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Milk and dairy products in the diet and clinical nutrition.

Milk is unique in its nutritional and biological value, digestibility and value for the organism.

I. I. Pavlov called milk an amazing food prepared by nature itself. Indeed, milk and dairy products contain all the necessary nutrients for the body. These products are useful for children and adults, the sick and healthy.

In human nutrition, cow's milk is used, and in many areas of our country - goat, sheep, mare, camel, buffalo and deer.

Milk revealed over 200 different nutrients. Besides proteins, fats and carbohydrates it contains minerals, vitamins, organic acids and other components.

The average protein content in milk is 3,2%. They have all the essential amino acids in the optimum ratio.nii including. deficient (lysine, tryptophan, methionine), without which the body can not synthesize building material for tissue formation. In terms of digestibility, milk proteins occupy the first place, ahead of proteins of meat, fish, and cereals. Their digestibility equals 95 — 97%. That is why milk and dairy products are called the easiest food, absolutely indispensable in children's and dietary nutrition.

The fat content in milk is on average 3,5%. It is easily digested and well absorbed by the body due to its low melting point and small size of fat particles, which are easily accessible to the action of digestive juices. There is about 20 fatty acids in milk, including irreplaceable linoleic, and arachidonic in the form of traces. Milk fat contains phosphatides and sterols. Milk phosphatides contribute to the proper metabolism of fats, prevent their excessive deposition in the liver; have anti-sclerotic effect because they are involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism.

Thus, these substances give milk lipotropic and anti-sclerotic properties.

Carbohydrates in milk are contained in the amount of 4,8% (on average) and are represented mainly by milk sugar - lactose. Lactose under the influence of lactic acid microorganisms is fermented to form lactic acid. This property is widely used for the production of fermented milk products (kefir, yogurt, sour cream, etc.).

Milk contains macro and micronutrients. Their total number is 0,6 — 0,7%. More than half of the total mineral content of milk falls on calcium and phosphorus. Their assimilation is favored by a successful combination with milk proteins.

Milk contains almost all water- and fat-soluble vitamins.

Our dairy industry produces milk of various fat contents: 2,5%; 3,2% (for children's and medical institutions). The composition of the other components is almost the same. Therefore, the biological value is the same. The energy value of milk is lower, the lower the percentage of fat.

The assortment of dairy products includes dozens of types. These are cream, cottage cheese, sour cream, butter, cheese, kefir, yogurt, etc. Like milk, dairy products are produced in different degrees of fat content. Low-fat foods are rich in proteins of high biological value, milk sugar or lactic acid, minerals and vitamins. These products are widely used in the diet of people of all age groups, especially children and adolescents. Low-fat dairy products are recommended for overweight and middle-aged and elderly people to prevent obesity. ... ...

Fermented milk products are widely used in our country. They have a tonic effect on the body, have a beneficial effect on the nervous system, promote a better metabolism, improve the activity of the digestive system, and suppress the vital activity of the putrefactive microflora of the intestines. Digestibility of fermented milk products, especially kefir, is higher than milk. Sour-milk products include various types of yogurt (ordinary, acidophilic, ryazhenka, varenets, and also acidophilic products - acidophilic milk, acidophilus, acidophilic paste). Acidophilic products are obtained by ripening milk with an acidophilus stick. This type of lactic acid microorganisms is able to take root in the human intestines and has a long beneficial effect on the body. Yoghurt, yoghurt, yoghurt and others have valuable properties. Sour milk product “Youth” is similar to yogurt in composition. It is produced non-greasy, organoleptic properties resembles ryazhenka. Skimmed milk is used to prepare the Miners drink (after fermentation, the drink is carbonated with carbon dioxide). From fermented milk secondary products are used in the diet buttermilk and whey. With a low fat content (0,4 — 1,0%) in these drinks, many components are contained in the same amount as in natural milk. From pasteurized whey get refreshing drinks: milk kvass, whey drink with tomato juice, etc.

In recent years, milk-protein products containing an increased amount of milk proteins are produced: milk protein, Tallinn kefir. These products also include cottage cheese and cheeses. Due to the high content of full-fledged proteins (14 — 18 g / 100) and calcium (up to 160 mg / 100), curd is called a natural protein-calcium concentrate. Amino acids of cottage cheese proteins are optimally balanced. The most valuable amino acid in it is methionine, which has a lipotropic and anti-sclerotic effect. Produce fat, bold and low fat cottage cheese. The lower the fat content of the curd, the more protein it contains. The energy value of low-fat cottage cheese in 2,5 times lower than that of fat. Therefore, low-fat cottage cheese is useful for those who do not recommend fatty foods.

Cheese is a healthy and nutritious product. In terms of protein content and their biological value, they are not inferior to either meat, or fish, or eggs, and surpass them in energy value. In cheeses, as in no other product, there is a lot of calcium, and in the most easily digestible form, as it is combined with proteins and phosphorus. There are many types of cheeses, differing in the content of fats and other components (Dutch, Kostroma, Russian, etc.). Sour-milk cheeses include peasant, homemade, dietary. Dietary cheese is obtained from pasteurized buttermilk.

Condensed milk with sugar, skimmed milk powder and other canned milk used in the confectionery, breadbakery and other food industries. Milk formulas “Baby”, “Baby”, “Vitalact” and others are widely used in the nutrition of children of the first year of life.

To meet the physiological need of an adult for nutrients, the Institute of Nutrition of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR recommends using, along with other foods, 0,5 l of milk, 10 of sour cream, 20 of curd, 18 of cheese, 15 of butter per day. Milk and dairy products should be stored at a temperature of 4 — 8 ° С no more than 36 h (sour cream - up to 72 h)

Fish, fish, non-fish seafood

Fish is a highly nutritious food product, almost in no way inferior to meat from domestic animals. The chemical composition of the edible part of fish is more diverse than that of meat from warm-blooded animals. Fish meat contains up to 20% proteins, 2-30% fats, 1,2% minerals (including potassium, phosphorus and iron). There is a lot of iodine and fluoride in sea and ocean fish. Of the vitamins, it contains a lot of retinol (0,01-0,06 mg / 100 g) and calciferols (2-30

ug / 100 | g) that virtually no animal meat. Especially a lot of these vitamins in hepatic fat cod.

Proteins of muscle tissue of fish differ little from animal meat proteins. The peculiarities of the amino acid composition of fish proteins should include a high content of methionine, which explains the pronounced lipotropic properties of fish. Fish proteins belong to the type of collagen, which is quickly gelatinized and easily digested by proteolytic enzymes of the digestive apparatus.

Compared to meat products, fish has a low energy value. This is explained by the relatively low fat content of most fish varieties. Depending on the amount of fat, the fish is divided into several varieties: lean, moderately oily, oily and very oily. Lean fish contains up to 3% fat. It includes bull, flounder, crucian carp, pollock, burbot, navaga, river perch, pollock, pike perch, cod, hake, pike. Moderately fatty fish - pink, carp, chum, sprat, catfish, horse mackerel, tuna, ide - in its composition has 3 — 8% fat. Fat fish include the sea fish, salmon, notoenia, sturgeon, black halibut, saury, sardines, stellate sturgeon, fat herring and ivasi, mackerel. These varieties of fish contain 8 — 20% fat. In very fatty fish, which includes white salmon, lamprey and eel, the amount of fat reaches 30%. Fish fats have more polyunsaturated fatty acids than fats from slaughter cattle, so they quickly oxidize and become rancid.

The man began to develop only recently fauna of the seas and oceans. However, more than 800 invertebrate species that live in them, already have commercial value, crustaceans (crabs, crayfish, langusts, lobsters, shrimps), clams (oysters, mussels, squids, octopus, scallops), echinoderms (trepangs, sea urchins, holothurians) are used as food.

The nutritional value of invertebrates is currently undeniable. They contain almost all the essential amino acids, various mineral elements, vitamins. So, in the meat of iodine shrimp almost 100 times more than in beef. Squid meat contains 10 — 20% protein, 0,6 — 1,5% fat. Sea ginseng is called trepang in Eastern countries, in which iodine is more in 10 000 than in beef, iron is in 1000 more than in fish. Marine invertebrates are indispensable products in human nutrition that contribute to the prevention of endemic goiter.

. The flora of the seas and oceans is very diverse, including algae, from microscopic to giants (above 60 m). It is known about 70 edible types of algae, of which only one is used in our diet so far - sea kale, the nutritional value of which is determined by the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, mineral elements and vitamins. In some countries, sea kale is used daily for food: it is made from salad, condiments, stuffing, pastries (sweets, marshmallow, cakes).

The use of non-fish seafood in the diet is quite promising. So, from the meat of the Arctic crustacean krill - the main food of whales - the protein paste "Ocean" is made. It is rich in complete proteins (18,8%), contains a sufficient amount of all essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, macro- and microelements (iodine, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron).

Fish and seafood are widely used in medical nutrition. They are better absorbed by the body, since their muscle tissue is softer than that of animals. Due to the high content of extractive substances in fish, broths from it can cause increased juice formation and increased appetite. Therefore, in the diet more often it is recommended to use dishes from boiled fish or from pre-cooked, and then baked. For the nutrition of persons suffering from diseases of the circulatory system, low-fat fish are recommended.

Fish and fish products are perishable products. They are a good breeding ground for microorganisms, so fresh fish should be cooked as soon as possible and used in the diet. It is not recommended to salt and smoke fish at home, as it can get a poor-quality product.

Eggs and egg products

Eggs are one of the most valuable food products. They contain such essential amino acids as lysine (0,9%), methionine (0,5%), tryptophan (0,2%). There are about 13% proteins in eggs.

Eggs are almost completely absorbed in the human body (about 97%). Best digested welded soft-boiled. The protein of raw eggs is absorbed worse, since it contains the substance antitriptase, which reduces the activity of the enzyme digesting proteins — trypsin. This property of raw egg white is used in clinical nutrition to reduce the excretory function of the glands of the digestive system in gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. When cooking (hard-boiled) and frying eggs, their absorption decreases.

The egg yolks contain lipids (about 11,5%), polyunsaturated fatty acids (1,1%), cholesterol (1,5 — 2%), phospholipids (about 10%), mainly represented by lecithin. The favorable combination of lecithin with cholesterol (6: 1) allows the use of eggs in the diets of patients with atherosclerosis and other diseases with cholesterol metabolic disturbances.

The egg contains a lot of retinol (1500 — 2500 μg / 100 g) and ergocalciferol (180 — 250 ME). Riboflavin therein 0,3-0,5 mg / 100 g, pyridoxine - 1-2 / 100 g, a-tocopherol - 1,3 mg / 100 g, phosphorus - 185 mg / 100 g, iron - 2-7 mg / 100 g Calcium - 55 mg / / 100 g. There are trace elements iodine, copper, cobalt in eggs, there is little sodium chloride and purine substances in them. The digestibility of vitamins and minerals contained in eggs is high compared with other foods. Heat treatment has virtually no effect on their number.

The presence of sulfur-containing amino acids and lecithin in eggs has a beneficial effect on the nervous system, and therefore it is recommended to include them in food of people who have professional contact with substances that have a negative effect on the nervous system (mercury, arsenic, etc.), as well as diseases of the nervous system.

Raw egg white is taken as a therapeutic (coating) agent for poisoning. Raw yolk causes choleretic action.

Egg products include egg melange (a frozen mixture of proteins and yolks) and egg powder, which are also used in the diet of healthy and sick people. It is necessary to take into account that 13,3 g of egg powder corresponds in composition to one chicken egg of 48 g weight (without shell).

The quality of the eggs is checked by inspecting them with a light bulb. In this case, benign eggs are well translucent, spoiled have dark spots. When immersed in water, a fresh egg sinks to the bottom of the dish, and the spoiled one pops up, as gases form in it as a result of decay.

Dietary eggs include chicken and turkey eggs that are stored for no more than 5 days. Storage of eggs at room temperature should not exceed 12 days, in the refrigerator - 30 days.

Waterfowl eggs should be consumed only after heat treatment, as they are often infected with pathogens.

cereal products

The main cereal products include cereals, bread, flour. With grain products, a person receives on average more than 50% of the daily norm of proteins, about 15% of fats and 40 — 45% of carbohydrates.

Food and biological properties of cereals depend on the type of grain from which they are produced, and how it is processed. The content of vitamins, minerals, fiber in cereals decreases while simultaneously increasing the amount of carbohydrates and proteins, depending on the degree of removal of grain shells and the subsequent polishing. Cereals have a high energy value, which is on average 1340 — 1465 kJ per 100 g of product. The partial destruction of cellular structures of croup resulting from heat treatment contributes to an increase in the digestibility of the main nutrients that make up their composition. Products from the processing of wheat, oats, barley, rice, corn, millet, and buckwheat are the most widely spread throughout the world.

Semolina is a product of wheat processing, which leaves only the central part of the grain (endosperm). Semolina is quickly boiled soft. It contains up to 70% starch and a small amount of vitamins, minerals and fiber. The low fiber content (0,2%) makes it possible to use widely dishes from semolina in dietary nutrition in case of diseases of the porous apparatus, circulatory organs, after surgery.

Several types of croup are obtained from barley, for example, I am not vuu (with minimal sheath removal) and barley (crushed barley grains without shells). These cereals are most often used for the preparation of cereals and side dishes for healthy people, when the sparing of the digestive system organs is not required.

Buckwheat and oatmeal cereals are very valuable, they are characterized by high (up to 13%) protein content, fats (from 3 to 6%), fiber (from 1,1 to 2,8%). Buckwheat and oatmeal are rich in B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid ) and minerals (especially iron). Favorable for the human body combination of amino acid composition of proteins buckwheat and milk? Dishes made from buckwheat and oat croup are indicated for liver diseases, atherosclerosis, diabetes, which is due toThey are high in lipotropic substances - choline, linoleic acid, and lecithin.

Rice, like wheat, is one of the main food crops of our planet, grown everywhere, where there is enough heat and moisture. It is the main, and often the only, source of proteins for people in China, India, Vietnam, Japan, all of South America and other countries. The rice protein is balanced in amino acid composition. However, polished and polished rice (without shells and germ) is deprived of almost all the vitamins and mineral elements. When cooking rice, mucous broth is formed, which is used in gentle diets. Dishes from rice and mucous broth are indispensable in the diet therapy of various disorders of the digestive system.

The nutritional value of corn grits is relatively low due to the poor digestibility of proteins, poor in essential amino acids. In corn grits, there are few vitamins and mineral elements. Dishes prepared from it, inhibit the processes of fermentation and rotting in the intestines, so they are recommended for inflammation of the mucous membranes of the small and large intestines. Corn grits contain a lot of carbohydrates (up to 70%).

A few words about the rules of culinary treatment of cereals. Before cooking porridge, cereals are first sieved, and rice, pearl barley and buckwheat groats, millet are sifted, separated impurities, and then washed. When washing, a small amount of carbohydrates and proteins, vitamins and minerals are lost.

Depending on the ratio of cereals and liquid added during cooking, you can get crumbly, viscous or liquid porridge. It is advisable to use the resulting decoction for cooking soups and sauces, since a significant amount of proteins (up to 4%), fats (up to 2%), carbohydrates (up to 25%), vitamins of group B (up to 43%), mineral elements ( up to 30%).

Bread and bakery products

“Chunk of well-baked bread,” said K. A. Timiryazev, “is one of the greatest inventions of the human mind.” No breakfast, no lunch, no dinner can do without it.

An adult should consume 250 — 300 g of bread daily. With increased physical exertion, the body's need for bread increases to 400 — 450 g per day. Approximately 25% of the daily bread should be bread from rye flour. The biological value of bread is determined by the collection of vital nutrients in it, primarily proteins, vitamins, and mineral salts.

Amino acid composition of proteins of rye bread is more valuable than wheat, because it contains more essential amino acids - lysine, threonine, valine and methionine. In cases use of bread mainly from higher grades of flour appears a deficiency of essential amino acids. For better assimilation of amino acids, bread is recommended to be used in combination with other products, such as milk and dairy products, meat and fish.

Bread, especially from coarse flour, is one of the main sources of B vitamins. Mineral elements in bread are represented by phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and sulfur. It also contains calcium, sodium, chlorine, silicon, and small amounts of other elements.

As protein dressers, products of animal and vegetable origin (milk powder, egg powder, whey, food casein, animal blood protein preparations, soy bean processing products, oil and bean protein products) are used. Currently, more than 100 varieties of bakery products are produced, the recipe of which includes milk and its processed products.

Increasing the vitamin value of bread is achieved by introducing into it natural dairy products, yeast, soy flour, as well as adding synthetic vitamins to the flour.

The assortment of bakery products a large number of products for diet and baby food. So, in diabetes, obesity, it is recommended to use bread with a reduced content of carbohydrates (protein-wheat, protein-bran).

When kidney disease and some diseases of the circulatory system is recommended to use salt-free bread. For people suffering from gastritis and peptic ulcer disease with increased gastric secretion, the use of low-acidity buns and crackers is indicated. Persons prone to constipation, it is recommended to make bread from wholemeal flour with the addition of bran or crushed grain, contributing to increased intestinal motility (due to the presence of dietary fiber in them).

Improved breads made from rye flour contain yeast, malt, sugar, molasses, spices. Some varieties of bread made from finely ground wheat flour in a small amount include fat and sugar. Depending on the composition, the energy value of 100 g of bread ranges from 795 to 1005 kJ.

Not very fresh bread (yesterday's pastries) is easier to digest and better absorbed. If you wish to return the stale bread to freshness for a few minutes, heat it in a tightly closed saucepan.


Beans include peas, beans, lentils, soybeans, chickpeas. Most higher plants are not capable of assimilating gaseous nitrogen from the air, and only legumes are able to do this, but not independently, but with the help of nodule bacteria. Bean racesThe bacteria supply the microorganisms with sugars and mineral salts, and the bacteria create nitrogenous substances for them in sufficient quantities. Such "cohabitation" is mutually beneficial to both organisms. Therefore, leguminous plants are able to synthesize their own proteins and contain them in significant quantities. They are rich in carbohydrates, highly unsaturated fatty acids and lecithin. Bean proteins are characterized by a relatively high content of lysine, along with a relatively small amount of sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cystine. Bean rich in B vitamins and minerals: potassium, phosphorus, calcium, iron.

Among leguminous crops, soybean is released, which contains more than 35% of proteins, 17 — 25% of fats and 43 — 47% of carbohydrates. It produces butter, margarine, soy cheese, milk, flour, canned food, confectionery. Soybean seeds are used not only for food purposes, they are made from polymeric materials, glue, varnishes, paints.

Especially valuable in the nutrition of peas and beans. True, some people lack enzymes that are able to break down carbohydrates of beans, resulting in increased gas formation in the intestines.

For rational use of legumes, they are pre-soaked in warm water for b — 8 h, then boiled 30 — 60 min. Broth poured. In the finished dish add salt to taste. A decoction of legumes contains vitamins, minerals, proteins and carbohydrates, so it is recommended to use it for making sauces and first courses.

Fatty foods

Fats are a certain amount in many foods. They are rich in meat, fish (especially cod liver), dairy products (butter, cream, sour cream, cottage cheese, cheeses), as well as some products of plant origin.

Fats are distinguished by their nutritional value, which is associated with the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, sterols, phospholipids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as their physicochemical properties. Hack, in vegetable oils (under the sun, corn, cottonseed, soybean, hemp, etc.) contain mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids, and in animal fats - mainly saturated. In sunflower oil, an important polyunsaturated fatty acid - linoleic (60%) prevails, but arachidonic acid is completely absent. Linoleic acid is also found in large quantities in corn, cotton and soybean oils. During the refining of vegetable oils, the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids and other substances important for the body is significantly reduced. Therefore for cooking salads, vinaigrettes and other dishes that are not subjected to heat treatment, you should use unrefined vegetable oils. Fats of plant origin do not contain retinol and calciferols, but are a rich source of tocopherols.

Butter belongs to products of high nutritional value, as it has good taste and is easily digested. It has a lot of cholesterol (200 — 300 mg / 100 g), there is retinol. Sour cream and cream contain a relatively large amount of phospholipids (lecithin), therefore they are more useful in the nutrition of elderly people than butter.

Beef and mutton fats contain mostly saturated fatty acids and only 2 — 5% linoleic acid.

Pork fat differs from lamb and beef in its higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic (up to 9%). In pig fat there is retinol and carotene, the cholesterol content in it ranges from 50 — 80 mg / 100 g. This fat is useful in the diet of healthy people. In bone fat, the amount of unsaturated fatty acids reaches 10%. It contains phospholipids, retinol and cholesterol (up to 60 — 100 mg / 100 g).

In a balanced diet of a healthy person, various fats are used. It should be borne in mind that about a third of the fats needed by man are contained in various products of plant and animal origin in a hidden form.

Margarine is a mixture of vegetable and animal fats in natural or hydrogenated form with the addition of skimmed milk, cream, egg yolks, vitamins and flavorings. Currently, the industry of our country produces margarine enriched with linoleic acid (by adding sunflower oil), as well as fatty products (butter, margarine, mayonnaise) with reduced fat content. The use of such fatty products can significantly reduce the amount of fat in the diet, and hence its energy value.

In order to enrich the diet of a healthy person with polyunsaturated fatty acids, it is necessary to include in it mainly vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid.

Vegetables, fruits and berries

Most vegetables, fruits and berries are poor in proteins, do not contain fats. They are characterized by low energy value. Despite this, their importance in nutrition is hard to overestimate. Vegetables, fruits and berries are the main sources of ascorbic acid, niacin, carotene, phylloquinone and folacin, many mineral elements (potassium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, etc.), easily digestible carbohydrates, dietary fiber, organic acids

The smell, appearance and taste of vegetables, fruits and berries have a stimulating effect on appetite, secretory function of the stomach, pancreas, liver, improve digestion.

Strong causative agents of secretion of the digestive glands and pancreas are organic acids of fruits and vegetables, which “alkalify” the body. Fruits are predominantly malic, citric and tartaric acids; in citrus and berries - lemon. However, it must be remembered that oxalic acid, which is contained in significant amounts in sorrel, rhubarb, spinach, and figs, contributes to the violation of salt metabolism.

Pectic substances of vegetables and fruits are able to bind and remove toxins, in particular heavy metal salts, which can be ingested with atmospheric air, water, and food. They have antibacterial properties that are used in the treatment of diseases of the digestive system; promote the excretion of cholesterol.

The biological value of fruits and vegetables is greatly influenced by the methods of their processing and storage. They mainly affect the content of vitamins, as the most unstable substances to adverse conditions, elevated temperature, exposure to oxygen and ultraviolet spectrum of sunlight. Washing in cold water sauerkraut on 60% reduces the content of ascorbic acid in it. When cooking fruits and vegetables, losses of ascorbic acid are 50 — 70%

Wiping fruits with sugar and subsequent pasteurization help preserve their high biological value, since sugar is an excellent preservative, and pasteurization removes oxygen from the air and drastically reduces the activity of many enzymes that contribute to the destruction of vitamins. The degree of preservation of vitamins in fruits and vegetables during canning is enhanced by the addition of food acids (citric, malic, acetic, lactic).

Of great importance is the method of processing raw materials. For example, juices obtained by extrusion contain less ascorbic acid, carotene, and other biologically active substances than juices with pulp.

New food products

Scientists have long been working on the problem of obtaining artificial food. Another distinguished Russian scientist, D.I. Mendeleev, wrote: “As a chemist, I am convinced of the possibility of obtaining nutrients from compounds of the elements of air, water, and earth.” A similar idea was expressed in the last century by a French scientist, one of the founders of synthetic chemistry, M. Berthelot.

In medical practice, synthetic diets are used (various enpits), which are an aqueous solution of substances consisting of a mixture of amino acids, glucose, linoleic acid ethyl ester or other representative of unsaturated fatty acids, essential vitamins and salts. The mixture of nutrients can be sterilized and administered intravenously to the sick, whose normal diet is difficult for one reason or another. Aqueous mixture of food substances are like a mock synthetic food. If we ignore their purely medical use, the results of applying these mixtures prove the possibility of feeding a mixture of synthetic substances. Indeed, each of the ingredients of the nutritional mixtures can be obtained by synthesis. Individual components of such nutrient mixtures today receive industrial-chemical or microbiological synthesis.

The problem of using proteins from seed oil seeds of various oilseeds, such as soybeans, sesame, cotton, and sunflower, needs to be studied more widely. The seeds of these crops are very rich in protein. So, soybeans contain 43%, sesame seeds - 25, peanuts - 20 — 30, sunflower - 19,5, cotton - 16,5% conditional protein.

Protein concentrates obtained by extracting proteins from various plant products can take an important place in the nutrition of the population. Combining the proteins of cereals and legumes, you can get a protein mixture, which in its amino acid composition will differ little from milk proteins. However, due to the worse digestibility of vegetable proteins, the biological value of this mixture will be lower than milk proteins.

Yet, the main supplier of food for humanity will remain agriculture, whose productivity, based on scientific advances, will be significantly improved.

In recent years, new food products have been created in our country on the basis of progressive technologies in the meat and dairy, bakery, confectionery and other sectors of the food industry. These include prophylactic and dietary products. So, by special processing of milk, new varieties of dairy products were obtained, including dietary ones — butter, cottage cheese, sour cream, acidophilic and milk protein pastes, various yogurt and margarine varieties, protein milk, aerin, etc. New baby food products were created.

By special processing of cereals obtained cereals with high biological value. Among the new bakery products, Borodino bread, doctor buns and others are in high demand.

As a result of the processing of meat products, new sausages with a high content of proteins (dietary, doctor's with reduced fat, milk, beef, protein, etc.) have been obtained. The industrial production of pasta from krill and new food products based on it has been mastered.

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