pronounced circulatory disorders. Diet provides for the restriction of fluid (total - 1,5 l, free - 0,8 l), salt, substances that stimulate the nervous system and heart, irritate the kidneys and liver. Contains 80 g of proteins, 70 g of fat, 350 — 400 g of carbohydrates. It consists of vegetarian soups, boiled meat and fish, milk and dairy products, semolina and rice porridge, fruit. It introduces products rich in potassium, lipotropic substances. The diet prohibits the use of alcohol, strong coffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate, spicy salty snacks, seasonings; restricts the use of foods that cause flatulence or bloating (legumes, carbonated drinks), as well as cholesterol-rich foods (internal organs of animals, brains, caviar, animal fats). The use of salt limits to 3 — 5 g per day. A meal intake provides 5 per day.

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