The potato is the main source of vitamin C and B vitamins About 40% of the population's need for vitamin C are covered by potatoes. Oncalorie potato 3- 5 times greater than other vegetables.Although proteins in potatoes are only 2%, they play an important role in the rational human nutrition. From potatoes and in conjunction with other foods can be cooked a lot of delicious and nutritious meals.
Usefulness of vegetables in the diet is determined by the fact that they are basic suppliers minerals human body. The vegetables are calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, etc., Necessary for normal functioning of the body. These salts complement the mineral composition of the meat, so it is useful to prepare a variety of vegetable casseroles filled with meat and meat dishes serve vegetable side dishes.
The aromatic and coloring substances contained in fruits, give the dish flavor, stimulate appetite, a variety of food.
With sufficient use of vegetables in the diet digestibility of proteins of meat, fish and cheese increased to 85-90%
Indigestible by the body tissue, contained in vegetables, provides the peristalsis (normal, without delay, the passage of food in the digestive tract of man), the allocation of the excess cholesterol and other harmful substances.
In the manufacture of vegetable dishes to preserve them in nutritional and taste properties must adhere to rational cooking technology.
Potatoes, root and cucumber before you clean, you should go through and wash. When cleaning the potatoes and root crops should be cut a thin top layer. This rule is especially important to observe in respect of potatoes, under the skin which contains more vitamins than its mya¬koti. With the same purpose, vegetables should be cut stainless steel knife. Vegetables can not be church-thread for a long time in purified water, given that vitamin C and mineral salts dissolve easily.
Potatoes should be stored in the purified water is not more than 1 hours.
Peeled vegetables keep the covered with a damp cloth or towel.
Slice the vegetables immediately before heat treatment - it protects them from loss of vitamins.
Raw vegetables, intended for the preparation of salad, immediately after cutting should be lightly sprinkled with vinegar or lemon juice, citric acid, vitamin C to protect from the damaging effects of oxygen.
Peel a celery should be finely cut. When scraping her celery root so quickly
neet. Parsley, celery and fennel is recommended to cut and not cut, as in cutting the greens quickly allocates juice, which takes up a large part of the flavoring.
The roots of horseradish in the air to dry quickly and become lethargic, as such they are difficult to clean and rub so sluggish roots of horseradish soaked 4-6 hours in cold water.
Of finely chopped vegetables and, especially carrots, colorants and flavors and more easily transform into fat.
If improperly heat obrabotke- boiling, stewing, roasting, sautéing - vegetables lose much vitamins, salt, flavorings ve¬schestva. Therefore, dishes prepared with violation of rational technology will be dense nutrient-poor and tasteless. In this regard, the basic rules must be followed below in the manufacture of foods.
You can not cook vegetables in a large amount of water - they must be covered with water for no more than 1 cm.
Vegetables, cooked by steaming, poch¬ti retain their nutritional value.
Cook the vegetables should be in a sealed container, because when cooked in an open pan of vitamin C is lost twice.
Vegetables are best cooked in stainless steel, aluminum or enameled. Nutrients are preserved better than when they are boiled in large amounts of water. Vegetables should be allowed with a small amount of vegetable oil, because the essential oils found in vegetables are dissolved in fat, resulting in vegetables that are more delicious and aromatic. Vegetables, especially deciduous, do not need to be cooked in a dish that is tinned badly, with damaged enamel, in iron bowlers, and also in dishes that have much more capacity for a given amount of food. In all these cases, vitamin C is destroyed.
For spinach, nettle, goosefoot, sorrel and peas and beans retained the green after cooking, they sle¬duet put in a pot of boiling water, tightly close the lid, and over high heat as soon as possible bring to a boil. Having brought up to readiness, they should be removed from the fire, open the lid, and even better - discard vegetables in a sieve or colander.
To preserve red beet it must cook podkis¬lennoy water or in the crude form. It is not recommended to cook vegetables in a very broad and shallow pans. Cooking pots increases in such razrushe¬nie vitamins. When boiling potatoes and root vegetable water should not boil vigorously.
When cooking potatoes razvaristogo advisable to drain the water after 10 minutes after boiling, and boil it in the future in ne¬bolshom amount of water on low heat.
In order boiled cauliflower preserved white color and a pleasant crunch it before cooking reko¬menduetsya pod¬solennuyu put in a little cold water. When cooking crumbly potato varieties for salads and salads in the water it is recommended to add cucumber or cabbage pickle.
To potatoes, grated for cooking fritters, less darkened, it is necessary to pour a little hot milk. Peeled potatoes should be cooked in boiling water in a sealed container. To salt it should be after for-boiling water. Old potatoes to improve the taste when cooked are immersed in cold water. All vegetables, except beets and green peas, it is necessary to boil in salted water.
Broth from vegetables, which passes more than half of salts and water-soluble vitamins must be used in soups and sauces.
Boiled potatoes frying in fat absorbs sred¬nem in 1,6 times more than crude. A suitable fat for frying vegetables is vegetable oil. Fry should be in a shallow dish - pans, small trays or pans with a smooth bottom. When deep-frying uses a deeper dishes. While fried foods should be turned with a spatula, being careful not to pierce the surface.
When roasting potatoes, only 20- ^ 25% of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is destroyed. Such preservation of this vitamin during roasting is explained by the fact that the fat covering the surface of pieces of potato protects ascorbic acid from the effects of oxygen in the air. With conventional roasting - in a frying pan with a small amount of fat - 75-80% of vitamin C is stored in the potatoes, and when fried in a large amount of fat (deep-fried), vitamin C remains almost completely. The same is observed when cooking potatoes for a couple. Vitamins A, Bj and B2 when cooking vegetables are destroyed relatively little.
To evenly roasted potatoes, it should be laid on the pan or baking a layer no thicker than 5 cm.
If the potatoes are fried in a little fat, it is better to add salt when it is brought to half - a potato more juicy and tasty. For roasting vegetables is best to use stainless steel and cast iron frying pan; on aluminum pans vegetables easily burn up.
Before roasting the vegetables are boiled, fried or stewed. If the chips are well flushed from all sides, but still not soft, it should be brought to readiness in the oven.
Some dishes are prepared from baked potatoes. For this medium-sized tubers wash, obsushivayut, put on a baking sheet and put in the oven.
New potatoes are not recommended to fry, because it is poorly done and browns hard; it is recommended to eat boiled.
Fried sliced potatoes can be fried or very small tubers, as the entire top Undermountain large tubers, and inside will be raw. Before roasting the potatoes should be rinsed thoroughly and then dry, because the water cools the fat and causes its strong foaming. Before deep fried salted potato impossible.
When frying fresh tomatoes, it is necessary to put them in a frying pan with the oil heated upwards, fry them, and then turn them over. Stewed cabbage, cooked without vinegar, is too soft. Potatoes, stewed with vegetables, will be delicious and fragrant if fried, and vegetables (carrots, parsley, turnips) fry slightly, and then salvage onions until cooked. Fried vegetables and browned onions should be poured with a thin red sauce and cook until ready. Vegetables for extinguishing must be fried only before the formation of ruddy crust. The quenching begins with strong heating, and when the liquid boils, the heating is weakened. Beets should not be stewed, baked or boiled in ironware (baking sheets, sheets) or cast-iron frying pan, as the beet coloring under the influence of iron changes color to dark brown, and the product acquires an unpleasant aftertaste.
In the production of cabbage its pre-fried - the dish will be more juicy and tasty. Cauliflower is especially tasty if it pripuskayut in milk.