Therefore, when drawing up menus, food preparation and presentation of food should take into account the basic provisions of a balanced diet.
Man's food must be sufficiently abundant, tasty, high-quality biologically and hygienically. The Serve dishes
The food should contain all the necessary nutrients human body: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, mineral salts and water.
Protein is needed for growth and development of the human body. They are the main part of the cell. To ensure normal human life daily protein must be ingested with food in an appropriate amount and in the right proportion.
A large number of proteins found in meat, milk, dairy products, cheese, eggs, and to a lesser extent - in cereals, flour, vegetables and other products.
In humans, the proteins are mainly used as the plastic material in the formation of new cells. This feature of the protein must be considered when drawing up menus for children and adolescents. However, it should be noted that the proteins during strenuous exercise or when the food contains enough carbohydrates and fats perform energetic role. It is no accident the persons performing the work with great physical exertion (miners, porters, etc. D.) In the diet is recommended to introduce foods that are rich in protein, especially meat.
Man must daily receive a certain amount of animal protein, but it does not have to be meat or meat products. For this purpose, very useful, especially for children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, milk proteins and dairy products, eggs and offal. One or two days a week is recommended to cook without meat, so the body can get the required amount of vegetable proteins.
Children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women should always get more and more animal protein than the other, however, these proteins should be at least in small quantities combined with proteins of plant origin. In the presence of food in the vegetable protein digestibility of animal origin is significantly improved.
The rate of protein intake per day for men aged up to 18 59 years, are engaged in mental and physical work easier, depending on the age of 81-90 g, including animal protein origin-45-50 g; Women in this group - 70-78 g, including animal protein - 39-43 of
For men of the same age, but those who deal with particularly heavy physical labor, this rate varies between 107-118 g, including animal - 59- 65 g; those who are engaged in heavy physical labor - 95-102 g, including animal - 52-56 g; for women who are engaged in heavy physical labor, the rate of protein consumption is 80-87 g, including animal - 44-48 of
For pregnant women (from period to 5 9 months) protein requirement averages 100 g, including 60 g animal proteins. For nursing mothers, this need increases and is 112 g, including 67 grams of animal protein.
Fats are a part of every cell in the body. Part of the fat along with the proteins, the material used by the body to build the cells. Fats - an important source of energy. Compared with proteins and carbohydrates, they have a large calorific value. As a result of combustion in the body 1 9,3 grams of fat calories is released, and the combustion of 1 grams of carbohydrates and proteins - only 4,1 calories.
Fats are mainly part of the meat, fish, dairy products, but especially a lot of them in lard, butter (cream, vegetable). They are a complex of organic compounds, the main structural elements are glycerol and fatty acids. With insufficient amount of fat is reduced resistance to infectious diseases, to the action of cold and other adverse factors.
The rate of fat intake per day for men aged up to 18 59 years, are engaged in mental and physical work easier, depending on the age of 93-110 g, and for women in this group - 81-93 of
For men of the same age, but those who deal with particularly heavy physical labor, this rate is 143- 158 g; for those who are engaged in heavy physical trudom- 126-136 g; for women who are engaged in heavy physical labor, depending on the age of the rate of fat consumption is in the range of 106-116
Carbohydrates are an integral part of the diet. At their expense provided calorie intake - at least half the daily requirement. They serve as a source of energy. It is no coincidence in the time of great runs and ski crossings to restore muscle energy is recommended to use sugar.
Carbohydrates are used in the body not only as an energetic material for all kinds of physical labor, but also to some extent take part in plastic processes.
The main source of carbohydrates are plant foods (vegetables, fruits, cereals, flour, and so on. D.).
The greatest amount of carbohydrates contain refined sugar.
The rate of consumption of carbohydrates per day for men aged up to 18 59 years, are engaged in mental and physical work easier, depending on the age of 344-412 g, for this group of women - 297-368 of
Men aged up to 18 59 years, are engaged in particularly heavy physical labor, this rate increases and is 540-602 g for men engaged in heavy physical labor, - 483-504 g; for women who are engaged in heavy physical labor, - within 406-441 of
Caloric intake for the day for men aged up to 18 59 years, are engaged in mental or light physical work, depending on age should be 2550-3000 kcal for women in this group - 2200- 2550 kcal.
Caloric needs of the body of men who have particularly heavy physical labor is 3900-4300 kcal, and those who are engaged in heavy physical labor, - 3450- 3700 kcal; the need for women's body's the calories that are engaged in heavy physical labor, depending on the age of 2900-3150 kcal.
The need for calories the body of pregnant women (in the period of up to 5 9 months) on average 2900 kcal, and nursing mothers - 3200 kcal.
Very important role in the human body played by vitamins and mineral salts.
Vitamins their name is derived from the Latin word "vita", which means life, and the chemical term "amines" is a nitrogenous compound. Vitamins promote the formation in the body of such chemical reactions that lead to the synthesis (construction) of organic substances in tissues. The lack of certain vitamins leads to a breakdown and a metabolic disorder. Despite the fact that the amount of necessary vitamins is negligible compared to other constituent organic substances (proteins, fats and carbohydrates), the biological importance of vitamins is enormous. They provide growth of the body, normal metabolism, are widely involved in the regulation of vital processes, increase resistance to infectious diseases, facilitate the progression of a number of diseases and, thus, contribute to the speedy recovery of a person. Considering this, it is necessary to serve fresh fruit and vegetables as often as possible, which rationally supplement the cooked food. In general, care should be taken to ensure that raw vegetables are served daily.
The diet should provide satisfaction of human needs of the body in the water, since it is involved in all of its biochemical and physiological processes. Water is 60% of body weight. She - the most important factor of power, because it is the basis of the blood and is a part of all tissues.
Water, besides its use in its pure form, is contained in all beverages and foods.
Food must be rich in products containing minerals (salt).
The value of minerals varied. They participate but all physiological processes in the body.
The absence in the diet of one or inyh- mineral salts entails a violation of metabolism in the body. The sources of minerals are both products of animal and vegetable origin. Violation of culinary technology in food processing and preparation of these dishes will inevitably entail the loss of nutrients, especially vitamins and mineral salts.
Considering the need of the organism in the required amount of calories corresponding to the nature of work and age, and it must be remembered that the extent to which certain food can cause a pleasant feeling of saturation. Some of these securities in calories and nutrition, are digested more easily and soon again the feeling of hunger, such as after a fish dish or veal. In these cases, the dish is prepared on more fat, more fat is placed in a side dish, and after lunch or dinner is served nutritious sweet flour dish, causing a feeling of fullness.
In drawing up the menu you need to take into account the age of the children and adolescents. Boys and girls aged 11-13 years on caloric needs such as food, as well as an adult to engage in light physical or mental work. During puberty, this need increases.
Persons preparing food should always remember the role of nutrients in the human body. The diet should correspond to the age and physiological condition of a person, the nature of his work, the time of the year and other factors. Considering that people engaged in heavy physical labor must receive a large amount of protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diet, so that the energy they expend is fully refunded, they prepare more dishes from products of animal origin, as well as flour dishes with a lot of fat and sugar , Especially in the winter. For workers of intellectual work and people who work in a sitting position and do not need such an amount of these nutrients, they prepare more vegetable dishes and dishes from potatoes.
The diet requires the presence of fiber. Plant products (with the exception of white flour) is provided with the human body a sufficient amount of fiber, which, despite its almost complete neperevarivaemost, food is an important addition, because the content is a physiological gut and regulates their movements.
For in the process of cooking does not devalue the food, culinary rules for their treatment should be observed.
The problem of rational technology is available to cook the most delicious foods and a variety of foods. Violation of rational methods of preprocessing and preparation of food dishes which not only leads to unnecessary losses of nutrients ,. but also degrades the properties of food flavoring.
From the human service sector is perhaps the most difficult problem - this service is its power. Ensuring human habitation, clothing, footwear and so on. N. Is not an everyday event. Eat a person should only on a daily basis, but several times a day, no matter where they are - at work, recreation, school, travel, space, etc...
Cooking only in catering deals with about a million chefs. An even greater number of people employed in cooking at home. They should know the basic processes and management techniques of its preparation. Lack of awareness among young housewives in cooking process technology results in the violation of basic rules of preservation of the nutritional value of the products when they are cooked. All of these rules are given above.