The nature and diet of nursing mothers is largely determined by the health status of children.
Breast milk contains everything necessary for the nutrition of the child, and moreover in the most favorable form for assimilation. Breast milk contains immune bodies that protect babies from diseases.
The food of a nursing mother should contain all the substances necessary for the body, as well as be tasty and varied. Of particular importance is providing it with a sufficient amount of complete proteins, the daily requirement of which is 112 g (among them animal proteins - 67 g). In the diet of a nursing mother, it is necessary to include milk, kefir, yogurt, cottage cheese, meat, fish, eggs, which contain all the essential amino acids. Various snack foods are recommended, including cheese, cold meats, herring (in moderation).
The need for lactating mothers for fats is the same as for proteins (115 g per day). From dietary fats, preference should be given to butter rich in retinol and ergocalciferol, as well as unrefined vegetable oils (30 g per day): corn, sunflower, olive, etc. Refractory hard-to-digest fats (mutton, beef, geese) are undesirable in the nutrition of nursing mothers. ) Part of the milk fat should be replaced with emulsified (and therefore easier to digest) cream or sour cream fats.
The daily need for lactating mothers for carbohydrates is 400 — 440 g, but they should be used mainly in the form of polysaccharides contained in vegetables, fruits, berries, as well as cereals, bread products. Easily digestible carbohydrates in the form of sugar, honey, preserves, stewed fruit, confectionery should not exceed 20% of the total amount of carbohydrates in the daily diet.
A nursing mother with food should receive a sufficient amount of vitamins: thiamine - 1,9 mg per day, riboflavin - 2,2 mg, pyridoxine - 2,2 mg, cyanocobalamin - 4 μg, folacin - 600 mg, niacin - 21 mg, ascorbic acid, rNUMXNUM 80 - 1500 μg, a-tocopherol - 15 ME, ergocalciferol - 500 ME.
Given the increased need of nursing mothers for vitamins, they are advised to eat fresh vegetables (prepare a variety of salads from them). Vegetables, fruits and berries satisfy the need of nursing mothers for ascorbic acid, carotene, folacin, pantothenic acid. Due to these products, breast milk is enriched with the indicated vitamins.
In the winter-spring period, when the amount of ascorbic acid in food is significantly reduced, it is advisable to consume a decoction of rose hips daily. The source of B vitamins is bread from wholemeal flour, dishes from buckwheat and oatmeal.
Using a wide range of products in her diet, a nursing mother receives the necessary amount of not only vitamins, but also minerals, in which her need is also increased: calcium - 1000 mg per day, phosphorus - 1500 mg, magnesium - 450 mg, iron - 25 mg . The best source of calcium is milk and dairy products. So, in 100 g of milk, the calcium content is 121 mg, in 100 g of cottage cheese - 150 mg, in 100 g of Yaroslavl cheese - 869 mg, in 100 g of Dutch cheese - 1040 mg. There is a lot of phosphorus in milk and dairy products, egg yolk, meat, fish, chicken. Magnesium enters the body of a nursing mother with cereals, bread, legumes, prunes, eggs, nuts. To meet the body's need for iron, it is useful to use liver, tongue, egg yolk, beef, cheese, cottage cheese, rye bread, apples. It is recommended that a nursing mother consume about 2,5 liters of fluid daily, including at least 0,5 liters of milk. The formation of breast milk is facilitated by sweet fruits, blackcurrant juice, honey, sour cream, Dutch cheese, and liquid brewer's yeast.
It is very important to properly organize the diet. A nursing mother should take food at least 5 once a day: hearty breakfast, light lunch, hearty lunch, less hearty dinner; 2 hours before bedtime - a glass of yogurt or kefir. The main amount of protein-rich foods (meat, fish, eggs) should be included in breakfast and lunch, and for dinner it is better to use dairy products, vegetables, cereals.
Overeating should be avoided. Slight, systematic overeating leads to an increase in body weight. The average energy requirement of a nursing mother is 2800 kJ.
A woman who is breastfeeding a child should not drink any alcoholic beverages, including beer, as they pass into breast milk and are dangerous to the baby’s health even in very small quantities.
Feeding the elderly
Fundamental social transformations in our country, improving the well-being of working people have created all the conditions for extending the life and creative activities of older people. The average human life expectancy has reached 70 years. The number of senior contingents has also increased.
One of the important conditions for prolonging the creative life of older people is a balanced diet, the main requirement of which is to ensure that the energy value of the diet corresponds to the energy costs of the body, and satisfy the need for essential nutrients.
As a result of a decrease in the intensity of metabolic processes during aging and limitation of physical activity, the need for energy decreases with age. So, if the energy demand in 20 — 29 years is taken to be 100%, then in 60 — 69 years and 70 — 79 years it should average 80% and 70%, respectively. The level of metabolism begins to decline in men already from 45 years, women - from 40 years. Therefore, the nutritional value of the diet should also decrease according to age and be for men 60 — 74 years - 9630 kJ, for women of this age - 8792 kJ. Lowering energy is best done by restrictions on foods rich in carbohydrates and fats. Excessive passion for food, overeating, often observed in older people, leads to metabolic disorders, contributes to the development of obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cholelithiasis. The rule of thumb for the elderly is moderate nutrition. Moderation in food is also necessary in connection with the weakening in the elderly and old people of the functional ability of the digestive system. Due to atrophic changes in the stomach, the acidity of the gastric juice decreases, the concentration of enzymes and their activity decrease. Pancreatic function is impaired. All this affects digestion, the absorption of nutrients.
The diet of the elderly should contain a sufficient amount of protein: 69 g per day for men and 63 g for women (while animal proteins should be at least 55% in relation to the total amount of proteins). It is advisable to include in the daily menu, in addition to milk, kefir, cottage cheese, low-fat cheese, fish, non-fish seafood: squid, mussels, sea kale, Ocean paste, which are sources of easily digestible animal proteins, as well as minerals, trace elements (iodine, bromine and others) and vitamins of the body. V. Eggs older people should take no more than 3 — 4 per week. Other cholesterol-rich foods also need to be restricted in nutrition. Meat is recommended to be used with caution due to the large number of purines in it (poultry contains less of these substances). With increased intake of purines with food in the body, the formation of uric acid increases, the salts of which are deposited in the tissues. In order to reduce the content of purines, it is better not to fry the meat, but to cook (in this case, the purines go into the broth). To make the composition of the protein part of the diet more complete, it is advisable to combine animal and vegetable proteins (meat dishes with vegetable and cereal side dishes).
The total amount of fat in the daily diet of elderly men should not exceed 77 g, elderly women should not exceed 70 g (taking into account hidden food fats). You can not completely give up fats because of the fear of getting sick with atherosclerosis. Edible fats are a valuable source of anti-sclerotic and other biologically valuable substances. Vegetable oils in the daily diet should be at least 25 g. Unrefined oils (sunflower, corn) should be consumed in raw form, and not after heat treatment. They can be added to salads, vinaigrettes, buckwheat porridge. Valuable fats are butter and fat sour cream, cream. Milk fats should be 1 / 3 of all fat diets. In the diets of the elderly, it is necessary to limit fats of animal origin, including refractory (lamb, beef), as well as fatty varieties of sausages, fatty meat, meat of ducks, geese.
At each meal, do not consume more than 10 — 15 g of fat with a high content of saturated fatty acids.
Carbohydrates in food of elderly men should be up to 333 g per day, elderly women - up to 305 g, which is approximately 54% of the daily energy value of the diet. Since the main source of fat formation and cholesterol synthesis in the body is easily digestible carbohydrates, older people should limit their intake of sugar and confectionery products (the total daily amount of sugar in food should not exceed 35 g) Excess simple carbohydrates adversely affect the functions of the circulatory and insulin organs in the elderly pancreatic apparatus.
It is useful for older people to periodically replace sugar with fructose, sorbitol, or xylitol (up to 15 — 25 g per day).
As sources of carbohydrates, foods rich in polysaccharides - starch and fiber (bread from wholemeal flour, whole grains, potatoes, vegetables, fruits), with a sufficient amount of dietary fiber are preferred.
Particular attention should be paid to the prevention of vitamin deficiency in the elderly. With aging, the body's ability to assimilate (assimilate) proteins is reduced, which leads to an increase in the loss of vitamins, proteins and mineral salts, to a slowdown in redox processes. Vitamins have the ability to inhibit these processes, that is, they delay aging. The diet of the elderly should contain at least 8 — 10 vitamins, among which ascorbic acid, thiamine and tocopherols are of particular importance.
It is very useful for the elderly to take 3 times a day before meals for 100 ml of broth hips.
Older people need to get optimal amounts of mineral salts with food, including 800 mg of calcium, 1200 mg of phosphorus, 500 mg of magnesium, 10 — 15 mg of iron. Therefore, it is recommended to include cottage cheese in the diet containing well-absorbed calcium, vegetables, fruits, dried fruits (raisins, prunes, dried apricots) - the main sources of minerals, including potassium and magnesium, necessary for the normal functioning of the circulatory system.
General characteristics of the main food products
Food products are evaluated by nutritional, biological and energy values. By the nutritional value of a product is meant the content of food substances in it and the degree of their assimilation by the body, as well as taste advantages. Foods of high nutritional value contain substances that, in their quality and quantity, most meet the requirements of a balanced diet. Biological value reflects the quality of the product’s proteins, their amino acid composition and transribsability. In a broader sense, this concept also includes the content in a food product of such vital biologically active substances as vitamins, essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, lipoids, microelements, etc. The energy value of a product is the energy that is generated in the body as a result of oxidation.
There are no products that would satisfy the need of an adult in absolutely all nutrients. Therefore, only a wide range of products in the diet of a healthy or sick person can provide a balanced diet. In order to increase the biological value of individual food products, they are enriched with certain substances in an industrial environment. Thus, new varieties of bread and bakery products are baked, enriched with proteins by adding dry, skimmed, dry milk, natural milk or products of its processing (dairy whey, buttermilk) to the dough. An important way to increase the biological value of bread is to add thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid to it .
Dietary (medicinal) food products are currently being produced. They are divided into two groups. The first includes products intended for the nutrition of patients with diseases of the digestive system. For the purpose of chemical and mechanical sparing of the digestive organs, such patients should eat shredded food containing little fiber, extractives, sodium chloride, devoid of spices. Such products include canned (mashed ") canned fruits, vegetables, meat and fish, cereal flour. The second group includes products in which certain food substances are limited, or, conversely, enriched with them. Such products are intended for the treatment of patients with metabolic disorders: rolls with lecithin and seaweed, recommended for the treatment of atherosclerosis; confectionery with xylitol or sorbitol instead of sugar for the treatment of obesity and diabetes; protein-free pasta and bread used in the treatment of kidney disease; dairy products and butter enriched with vegetable oils, etc. Special food products are made for patients with hereditary diseases and allergies to certain food substances.
A wide selection of food products and their various combinations, taking into account the peculiarities of culinary processing, make it possible to organize nutrition for a healthy and sick person, taking into account its maximum balance, preventive focus and therapeutic effect.
Meat and meat products
Meat and meat products are widely used in human nutrition. They are one of the main sources of high-grade proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals.
In nutritional terms, the most valuable muscle tissue is meat, containing proteins such as myosin, actin, globulin and myoglobin. These proteins are characterized by a balanced content of essential amino acids. Connective tissue proteins — collagen and elastin — are less valuable because they lack essential amino acids tryptophan and cystine. The meat of young animals contains less collagen, so it is softer and more tender. With a high content of collagen in lean meat, its nutritional value sharply decreases.
The composition of meat fat is predominantly saturated fatty acids, so they are refractory. A large amount of fat in meat causes a decrease in protein content, but the fat of lean cattle meat has less biological value and is less digestible. The most valuable meat of animals of average fatness is meat of the II category. Meat is a source of well-digestible minerals - potassium, sodium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, zinc, iodine, etc. It contains vitamins - thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic and pantothenic acids, choline, tocopherols.
The meat of young poultry is distinguished by its delicate texture, high palatability and low content of connective tissue proteins. It is very useful for children, because it contains many amino acids necessary for a growing organism.
An important component of meat is nitrogenous and nitrogen-free extractives, which are extracted from it during cooking. Nitrous extractives are potent stimulants of gastric secretion and increase appetite. Thus, strong broths and fried meat excite the secretion of digestive juices and therefore are not recommended for gastritis with increased secretion, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, as well as in the nutrition of pregnant and elderly people. Extractives are the least in mutton. There are a lot of them in offal and in white meat of hens.
There are many purines in the meat of young animals and birds, especially in the internal organs (liver, kidneys). They are also found in smoked sausages. Uric acid is formed from purine compounds in the body, which impedes the functioning of the liver and kidneys.
Digestion of meat is slow and depends on its variety and method of cooking. The easiest way to digest chicken meat and young lamb. Fatty meat (especially pork) to facilitate digestion before cooking, you need to beat off. The meat is digested well (beef - at 82 — 83%).
In human nutrition, offal is used (liver, kidney, tongue, brain, lungs, scars), which also have valuable biological properties. In the liver, for example, contains a significant amount of retinol, fat-soluble hormonal substances, iron, copper, phosphorus. Therefore, it is widely used in clinical nutrition.
The language in protein content is inferior to meat. However, it is well absorbed and has relatively few extractive substances, which is why it is used in dietary nutrition. There are few proteins in the brain, but they are a good source of phosphorus and iron. There are B vitamins in the kidneys. Many by-products are a good source of collagen and other glucogen-forming substances (gelatin, glutin), which activate digestion, stimulating the secretion of blood, the motor activity of the stomach and intestines, and have a beneficial effect on the beneficial intestinal microflora. A large amount of collagen, however, negatively affects kidney function.
A common meat food product is sausages, which differ in the method of preparation (cooked, half-smoked, smoked, uncooked smoked) and the use of raw materials (beef, pork, mixed, liver). Cooked sausages are easily digested and can be used in clinical nutrition. But they contain few vitamins and other nutrients contained in fresh meat.
The nutritional value of boiled sausages is quite high. The inclusion in the sausages of various spices gives them a pleasant taste
An adult doing moderate physical labor consumes 150 — 200 g of meat per day. Excessive intake of meat in the body leads to an overload of its extractive substances, which creates an additional burden on the liver, kidneys, negatively affects the function of the circulatory system and the nervous system.