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Feeding and nutrition of pregnant athletes

Sports loads are accompanied by high energy consumption, hypoxia (oxygen starvation), significant neuro-psychological stress, which causes an increased need of the body for energy and certain nutrients.

Rational nutrition prevents fatigue, increases endurance, accelerates the recovery processes in the body, normalizes its various functions after considerable physical exertion.

The energy consumption of athletes depends not only on the type of sport, but also on the volume of loads performed, as well as on body weight and fitness. On average, the energy costs of those involved in sports associated with short-term significant physical activity (acrobatics, gymnastics, hurdling, jumping into the water, figure skating) are: for men 14 654-18 841 kJ, for women 12 560

16 747 kJ per day. For those involved in sports with a large amount of movement and intense physical exertion (running, boxing, skiing, multidisciplinary, wrestling, sports, swimming), the energy consumption is: for men - 18 841 — 23 237 kJ, for women - 16 747 — 20 934 kJ per day.

Even higher energy costs for those involved in sports associated with prolonged physical exertion (mountaineering, running 10 000 m, biathlon, cycling on the highway, rowing, speed skating, skiing, marathon, walking) with men - 23 237 —27 213 kJ; for women, 20 934 — 25 120 kJ. During the competition and during an intense training regime, the average energy expenditure for male athletes is up to 33 494 kJ, for athletes - up to 29 287 kJ per day.  14% of the energy value of the daily diet of athletes involved in sports, not associated with significant physical exertion, is achieved due to proteins, 30% - due to fats and 56% - due to carbohydrates. The body of athletes of adolescence is experiencing an increased need for protein, calcium and phosphorus.

Some of the proteins entering the athlete's body are used for muscle development, so their amount in the diet should be 2,4 — 2,5 g per 1 kg of body weight, and in cases of prolonged sports loads - 2,5 — 2,9 g per 1 kg of body weight. On training and competition days, male athletes get 154 — 171 g of proteins, athletes — 120 — 137 g of proteins. The share of animal proteins in the daily diet should be at least 55% of the total amount of proteins. Some restriction of fat in the diet prevents the accumulation of oxidized products in the blood. 25% of the daily fat should be covered by vegetable oils. Since the main energy source during exercise are carbohydrates, their share in the diet of athletes rises to 8 — 12 g per 1 kg of body weight. In the period of intense training

and 2 / 3 competitions daily requirement of carbohydrates and starch provided 1 / 3 sugar.

During exercise, the body's need for ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, tocopherol, retinol increases, which is associated with increased metabolism and loss of water-soluble vitamins with sweat. So, the daily need of athletes for ascorbic acid is 100 — 150 mg during training and 200 — 300 mg during competition. During training, athletes should receive daily pyridoxine - 5 — 8 mg, retinol — 3 — 3,8 mg, α-tocopherol — 20 — 40 ME. The need for vitamins depends on the energy value of the food. The body should receive: 35 mg of ascorbic acid, 0,7 mg of thiamine, 0,8 riboflavin, 7 mg of nicotinic acid for every 1000 kcal of diet.

Meal hours must be linked to the competition schedule. Breakfast follows 2 — 2,5 hours before the start of the competition and 1,5 — 2 hours before workouts, dine after 3 — 4,5 hours before the competitions (if they start in the afternoon), dinner — 1,5 — 2 hours before sleep. If competitions are held in the first half of the day, then breakfast should be 30% of the daily ration energy value, lunch - 35 — 40%, afternoon tea — 5 — 10%, and dinner — 20 — 25%.

If the competitions are held in the afternoon, the following daily energy distribution of the diet is recommended: breakfast - 30 — 35%, lunch — 30 — 35%, afternoon tea — 5 — 10% and dinner — 25 — 30%,

The amount of water consumed by an athlete per day should be about 2,5 L, including tea, coffee, cocoa, milk, as well as the liquid composition of foods and dishes. When dry mouth appears and the feeling of thirst associated with it is recommended to rinse your mouth with water with the addition of sour fruit and berry juices.

At a distance, a sports drink, glucose tablets with ascorbic acid, protein-glucose fortified chocolate, protein cookies are recommended as supplementary food. All these products are manufactured by our industry.

Sports drink contains vitamins, glucose, sucrose, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, which requires the athlete during large loads.

For highly skilled athletes, weightlifters, throwers, athletes in order to improve their performance and speed up recovery processes after strenuous and prolonged physical exertion, special foods and beverages have been developed at the Institute of Nutrition of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. In their structure includes a specific set of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and organic acids. These products (in 100 g per day) in addition to athletes take nutrition during training camp.

Feeding the people of intellectual labor

In case of mental work due to the lack of loading of the muscular system (physical inactivity), nutrition should be moderate. Making up the diet, you must strictly consider the body's need for energy in order to avoid weight gain and obesity.

Nutrition of people of mental labor must be complete. This means that the food they consume must contain all the biologically valuable, necessary for the body substances in a certain amount and the optimal ratio.

When mental labor increases the need for proteins. Therefore, in the diet, proteins should be 13% of the daily energy value of food. Of particular importance are food components with lipotropic and anti-sclerotic properties, in particular the amino acid methionine containing sulfur. Sources of methionine and other sulfur-containing amino acids are cottage cheese, cheese, chicken, salmon, cod, herring.

By the amount of sulfur-containing proteins, legumes and fish are distinguished. Tocopherols, cyanocobalamin, folic acid, choline and inositol have a lipotropic and anti-sclerotic effect.

Due to the great psychological and emotional stress, in which the body uses vitamins intensively, people with mental labor may develop vitamin deficiencies. Therefore, the diet should include foods that contain sufficient amounts of vitamins, including those stimulating redox reactions. Almost all vitamins have this property, but especially riboflavin, pyridoxine, ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, etc. Prevention of vitamin deficiency is essential in maintaining the performance of people of mental labor.

Fats also contain biologically valuable components necessary for the human body engaged in mental work. Thus, polyunsaturated fatty acids and tocopherols of vegetable oils improve cholesterol metabolism and inhibit the re-oxidation of fats of cell membranes. Butter contains fat-soluble vitamins. However, the energy value of the fatty part of the diet should not exceed 33% of the total energy value of food. This means that with energy consumption 10 467 kJ daily fat intake should be 80 — 90 g

In the nutrition of people of mental labor it is necessary to limit carbohydrates, especially simple ones. Increased sugar intake (over 50 g per day) with a sedentary lifestyle inevitably leads to an increase in body weight and obesity.

The inclusion of a large amount of fruits and vegetables - rich sources of vitamins, mineral salts, sitosterols - is important in ensuring the biological usefulness of the diet of people of mental labor. Fermented milk products such as yogurt, kefir, buttermilk, milk whey, and 10% fat cream are an obligatory part of the nutrition of this category of the population. The energy value of 100 g of cream of the indicated fat content is only 519 kJ, but they contain X-NUMX — b times more retinol (vitamin A) than in milk. It is advisable to use one egg per day, as there is a lot of lecithin in the egg yolk, and in the protein there are irreplaceable amino acids in the optimum ratio.

Bakery preferable use of wholemeal flour.

Instead of sugar it is useful to use fructose. Since fructose is more than 1,5 times sweeter than sucrose, you need a little bit of sugar to meet the need for it. Thus, in order to maintain normal metabolism and optimal performance in mental work, energy, plastic and catalytic substances (fructose, amino acids, vitamins, fats, polyunsaturated fatty acids, lecithin, etc.) must be ingested into the body. In this connection it is necessary to diversify as much as possible the nutrition of people engaged in mental work.

Eating people with mental labor needs 4 — 5 once a day, which results in an even load on the digestive system. It is necessary to avoid eating before bedtime. Dinner should be for 3 h before going to bed. In order to prevent the postponement of fat shift food intake late in the evening is unacceptable. With five meals a day, the distribution of the daily energy value of food can be as follows: for the first breakfast - 20%, for the second breakfast - 15%, for lunch - 35%, for afternoon tea - 10%, for dinner - 20%

Feeding pregnant

Rational nutrition of pregnant women is of great importance for the favorable course and outcome of pregnancy and childbirth, for the normal development of the fetus and newborn. It is an effective measure in preventing the birth of a large fetus. It is very important to eat right in the second half of pregnancy and during breastfeeding, when there is a danger of increasing the body weight of a woman and the development of obesity.

In drawing up the diet is necessary to take into account the gestational age, the data on weight, height, age, as well as employment, energy costs, the season of the year. Taking into account the climatic conditions of the place of residence.

In the first half of pregnancy, the diet of a woman should not differ significantly from the diet before pregnancy. It should be full, diverse. The energy value of the daily ration of pregnant women of medium height (155 — 160 cm) with a body weight of 55 — 60 kg should be 10 048 — 11 301 kJ. This energy value is achieved by including 110 g of proteins, 75 g of fat and 350 g of carbohydrates. Pregnant tall (170- 175 cm) weighing 70-75 kg recommended energy ration tsennostyo 11 304-12 142 kJ comprising 120-125 g protein, 75-85 g fat and 360-400 g carbohydrate. Low-growth women (150 cm) with a body weight of 50 kg are recommended to have a nutritional ration of energy value of 8792 — 9630 kJ, containing 90 — 100 g of proteins, 55 — 65 g of fats, 290 — 320 of carbohydrates.

In the second half of pregnancy, due to the growth of the uterus and fetus, the need of the mother’s body for proteins increases. The diet of pregnant women of average height and average body weight should contain 110 — 120 g of proteins, including 60 g of animal proteins, up to 85 g of fats and up to 400 g of carbohydrates. The energy value of the diet increases to 11 723 — 12 560 kJ. For high pregnant women, the daily protein intake is 120 g, fat - 85 — 100 g, carbohydrates — 410 — 440 g, energy value of the diet — 12 560 — 13 816 kJ. For pregnant women of short stature, a diet is recommended that includes 100 — 110 g of proteins, 70 — 74 g of fats, 330 — 380 g of carbohydrates, 10 — 048 — 10 — 886 kN.

To provide pregnant women with high-grade proteins, it is necessary to use milk, kefir, yogurt, low-fat cottage cheese, soft cheese, eggs, meat, fish in the diet. Meat and fish are recommended boiled. It should be excluded from the diet of meat, fish, mushroom broths, rich in extractive substances. Useful vegetable, cereal or fruit soups.

From animal fats it is better for pregnant women to use easily digestible butter. For the normal course of pregnancy, it is necessary to consume 25 g of vegetable oils (sunflower, corn) daily, containing, in addition to poly-unsaturated fatty acids, α-tocopherol. Unrefined vegetable oils are used in their natural form with vegetable dishes.

The need for pregnant women in carbohydrates is provided by foods rich in dietary fiber, the source of which are wholemeal bread, vegetables, fruits, and berries. To prevent the birth of large children and the development of obesity in mothers, it is very important to limit the content of easily digestible carbohydrates: sugar (up to 40 — 50 g per day), sweets, jam, candy. A good source of carbohydrates are cereals: buckwheat, oatmeal, rice, semolina, millet.

Vitamins are of great importance for the favorable course of pregnancy and the normal development of the fetus. The body's need for vitamins is satisfied using a wide range of products rich in them (vegetables, fruits, liver, fish, eggs, milk, curd, legumes, cereals) Vitamins are recommended for pregnant women in the following amounts (per day): thiamine — 1,7 mg, riboflavin — 2 mg , pyridoxine - 2 mg, cyanocobalamin - 4 mcg, folacin - 600 mcg, niacin - 19 mg, ascorbic acid - 72 mg, retinol - 1250 mcg, a-tocopherol - 15 IU, ergocalciferol - XNXM, ergocalciferol - XNXM, .g.

The diet of pregnant women should include in optimal amounts and ratios of mineral salts (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, iron, etc.). The need for them is met by consuming a variety of foods.

The use of food salt in the first half of pregnancy should be reduced to 10 — 12 g, in the second - to

8 g, in the last 2 months of pregnancy - up to 5 g per day. The amount of fluid in the diet should not exceed 1 —1,2 liters per day.

In the first half of pregnancy four meals a day are recommended: breakfast, second breakfast, lunch, dinner. Two hours before bedtime, it is useful to drink a glass of kefir. In the second half of pregnancy, it is advisable to take food 5 —b once a day. Meat, fish products should be included mainly in daytime meals.

An indicator of the normal course of pregnancy and the proper organization of nutrition for a pregnant woman is the optimal weight gain, which in the second half of pregnancy does not exceed 250 — 300 g per week.

An approximate daily set of food products for pregnant women in the second half of pregnancy is as follows: meat - 120 g, eggs - 1, fish - 100 g, curd - 150 g, kefir - 200 g, milk - 250 g, sour cream - 30 g, butter - 15 g, vegetable oils - 25 g, sugar - 50 g, rye bread - 100 g, wheat bread - 100 g, flour products (buns, cookies, etc.) - 100 g, cereals and pasta - 60 g, potatoes - 200 g, cabbage - 100 g, beet - 100 g, carrots - 100 g, tomatoes and other vegetables - 200 g, onion - 35 g, fruits, berries and fruit juice - 200 g

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