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Food mycotoxicoses, Poison mushrooms and plants.

Food mycotoxicosis - diseases resulting from the consumption of food products containing toxic substances (mycotoxins) of certain types of microscopic molds, fungi.

Toxin-forming fungi and their toxins are widely distributed in various geographic areas. They are found in food and feed on all continents. TorgoThese links contribute to the spread of mold fungi and the contamination by them and mycotoxins of a number of food and feed. In many countries there is an annual significant economic damage from the destruction of food raw materials for farm animals and humans.

Over the past 20 years, many data have been published that characterize the structure, physicochemical properties, conditions of formation and biological action of mycotoxins, methods for their detection; the frequency of their detection and the level of contamination of foodstuffs were established, detoxification methods were proposed. The role of individual mycotoxins in human pathology has been established. New mycotoxins have been discovered.

About 3000 species of various mold fungi were isolated from food products and feeds, of which about 250 species produce more than 100 toxic compounds that cause human and animal mycotoxicosis.

Molds can affect products of both plant and animal origin at any stage of their production, transportation and storage, in production and household conditions. Late harvesting or insufficient drying of it before storage, storage and transportation of products with insufficient protection from moisture leads to the reproduction of micromycetes and the formation of toxic substances in food.

Mycotoxins can enter the body, humans also through the digestive system with meat and milk of animals fed feed contaminated with mold fungi.

Multiplying on food products, many mold microscopic fungi not only pollute them with toxins, but also worsen the organoleptic properties of these products, reduce the nutritional value, lead to damage, make them unsuitable for technological processing. The use in livestock feed affected by fungi leads to the death or disease of livestock and poultry.

Mycotoxins are a danger to human health, as they can cause acute (food toxicosis) and chronic diseases in humans. They are capable of disrupting the functions of individual organs and systems. Some of them affect the development of the fetus in pregnant women, others act on the genetic apparatus. Some mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus (aflatoxins) fungi infect the liver and cause primary liver cancer. Patulin is a dangerous mycotoxin, the producers of which are various types of microscopic fungi of the genus Penicillium. Patulin has a mutagenic (change in genetic information), teratogenic (leading to developmental disorders) and necrotic (death) action. It is found in spoiled fruits, vegetables, berries and products of their processing (juices, jams, mashed potatoes, compotes). Fusariotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi can cause toxicosis in humans and animals.

The most studied aflatoxins. These poisons cause diseases called aflatoxicosis. Products contaminated with aflatoxin producers include peanuts, corn, millet, rice, wheat, barley, pistachios, almonds, nuts, cocoa beans and coffee, some vegetables and fruits, cotton seeds and other oilseeds. Aflatoxins are found in cereal products, in small quantities in milk, meat, eggs. The optimum temperature for the formation of toxins is 27 — 30 ° С, the humidity of the product is 18%, and the humidity of the air is 97 — 99%. Therefore, most often aflatoxins are formed in tropical and subtropical countries, although the possibility of their formation in favorable conditions of the temperate climate zone of several countries in Asia and Africa is not excluded. The relationship between the incidence of primary liver cancer and the content of aflatoxins in food has been established.

Milk, meat, eggs and animal consuming infected food may contain residual amounts of toxins (up to 1 mcg / kg), but even this seemingly insignificant, the number of young children poses a risk.

Pigs and calves are sensitive to aflatoxins. Among poultry turkeys, ducklings, and goslings have a high sensitivity to them. Outbreaks of aflatoxicosis are observed among cattle, horses, sheep, goats. In acute poisoning, dying from 30 to 100% poultry.

When using the processed products of winter crops that contain fusariotoxins wintered under snow, blood disease may occur. Fusariotoxins are resistant to heat, do not collapse during boiling, exposure to temperature 200 ° С and more. Resistant to chemical agents, have the ability to remain in the grain for many years.

The main prevention of mycotoxicosis is to prevent the development of mold fungi and toxin formation on food products. In recent years, intensive national events have been held in this direction. Established strict sanitary control for both domestic and imported products. Methods for neutralizing contaminated food and feed are being studied. Conventional methods of processing grain products, in particular grinding, reduce the content of aflatoxins by 25 — 49%. Baking bread from contaminated flour reduces the amount of aflatoxins by 60 — 80%. Nuts, peanuts, corn, neutralized by sorting them. At the same time nuts, grain with places of visible spoilage (discoloration, presence of mold, wrinkling) are removed. There are also chemical methods of inactivating aflatoxins contained in food and feed.

It is necessary daily to carry out the prevention of mycotoxicosis in the home. These toxicoses rarely occur acutely, more often they acquire a chronic course, manifesting itself aftertelny time after ingestion of toxins in the body. Therefore, it is difficult to establish a direct connection with the use of a diseased mold product.

It must be remembered that the main factors for the growth of fungi are relatively high temperature and humidity. Therefore, it is necessary to constantly carry out the prevention of mold formation of products: to keep them clean and under optimal conditions of temperature and humidity. Do not store for a long time perishable foods, even in the refrigerator. It is not allowed to eat foods with signs of mold.

Of course, not all mushrooms are toxic, not all mold produces toxic substances, but the fact that such a danger exists must be remembered. At home, it is impossible to find out if there are toxins in the rot that has appeared or they are not there. Therefore, in order not to risk, it is not necessary to eat fruits, vegetables and berries with signs of spoilage. This also applies to feeds that are fed to animals. Poor-quality food can lead to diseases and even death of animals.

salmonellosis

Salmonellosis is a disease caused by microorganisms from the genus Salmonella. The causative agents of salmonellosis cause disease, as a rule, only in cases when they enter the human body in very large quantities. At the enterprises of significant nutrition or at home, this happens when gross violations of the rules of cooking and storage of food.

Salmonella has a high degree of environmental sustainability. They tolerate low temperature, drying, smoking. So, at a temperature of minus 10 ° C, they retain their vital activity up to 115 days, and when cooled to 0 ° C - 142 day. At a temperature of 75 ° C *, salmonella die in 5 — 10 minutes, at a temperature of 100 ° C, instantaneously. However, in pieces of meat with a thickness of 8 cm and a mass of 2,5 kg, salmonella is neutralized only by cooking for 3 hours. In water they can be stored up to 1 - 1,5 months, in soil - 137 days, in room dust - 2 — 3 months. In salted meat with a high concentration (up to 19%) of salt, they are preserved until 3 months. In ready-made meat and dairy products, in minced meat, salmonella can not only preserve vital functions, but also reproduce without changing the appearance, smell and taste of products.

Salmonella is widespread in our environment. The main reservoir of salmonella in nature are animals - cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, rodents, cats, and also birds, especially waterfowl (ducks, geese). Salmonella habitats are animal intestines.

The source of contamination with Salmonella food and ready-made food can be people - patients with salmonellosis. or bacteria carriers. Salmonella can get into the food when using polluted water or ice, dishes, where they are brought flies, rodents, cockroaches.

In humans, salmonellosis is more likely to result from eating contaminated pathogens of meat and meat products. Seeding of the muscles and organs of an animal can occur both during its life and during slaughter and carcass cutting. Freestyle animals can excrete salmonella with milk. A certain role in the occurrence of salmonellosis is played by the meat and eggs of waterfowl. The cause of salmonellosis can be the use of infected liver or blood sausage, minced meat products, by-products (liver, kidneys, etc.). A particular danger is jelly. Infection of jelly with salmonella occurs in cases when, when chopping boiled meat, boards or tables are used, on which raw meat was butchered. The same role can be played by meat grinders, which are not washed and not scalded with boiling water after grinding of raw meat. In case of violation of the rules of personal hygiene, Salmonella bacteria carriers through their hands seed the equipment, utensils, food products and ready meals - meat, fish, jelly, yogurt, cottage cheese, ice cream, cream used for the preparation of confectionery.

When using cottage cheese, feta cheese, curd mass, ice cream, unpasteurized milk and samokvasa, salmonellosis can also occur. The development of salmonellosis is associated both with massive seeding of food products and ready-made dishes with salmonella, as well as with the lack of subsequent heat treatment of them, violation of storage conditions and timing of implementation (Appendix 6).

From the ingress of salmonellosis pathogens into the human body until signs of the disease appear, it takes from 6 hours to 3 days (more often - 6-18 hours). The disease usually begins acutely: with an increase in body temperature to 38-40 ° C, chills. There are abdominal pain, headache, nausea, vomiting, then diarrhea joins (up to 10-15 times a day). The duration of the disease is up to 3-5 days.

To prevent salmonellosis, it is important to prevent food contamination with salmonella, as well as to ensure that food is processed at a high or low temperature that limits reproduction of the pathogen. Do not store perishable food in a warm room. In order to prevent contamination of meat with salmonellae, veterinary and sanitary inspection of slaughter animals, slaughter processes and carcass cuttings is carried out; meat is examined. In accordance with the legislation, meat in which Salmonella is found during laboratory testing is subject to neutralization. It is forbidden to house animal slaughter Waterfowl eggs are not allowed to be sold in raw form. Goose eggs for the destruction of salmonella need to cook 14 min (from the moment of boiling water), duck-13 min.

Subject to certain conditions, goose and duck eggs used for baking small-piece products from the test.

An important requirement for the prevention of salmonellosis is compliance with the rules of culinary processing of food products, especially perishables. To prevent contamination with salmonellosis when using jelly, boiled meat after chopping should be re-boiled in broth for 10 minutes, quickly cooked ready food and store at 4 — 8 ° С no more than 12 hours.

Dishes stored without cold are recommended to be reheated before consumption. At all stages of the production, storage and sale of products, it is necessary to use cold, which, although it does not kill Salmonella, sharply reduces the intensity of their reproduction.

In preventing contamination of food products and ready-made salmonella dishes, compliance with the rules of personal hygiene by food-producing persons, as well as the protection of food from contact with insects and rodents, are essential.

mushroom poisoning

Edible mushrooms have long been a valuable food. They include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, macro-and micronutrients. There are more proteins in mushrooms than in potatoes and cabbage, and in dried mushrooms, for example in aspen mushrooms, their number reaches 35,4% (in white dried ones - up to 20,1%). Fats in mushrooms are represented by such important substances as lecithin, cholesterol, ergosterol, carbohydrates — animal starch glycogen. Mushrooms contain from 0,7 to 2,5% dietary fiber. Of the vitamins, mushrooms contain mainly B vitamins, with niacin being the most abundant in them. Especially high content of niacin in the honey agarics and aspen. The mineral composition of fungi is characterized by a significant amount of phosphorus, iron, and zinc.

The high 'taste properties of mushrooms are associated with the presence of nitrogenous extractive substances in them. Mushrooms, especially mushroom decoctions, significantly increase appetite, increase gastric secretion.

High content of fungi water (from 83 to 92%) causes their rapid deterioration.

Mushrooms are stockpiled: salted, pickled, dried, canned.

Young mushrooms contain significantly more nutrients than old ones; in the cap they are much more than in the leg. However, due to the fact that there is a lot of chitin-soaked fiber in mushrooms, they are products that are difficult to digest, therefore it is not recommended to use mushrooms for diseases of the digestive and cardiovascular systems, liver, and kidneys.

Picking mushrooms requires awareness and a lot of attention. Ignorance of the distinctive signs of edible and poisonous mushrooms, negligence in the collection, ignoring the rules of culinary processing of some species of mushrooms lead to severe poisoning, often fatal.

Mushrooms are divided into edible, conditionally edible and poisonous. Edible mushrooms can be eaten without special pre-treatment. These include most tubular fungi (white, boletus, orange-cap boletus, oilers) and some lamellar {champignon, honey agaric, chanterelle, etc.).

Conditionally edible mushrooms before cooking should be boiled, and pour the broth (morels, russula) or soak them in cold water, often changing it (mildews, sweeteners, crumbs, etc.). If improperly prepared, conditionally edible mushrooms can cause poisoning.

Mlechniki mushrooms belonging to the group of conditionally edible (bulk, volnushka, Chernushka, podgruzd, smooth), contain tar-like substances, burning or bitter in taste, irritating the mucous membrane of the digestive system. In order not to be poisoned by freshly picked mushrooms of this group, they must be boiled for at least 15 minutes (drain the broth) or soaked in cold water for 2 — 3 days, changing the water daily. Only after such treatment can they be salted, used to prepare mushroom dishes.

Russulae are hot-caustic, ocher, and valui contain bitter substances that can cause short-term illness. To prevent this from happening, these mushrooms are also pre-boiled or soaked for a long time, then salted, fried or stewed.

Inedible include mushrooms characterized by adverse organoleptic (taste, smell, etc.) properties (gall fungus, etc.), and poisonous mushrooms.

The most severe poisoning observed with the use of pale toadstool, toadstools, morels.

Pale grebe - the most poisonous fungus of all found in the USSR. In 90,% of cases of poisoning caused by a toadstool result in the death of the injured. Under the name "pale toadstool" usually mean three types of mushrooms: green, yellow and white toadstools. These mushrooms grow from July to late autumn. The toadstool poisons — amanitotoxins and phallotoxins — are resistant to heat, do not convert to decoction, and are not destroyed by drying and under the action of digestive enzymes. All parts of this mushroom are extremely poisonous and no type of culinary treatment frees them from toxic substances. Eating even a small part of the fungus can cause illness. Raw mushrooms are especially poisonous, which, in addition to amanitotoxin, contain amanitohemolysin (the activity of the poison logo during the heat treatment of fungi rapidly decreases).

The literature describes a case of the fatal poisoning of a twelve-year-old boy with the third raw cap of the toadstool.

Pale toadstool refers to the lamellar fungi and in appearance can be mistaken for champignon or russula. In order not to be mistaken, it is necessary to remember the characteristic distinguishing features of a pale toadstool: at the base of a thin cylindrical stem there is a tuberous thickening (mace) and collar (the mushroom grows out of the cover, as it were), and in the center of the stem is a ring of film. There are no such signs for syrupsies and champignons. The plates in pale toadstools are white (both in young and old specimens), the spores are colorless. The champignon discs are pale pink at first, brownish-red with a growth of the fungus, and then black-brown, spores are brown.

The fact that the pale grebe is poisonous is well known to everyone: However, few people know that its disputes are also dangerous. Since the wind can bring them to the plants growing nearby, care must be taken when collecting mushrooms, berries, and herbs next to a pale toadstool. Of course, one cannot agree with those; who calls to destroy the occurring pale toadstools. Like everyone else on earth, they play a certain environmental role.

Given the danger of death cap poisoning, it is forbidden to sell dried and processed lamellar mushrooms in the markets; the sale of such mushrooms is allowed only fresh, with legs, in order to be able to identify the pale toadstool by its characteristic external features.

No less dangerous poisoning by toadstools. Outwardly, the fly agaric are very different from edible mushrooms. Their poisonous effect is due to the content of muscarin and mycoatropin in these mushrooms, which are not destroyed by boiling, salting and other types of processing. It should be remembered that the mushroom, besides the white spots on the cap, like the pale toadstool, has a thickening at the base of the stem, and in its upper part there is a ring.

Very dangerous lines that appear in the spring or early summer. In appearance, these mushrooms look like morels, with which they are often confused. In morels, the caps have a more or less regular conical or rounded shape with a mesh-cellular surface. Unlike morels, at the lines of the caps are shapeless, with a wavy or sinuous surface, the edges of the cap only partially fuse with a cylindrical, sometimes very short leg. Those and other hat brown. Morels contain poisonous gelwell acid, which dissolves very well in water, especially when boiling, therefore, when cooking dishes from morels, they must first be boiled with 10 — 15 minutes and thoroughly rinsed with clean hot water. After that, the mushrooms become suitable for frying, marinating, stewing. Morels cause poisoning only when they are used together with the broth. The lines, in addition to gelwell acid, contain a toxic heat-resistant compound hiromitrin, which does not dissolve in hot water and is destroyed only with prolonged drying.

In practice, it is very difficult to distinguish lines from morels. Therefore, when there is no absolute certainty that the mushrooms are morels and not lines, it is best to dry them, and at least 3 weeks. Dried mushrooms before eating should be well boiled, and pour the broth.

To poisonous mushrooms include pig thin, until recently considered edible. It was known that swine contains hemolysin and hemaglutinin - poisons that interact with hemoglobin. But since these poisons are unstable to high temperatures, nutritionists limited themselves to a recommendation: boil mushrooms for 25 mines before eating, and drain the broth, but it is now proven that the pig is able to accumulate (accumulate) another poison, muscarin. The amount of this toxin depends on climatic and geographical conditions for the growth of fungi. In addition, a specific antigen was detected in this fungus, the accumulation of which in the body leads to a serious blood disease. At the same time, it was established that the pig has the ability to accumulate in considerable quantity toxic compounds of heavy metals - lead, mercury, cadmium, contained in the exhaust gases of automobiles, waste of many industries that pollute the environment (soil, water, air). Currently, this mushroom is classified as poisonous. This provision also applies to the thick pig.

Often edible mushrooms have poisonous counterpart. So, the white fungus has two poisonous satellites - a gall mushroom and a satanic mushroom, the use of which can cause poisoning. Externally, these mushrooms are very similar, but the pulp of the gall fungus on the break quickly turns pink, and the satanic one, first turns pink, and then turns blue. Chanterelle's poisonous twin is the chanterelle false; poisonous doubles of honey agaric - honey agaric. The lower surface of the cap of the false chanterelle is brighter than the upper surface and the stem. Edible chanterelle all painted in a uniform egg-yellow color.

Occasionally, usually by negligence, instead of the real autumn agaric honey, they break false. It is possible to distinguish real honey mushrooms from false ones by the color of the top and bottom surface of the cap. The edible mushrooms have a hat of ocher color or brown-yellow, the plates on its lower surface are white or light clay, there is a ring in the upper part of the stem. The false grass has a yellow-gray cap, the plates are yellow-greenish. False brick-red hair has a hat of yellow-red color, the plates are smoky or black-olive, there is no ring on the leg.

It must be remembered that sometimes even edible mushrooms can cause poisoning. This happens when they use old or long-stored mushrooms after collection. Mushrooms are perishable products, so they need to be processed, usually on the day of collection. This is due to the fact that after maturation the mushrooms quickly become a good breeding ground for the development of microorganisms, including pathogens. Long-term storage of mushrooms at room temperature promotes the growth of microbes. Harvested mushrooms for future use and should not be stored more than 1 years.

It has been established that in some types of edible mushrooms belonging to the most valuable (white, chanterelle, jugs, russula, gruzda, etc.), also contain toxic substances, but they are destroyed when cooking the cut flesh.

Poisonous substances are also found in such mushrooms as ryadovki, underbone, govorushki, but they do not cause poisoning, as they do not dissolve in the secretory fluid of the human digestive system. However, if dishes prepared from these mushrooms are consumed along with alcohol, which dissolves toxins, symptoms of poisoning occur immediately and the consequences may be the saddest.

To prevent poisoning by mushrooms, you should follow the basic rules for their collection and processing.

First of all, it is very important to learn to distinguish between edible, conditionally edible and poisonous mushrooms, and at home they should be additionally carefully sorted. You can collect only those mushrooms that do not raise doubts about their edibility. Some people mistakenly believe that the onion or garlic head added to the pot while boiling mushrooms turns brown if there are poisonous mushrooms and silver items (spoons, coins) turn black. This is a very dangerous delusion. It is also erroneous to say that insect larvae, snails, do not eat poisonous fungi, and therefore the fungus affected by worms or snails is supposedly safe.

It is not recommended to pickle and pickle mushrooms in galvanized dishes. Before marinating mushrooms must be thoroughly boiled, pre-cut into pieces. Banks with salted, pickled mushrooms enough to cover with two layers of paper, one of which - parchment, and tightly tie. Keep them in the cold. Each type of mushrooms must be preserved separately.

It is best to store mushrooms in dried form, and before cooking, crush them into powder.

In recent years, canning of mushrooms at home in hermetically sealed cans has become popular. Harvesting mushrooms in hermetically sealed jars is unacceptable, since in the absence of oxygen, favorable conditions are created for the development of the causative agent of botulism, an extremely dangerous disease. The use of such mushrooms can have serious consequences. The fact is that mushrooms are difficult to wash off the smallest particles of earth and sand, with which spores of botulism pathogens can remain in the mushroom canned food, which have lasted for decades and can withstand five-hour boiling. Heat treatment in the conditions of home canning does not destroy the spore forms of the microbe. In hermetically sealed containers, without air access, conditions are created for germination of botulism pathogen spores, bacterial multiplication and botulinum toxin accumulation. The production of canned products on an industrial basis completely eliminates this danger, since sterilization occurs at a temperature of 120 ° C for 30 minutes in special autoclaves. It is impossible to achieve this temperature using home canning methods.

Thus, at home it is most safe to pickle or pickle mushrooms. Salt mushrooms should be in a solution containing at least 15% salt (1 tablespoon per 100 ml of water) with the mandatory addition of acetic acid. Store mushrooms harvested in the refrigerator, or in a cellar in leaking sealed jars.

To prevent poisoning by mushrooms of children, they should not be left alone in the forest or park during the mushroom season. Children should not pick mushrooms without adult supervision. Mushrooms collected by children require careful sorting by experienced people.

The collection of industrial harvesting mushrooms is done in an organized manner, under the supervision of specialists. In terms of production, sorting and processing of mushrooms, as well as the manufacture of canned goods, are carried out more qualitatively. Therefore, cases of mushroom poisoning industrial procurement is not registered.

If after eating a mushroom dish, signs of poisoning began to develop (vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, sweating, shortness of breath, etc.), immediate medical attention is needed. In case of any poisoning with mushrooms, even if, at first glance, it is not heavy, you should take the victim to a medical institution or call an ambulance to him. Before the arrival of the doctor the patient must be put to bed. In order to prevent the absorption of poison, the patient needs to wash the stomach, for which he should be given sips of cold strong tea or coffee; the stomach and legs should be warmed with warmers. Absolutely contraindicated in this alcohol, which accelerates the absorption of poison. To determine the cause of poisoning, you should save the remnants of the mushroom dish, raw mushrooms and their cleaning, as well as vomit. All this should be referred to a medical professional for analysis.

Poisoning poisonous plants

Poisoning with poisonous plants is possible mainly in preschool children, who take in their mouths or eat appetizing-looking berries, rhizomes, stems, seeds, or leaves of such plants.

One of the most dangerous plants is the poisonous milestone (cycuta), a perennial herb of the umbrella family. The plant has a stem up to 1,5 m tall, double-peristorically dissected leaves, white small flowers, gathered in a complex umbrella, resembling in smell and appearance parsley or celery. Poisonous landmarks are growing in swampy and damp places along rivers, ditches. Especially poisonous rhizome plants, which are mistaken for beets, turnips, carrots. It has a sweetish taste and smell of dried apples. In case of poisoning, a serious condition develops quickly: pain in the stomach, drooling, dizziness, urge to vomit, difficulty breathing, convulsions. Death may occur in the coming 1 — 2 hours after the first signs of poisoning appear, with the use of even a small amount of rhizome.

The hemlock spotted also belongs to the umbrella family - a plant up to 1 m tall with very characteristic dark red spots on the lower part of the stem. Its leaves somewhat resemble parsley leaves, which can be mistakenly used as food. When rubbing the leaves of hemlock spotty there is a sharp unpleasant smell. The pale yellow hemlock root is shaped like parsley root. Hemlock poisoning of children who cut the horns out of its stem and took them into their mouths is noted. Poisoning is accompanied by convulsions, paralysis, rapidly developing weakness. In severe cases of poisoning, death from respiratory paralysis can occur.

Black henbane, growing along roads, in wastelands, neglected gardens, causes very heavy poisonings. The whole plant is covered with small sticky villi, the flowers are dirty-yellowish-whitish in color with an unpleasant smell, the root is soft, juicy, sweet-sour to the taste. All parts of the plant are poisonous. The leaves of the henbane are often mistaken for the leaves of quinoa, sorrel, and the roots for the parsley and turnip tubers. Children in the plant are attracted by seed boxes resembling poppy seeds. After 10 — 15 minutes, and sometimes a few hours after consuming a small amount of seeds, characteristic symptoms of poisoning appear: the pupils dilate and do not react to light, it dries out in the mouth, excitement builds up, hallucinations begin. The patient is worried by the frightening visions from which he is trying to escape. It is this state of strong excitement and darkened consciousness that is characterized by the expression “henbane overeat” prevailing in the people. The poisoned ones then have a persistent desire to sleep.

A similar condition is caused by the seeds of a dope growing on waste grounds in vegetable gardens. The plant reaches a height of 1,5 m, has a straight stem, large oval leaves, larger than those of henbane, flowers, white, with a pink-purple shade, shaped like a bell. Datura fruits - egg-shaped boxes with a large number of spines at the top - contain extremely poisonous grains up to 500.

Belladonna (belladonna) is a poisonous plant, a weed plant that grows on neglected plots of land, along the edges of fields, along roads, near hedges. Belladonna has a tall, grassy stem and fluffy wide leaves; fruits - black yagodyy, reminiscent of small cherries, sweetish taste. Symptoms of belladonna poisoning - intense agitation, delirium, confused consciousness - appear in just a few minutes after eating the berries. Sharp dilated pupils and visual disturbances are very common in poisoning with belladonna berries. For poisoning, it is enough to eat 3 — 4 berries.

The poisonous fruit that children take for edible berry is a wolf's bast. Even 10 — 12 berries can cause severe poisoning in a child: inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth, stomach, intestines, urinary tract, then the appearance of bloody diarrhea, blood in the urine, cramps. Death occurs as a result of a weakening of the heart. The wolf bark shrub is quite widespread in the forests of Ukraine. Its bark is dotted with small brown spots, the leaves are ovoid, the flowers are dark pink. From contact with its moist bark on the skin burns are formed.

The juicy berries of a poisonous ornamental shrub honeysuckle - dark red, fused at the base - attract the attention of children.

Round orange-red fruits of the lily of the valley, oval greyish-colored, resembling beans or beans, castor seeds, succulent leaves, and black elderberries can cause poisoning. Purple-black buckthorn berries are also poisonous — a very common shrub in Ukraine; berries of bittersweet nightshade; stones of viburnum. Mortal danger to life is the ingestion of leaves and seeds of a South Siberian tree or shrub of a yew. Juice of caustic caustic, euphorbia, parrot essential oil irritates the skin.

In order to prevent poisoning by poisonous plants, the roots and leaves of unfamiliar plants should not be used in food, and their fruits should be tasted. It is necessary to teach children to distinguish edible plants from poisonous ones, to tell them about the danger that threatens when eating fruits, petals, seeds of poisonous plants.

Of great importance in the prevention of poisoning of children with poisonous plants is the systematic destruction of such plants near schools, preschool institutions, in pioneer camps, squares, parks, courtyards and other places where they play.

It should be remembered that the poisoning of wild plants is much easier to prevent than to cure.

When you see signs of poisoning should immediately seek medical attention.

Poisoning seed kernels of fruits

Poisoning was observed after eating large amounts of bitter almond kernels, kernels of seeds of fruits such as peach, apricot, plum, sweet cherry. The seeds of these bonesthe out fetuses contain amygdalin glucoside, which in the digestive system disintegrates to form hydrocyanic acid.

In mild cases of poisoning manifests headache and nausea. In severe poisoning defeat of the respiratory center leads to respiratory paralysis and death, which may occur within a few minutes or hours.

100 g of bitter almond contains 0,25 g of hydrocyanic acid, that is, about 5 fatal doses for an adult. The 5 — 10 cores contain a lethal dose for a small child.

The use of even a small amount of purified bitter apricot kernels (approximately 60 — 80 g) can cause fatal poisoning. Therefore, the use of bitter almonds in the confectionery industry is limited. Infusion of stone fruit in the production of alcoholic beverages is also limited.

Solanine poisoning. Solanine is a part of healthy potatoes in small quantities. However, with prolonged exposure to light on the tubers due to poor hilling and improper storage in the green, sprouted potatoes, the content of solanine increases dramatically, especially in sprouts and peel. Solanine is thermostable, so poisoning can occur when eating dishes from such potatoes. Potatoes containing solanine, bitter taste, when used, there is a scratching in the throat.

Poisoning is manifested by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, headache. In severe cases, there may be a violation of consciousness, convulsions. Poisoning with solanine potatoes are rare, since most of it is removed from the skin.

In order to prevent poisoning, it is necessary to store potatoes in dark rooms, necessarily removing the sprouts. Before cooking, the potatoes should be thoroughly cleaned of sprouts and peel along with a green layer. Broth of potatoes must be poured, because solanine, which is well soluble in water, passes into it.

Potatoes, causing scratching and burning feeling in the throat, can not be used.

Poisoning Fasini. White beans contain the toxic substance Phasin, which is usually destroyed during cooking. Phasin poisoning was observed in children after they ate raw beans, as well as in adults after eating foods made from bean flour, subjected to a brief heat treatment.

Production and sale of flour fasolievoy prohibited.


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