Power is one of the most important relationship forms the body with the environment, providing intake of food consisting of organic compounds (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins), simple chemical elements, minerals, and water.
Distinguish food six basic functions (D. W. Van hanen, 1985): energy (carbohydrates, fats and proteins to a lesser extent), plastic (proteins less minerals, fats, lipids, and carbohydrates), BIOR-gulyatornuyu ( proteins and vitamins), adaptively-regulator-Tornio (dietary fiber, water, etc.), protective and rehabilitative (preventive and curative properties of a qualitatively different food rations) and signal-motivational-ing (spices, spicy vegetables and other flavors).
Energy function food It is to cover the body energy expenditure.
Plastic food function It provides construction and renovation of cells and tissues.
Bioregulatory function food reduces to participate in the formation of enzymes and hormones, are metabolic regulators of biological tissue.
Adaptive-regulatory function of food It contributes to the normal functioning of the major systems of the body (food, selection, thermoregulation, and others.).
Protective and rehabilitative function food It is to increase the body's resistance to infection and other adverse effects, including professional, in the normalization of disturbed metabolism, tissue repair, accelerating the healing, prevention of recurrence of the disease and in the transition from acute to chronic.
The signal-motivational function food reduced to whet the appetite.
A complete and balanced diet provides the presence in the diet of protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals to meet the needs in these and optimal for assimilation ratios depending on v.ozrasta, sex, body weight, conditions of work.
The establishment of the body needs certain nutrients, their degree of commitment and presence or absence of stockpiles in the body of each of them is the basis of nutrition of healthy and sick person. Part nutrients not synthesized in the body or produced in insufficient quantities, ie. E. Is essential nutrients. Therefore, the essential nutrients should be part of any diet.
К essential nutrients include proteins (amino acids), fatty acids, vitamins, mineral salts, water. Carbohydrates and fats with unsaturated fatty acids are a group nonessential nutrients. Standards of food consumption is so that the total content of the currently known nutrients satisfy the physiological needs of the body, helped to preserve the health and human maximum performance.