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Preparation of dietary meals in the home.

Preparing a meal for a sick person, you should strive to maintain the nutritional value of the products used, giving them the required flavor and medicinal properties. Therefore essential in the preparation of dietary dishes are ways of cooking products. At the same time allocate primary culinary processing of foodstuff and various (first of all thermal) ways of preparation from them dietary dishes.

Primary processing includes thawing, singeing, soaking, washing, cleaning, sorting, sieving, grinding and other processes for preparing the starting products. The following is cooking by heat or cold.

Cold processing of vegetables requires special care, as they can be seeded with microorganisms, worm eggs. Particular attention is paid to the conservation of ascorbic acid in fresh vegetables. To this end, it is better to wash vegetables before cleaning, and raw vegetables should not be kept in water for more than 15 — 20 min. You need to wash vegetables in running water or often change the water used for washing. Do not rinse the sauerkraut, since a significant amount of ascorbic acid is lost. Fresh white cabbage and cauliflower after cleaning from the upper contaminated leaves are washed in cold water, red cabbage, in addition, is poured with boiling water. First, carrots, beets, turnips are well washed in several waters, then peeled. Parsley, green onions, dill, sorrel, spinach, celery after sorting are poured with cold water and washed to remove residual sand. Thoroughly wash vegetables, fruits and berries in running water that are consumed raw. Before cooking, peeled and washed vegetables are immediately cooked. So that the peeled potato does not lose vitamins during storage, it is poured with cold water (whole tubers), but not more than for 2 — 3 h. Potatoes should be boiled in salted water (about 10 g of salt per 1 l of water) in a sealed container; vegetables are recommended to be placed in boiling water. Greens are placed in the first dishes immediately before their readiness.

Vitamins in vegetables are best preserved when steamed. The greatest losses of ascorbic acid occur when stewing, baking vegetables, making mashed potatoes from them. Vegetable dishes are recommended to be consumed immediately after cooking, as over time their vitamin value and palatability decrease. To avoid food spoilage, you should not mix cold and hot vegetables, and you need to season them with sour cream, oil, mayonnaise immediately before serving.

Thaw meat, poultry, and fish at a low plus temperature (possible in the lower compartment of a home refrigerator) for 6 – 7 hours. Storage of thawed foods and repeated freezing lead to a significant loss of their nutritional value and bacterial contamination.

Cereals, legumes and pasta are sorted before cooking, sifted flour. Separate cereals are washed in warm water, legumes are soaked.

The main types of heat treatment of food products are boiling, frying, baking, stewing and combined processing - cooking with subsequent frying, passivation - frying onions, carrots, tomatoes, flour in a small amount of fat before subsequent heat treatment, blanching - dipping the product with boiling water or steam before further heat treatment. Sometimes allowance is used - boiling in own juice or in a small amount of liquid.

For the full processing of various food products, different times are required. To extract extractives from meat and fish, they are laid for cooking in cold water. When steaming, less mineral salts, vitamins and extractive substances are lost.

Soups

Soups are on the menu of all diets. The liquid base can be water, meat, fish, mushroom broths, vegetable broths, milk, fruit and berry broths, kvass. The dense basis is meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, fruits and berries.

In diet therapy they use mucous, puree, dressing, vegetarian soups, broths, fruit soups, cold soups. The usual norm of soup is 400 — 500 g, for diets No. 7, 8, 10 — 200 -250 g. The temperature of hot soup when serving should be 60 — 65 ° C, and cold — 12 — 14 ° C. Mucous and mashed soups are prepared on water from rice, semolina, pearl barley and barley groats. They are indicated for diseases of the digestive system and, if necessary, their chemical and mechanical sparing (diets No. 1, 2, 4, 5). 50 g groats are taken per serving of mucous soup. Before cooking, the cereals are sorted, washed, poured with cold water, 10 times the volume of cereals in volume. Cook these soups on low heat, stirring (from semolina - 10 — 15 min, pearl barley and barley - 2 — 3 h). When boiling, water is added to the initial level. The finished cereal is discarded on a sieve, wiped, lowered into a decoction and brought to a boil. Semolina soup is not wiped.

After boiling broth in it add salt to taste, butter and sugar.

Soup with semolina: cereals - 50 butter - 10, sugar - 10, salt - 2. Output - 400 g. Proteins - 6,3, fats - 10,6, carbohydrates - 54,65. Energy value - 1419 kJ.

1. Hereinafter product weight (based on the edible part) and nutrients given in grams.

rice Soup: rice - 50, butter - 10, sugar - 10, salt - 1. Yield - 400; Protein - 6,33; fats - 8,4; carbohydrates - g- 54,15. Energy - 1329 kJ.

It is allowed to include mucous soups on broth in diet No. 4.

Puree soups are made from vegetables, cereals, meat, fish. The basis of these soups are vegetable decoctions, meat and fish broths. Having boiled the listed products, they are taken out. Vegetables and cereals are rubbed through a sieve, meat is passed through a meat grinder three times, the fish is rubbed with a spoon in a plate. Then the solid base of the soup is mixed with the liquid base and brought to a boil. The consistency of such soups should be tender, moderately thick. The soup is seasoned with oil, a mixture of egg yolks with milk, and salt to taste. Recommended for diets No. 1, 2, 4, 13.

Potato soup: water - 300, milk - 100, potato - 100, butter - 5, salt - 2. Yield - 400. Protein - 4,98, fats - 7,6, carbohydrates - 24,4. Energy value - 778 kJ.

Soup on a meat broth with vegetables: meat broth - 400, beef - 70, carrots - 10, onions - 10, potatoes - 50, celery - 10, parsley - 10, sour cream - 20, salt - 2. Exit - 400, Protein - 26,5, fat -

carbohydrates - 19,1. Energy value - 1325 kJ.

Milk soups can be mashed and regular. Their solid basis is various types of cereals, pasta, vegetables (carrots, vegetables, cauliflower). Milk soups are used in diets No. 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 11, 15. For diet No. 2, milk soup is made from milk in half with water. In diets No. 7, 10, the amount of salt is reduced by half. Since pasta, rice, millet, and oatmeal are poorly boiled in milk, they should first be boiled 3 — 4 min in boiling water, drained and lowered into boiling milk, cook until tender over low heat. If milk soup is made from semolina or other crushed cereals, then these cereals are sprinkled with a thin stream into boiling milk, stirring constantly to prevent lumps from forming. Vegetables for soup are cut into small cubes or straws, allowed, and then added to boiling milk. They fill the soup with oil, sugar can be added if desired.

Milk soup with rice: rice - 50, milk - 400, butter - 5, sugar —5, salt— 1. Yield - 400. Protein - 18,7, fats - 20,6, carbohydrates - 68,4. Energy value - 2235 kJ. In diet No. 7, 10 salt is not added.

Milk soup with noodles: milk - 500, vermicelli - 50, sugar - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 400. Protein - 17,4, fats - 14,35, carbohydrates - 55,7. Energy value - 1763 kJ.

Transparent soups in medical nutrition are obtained by boiling meat, fish, poultry, as well as meat bones and fish heads. To prepare bone broth, the bones are washed in the coldwater, changing it 2 — 3 times, then flat beef bones are cut into pieces by 5 — b cm, vertebral bones are transverse, the spinal cord is removed. Veal and pig bones are pre-fried in a cabinet oven (oven). A pan with bones is poured with cold water and quickly heated, then the fire is reduced and the broth is cooked at a low boil. Foam and grease are removed from the broth surface. Beef bones are cooked until 4 — 5 hours, and calf and pork are cooked until 3 — 4 hours. For 1 hours before the end of cooking, the fried roots and onions are added to the broth. The finished broth is filtered through a sieve. If you prepare meat and bone broth, then first put the bones, and for 1,5 hours before the end of cooking the broth - meat. To get a clear meat soup, the broth is clarified with a guy. To prepare the guy, the shank, slice and other parts of the meat with the highest blood content are passed through a meat grinder and 1 — 2 are allowed to brew for an hour in a cold place, after which egg whites, salt are added and mixed. The guying is introduced into the hot strained broth, mixed well, add the fried carrots and white roots, cooked at a low boil 1 —1,5 h. The prepared broth is defended and filtered through a nylon sieve or four layers of gauze.

To prepare the fish broth, gills and eyes are removed from the fish heads; large heads and bones of the fish are cut into pieces, washed thoroughly in cold water, put in a saucepan and poured with cold water, covered with a lid, brought to a boil, remove the foam, add roots and boil for about 1 hour. Filter the prepared broth. Transparent soups are used in the menu diets M 2, 3, 9, 1 I, 13, 15.

The broth of meat: beef - 100, water * - 600, carrots - 20, parsley - 10, celery - 50, onions - 40, salt - 1. Yield - 400. Protein - 17,3, fats - 4,5, carbohydrates - 6,8. Energy value - 574 kJ.

Fish Broth: fresh carp - 200, water - 500, carrots - 20, parsley - 10, onions - 40, salt - 1. Yield - 400. Proteins - 31,3, carbohydrates - 6,3, fats - 10,8. Energy value - 1037 kJ.

Refueling soups are prepared from vegetables, cereals, pasta, and legumes. The basis of filling soups are bone, meat, bone and meat, fish broths. For the preparation of vegetarian soups, vegetable and cereal broths, mushroom broth are used. Such soups are recommended in various diets. In soups, diet No. 2 foods must be crushed. For soups diets No. 8 and 9 select products with a low content of carbohydrates. Soups for diets No. 4, 5, 7 and 10 are prepared on vegetable broths; with salt restriction - for diets No. 7 and 10.

In order to reduce the loss of vitamins and ensure good taste of the soup, it is very important to observe the timeliness and sequence of bookmarking products. So, for example, when cooking borsch on bone-meat broth, the products are processed and laid in the following order: bones, meat, beets, fresh cabbage, potatoes. Fry onions, roots, carrots and for 15 — 20 minutes, put them in the soup until the end of cooking.

Vegetables for soup should be cut so that their shape matches the shape of the other parts: for example, for soup with pasta - small cubes or slices, for soup with noodles - straws, for soup with cereals - in small cubes. For meat dressing soups, vegetables and flour can be fried in fat removed during cooking of the broth, or in other cooking fats. For fish soups, on mushroom broth and on water, vegetables and flour are fried in fresh or melted butter, as well as in sunflower.

Ukrainian borsch: beef meat - 150, water - 500, beets - 100, potatoes - 75, carrots - 50, onions - 25, parsley - 15, celery - 10, sour cream - 10, tomato bread pepper - 20, salt - 15. Yield - 15. Protein - 1, fats - 400, carbohydrates - 25,7. Energy V-14,27 kJ.

Bone soup with cauliflower: bone broth - 300, cauliflower - 50, carrots - 25, onions - 10, green peas - 25, salt - 1, sour cream - 10. Yield - 300. Protein - 9,5, fats - 10,7, carbohydrates - 24,6. Energy value - 914,7 kJ.

Rassolnyk with giblets: offal - 200, water - 500, pickles - 25, onions - 20, potatoes - 75, celery - 10, butter - 50, flour - 10, dill and parsley - 5, salt - sour cream - 10. Yield - 1. Protein - 10, fats - 400, carbohydrates - 11,85. Energy value - 8,42 kJ.

Cold soups are prepared in the summer. The basis of such soups are kvass, whey, a decoction of sorrel or beets. A solid base is vegetables. Vegetables are first washed, peeled and boiled. Chilled boiled vegetables are diced. They add chopped egg white. All is poured with kvass, whey or a decoction of beets. The yolk of the egg is ground with salt, diluted with a base and introduced into the soup. Sour cream, salt and sugar are added to this soup to taste. Use them for diets No. 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 15. In this case, sugar is excluded from diet No. 9, and salt is excluded from diet No. 7.

Okroshka ovoshtnaya: bread kvass - 300, potatoes - 75, fresh cucumbers - 50, carrots - 25, green onions - 40, green dill - 10, apples - 30, eggs - 1 pieces, sour cream - 20, salt - 1. Yield - 300. Protein - 9,34, fats - 11,35, carbohydrates - 14,57. Energy value - 828 kJ.

Fruit soups are prepared from fresh, fresh-frozen, dried and canned fruits and berries. To them you can add various cereals, pasta. Season soups with sour cream and cream. (No salt is used). The table is served cold or hot after the second course.

To prepare such soups, fresh fruits and berries are sorted, washed with cold water, placed in a pan, filledcooked with boiling water and cooked under a lid 10 — 15 min. Then the broth is filtered through a sieve and boiled again. The washed cereals are poured into the soup after filtering it and cooked over low heat until cooked (rice - 30 min, semolina - 15 min).

Sort dried fruit, pour cold water on 3 5 min, then thoroughly washed in two to three waters. Rebound

apples and pears are ripened, cut into 2-4 parts, poured with water and boiled with a low boil 20-25 min. When serving, you can put cream or sour cream on the soup. Soup is prepared from a mixture or one type of dried fruit.

From berries it is better to cook soup puree. To do this, fresh or frozen berries are sorted, washed, poured with hot water, crushed and rubbed through a sieve. The pulp is poured with water, boiled for 10 — 15 minutes and wiped again. Sugar is put in mashed potatoes, broth from pulp, water are added and 5 — 8 minutes are boiled, then potato starch diluted with cold water is added. The soup is brought to a boil and cooled.

Fruit soup is used in diets No. 3, 5, b, 7, 10, 11; mashed - in diets No. 1,2.

Soup of fresh apples or pears: apples - 100, water 400, rice - 25, sugar - 40, sour cream - 20. Exit - 400. Proteins - 1,92, fats 0,23, carbohydrates - 75,35. Energy value - 1302 kJ.

Soup -pyure of blueberries: fresh blueberries - 100 or dried - 60, water - 300, sugar - 30, potato starch - 10, sour cream - 20. Exit - 300, Protein - 0,87, fat -carbohydrates - 38,8. Energy value - 921 kJ.

Technology of preparation of dietary dishes of meat and poultry

The technological process of preparing dietary dishes FROM meat and poultry includes the primary processing of the product, which results in the preparation of semi-finished products, and the preparation of finished products from them.

For the preparation of semi-finished products, meat and poultry are subjected to primary processing, including thawing of frozen products, sorting of individual parts taking into account their nutritional value and culinary properties, removal of inedible parts. The presence of connective tissue in meat products affects the methods of cooking. Its amount depends on the type, sex and age of the animals. There is more intramuscular connective tissue in meat of old animals than in meat of young animals.

A lot of connective tissue in the meat of the neck, flank, hem. The meat of birds and rabbit is thin-fibered and contains less connective tissue proteins than meat of slaughtered animals. To speed up the processes of thermal softening of the hard parts of meat, mechanical processing (beating, grinding), pickling in solutions of acetic and citric acids are used.

Methods of cooking meat include cooking, roasting, stewing, roasting, grilling cooked products.

Distinguish the main cooking when the meat is cooked in water in the ratio 1: 6; allowance - cooking under a closed lid in the volume of liquid covering the product no more than 1 / 3, and steam cooking, when the product does not come into contact with the liquid, but is heated by the steam generated during boiling water.

For stewing, the meat is fried until crusty, and then allowed in broth or sauce. Meat is baked in a baking oven at a temperature of 200 — 300 ° C.

Meat products as a result of protein compaction during heat treatment of tissues, melting fat, reducing moisture and soluble substances lose 30 — 40% of the mass. When cooking, up to 40% of fat passes into the broth, part of it emulsifies and breaks down, undergoing oxidation.

In the assortment of dietary meat dishes, preference should be given to dishes from boiled meat. Steam cooking is especially recommended. If fried foods are allowed, they must be cooked in vegetable or ghee.

In diseases of the digestive system, a decrease in the mechanically irritating effect of food is of great therapeutic value. So, mechanical sparing is provided by diets No. 1 and 4. In other cases, the therapeutic effect is achieved by mechanical stimulation of the digestive organs (diets No. 3, 5, 8). The intensity of the mechanical action of food is determined by its consistency and quantity. In turn, the consistency depends on the type of food and the methods of cooking (degree of grinding, character of heating). Therefore, to ensure mechanical sparing of the digestive organs, the meat of young animals, poultry, rabbit is used, which is subjected to grinding. For the purpose of chemical sparing, meat products rich in extractives are excluded from the diet. To reduce the extractive substances, the meat is boiled for a long time: 1,5 kg - for 2-3 hours. When preparing meat dietary dishes, one should take into account the peculiarities of the chemical composition of the meat. So, for diets No. 1, 4 recommend veal, rabbit meat, poultry; for diets

No. 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 - it is undesirable to use meat of young animals, since it contains more purine bases.

Food boiled and stewed meat. The meat is peeled, cut off fat, cut into pieces, poured with cold water (so that it is completely covered), quickly brought to a boil, reduce heat and cook at low boil. Coarsely chopped carrots, white roots, onions (20 g per 30 kg of meat) are laid for 15 — 1 minutes before the end of cooking. Salt (except for diets No. 7, 8, 10) at the end of cooking at the rate of 1 g of salt per 100 g of meat.

Cooking beef in large pieces requires 2—h, lamb and pork - 1,5 — 2 h. Readiness is determined piercing the meat with a fork or thin knife in the thickest part of the piece: the eye-catching juice of the finished meat is transparent. For better removal of extractive substances from meat (diets No. 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13) it is placed in small pieces in cold water in the ratio 10: 1 and cooked for a low boil for 5 min. Then the broth is drained and the meat is poured with hot water and boiled until tender. If it is necessary to remove only purine bases from the meat (diets No. 6, 7, 9, 10), it is enough to blanch it: pieces of 100 g are dipped in boiling water and cooked after boiling 5 — 7 min.

Preservation of soluble substances in meat is facilitated by steaming and steaming. Stir meat (mainly pork and veal) with a piece. The bottom of the pan is greased with oil, put the meat, pour the broth so that the piece was covered

at —2 / 3- heights, close the lid and allow to cook until cooked.

Cooked boiled (stewed) meat is juicy, soft, does not break up into individual fibers. Store meat in a sealed container with a small amount of broth.

Cooking of grilled meat. The meat is fried in large and small pieces. For diets No. 6, 7, 10, the meat is fried after preliminary boiling or blanching, in order to reduce the content of extractives. A large piece of fried tenderloin, dorsal and lumbar, ham. The meat is sprinkled with salt (except for diet No. 7), placed in a pan (baking sheet) with a small amount of melted butter at an initial temperature of 270 ° C, and roasted at a temperature of 150-170 ° C. In the process of frying meat every 10 — 15 min it is poured with the resulting juice. The cooking time depends on the type of meat and the size of the piece and for beef 40 min - 1 h 40 min, for veal - 40 min - 1 h 15 min.

Dishes from stew. For stewing use parts of meat with heat-resistant connective tissue (lateral and external parts of the hind leg, edge, subscap part). Stew meat in large and small pieces. The prepared meat is sprinkled with salt and fried in a pan until a crust forms, transferred to a saucepan, poured with broth or water so that the small pieces are completely covered, the large pieces are half, and stewed under mild boiling with the lid closed until soft. Stewing time in large pieces is about 2 hours, and in small pieces - 40 — 60 minutes.

Cooking of grilled meat. Before baking, cook the meat until cooked. Bake meat products in a baking oven at a temperature of 250 — 280 ° C on a baking sheet or pan with sauces: sour cream, onion, tomato or milk. In addition to natural meat, you can bake minced meat. Baked dishes are recommended for diets No. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, AND, 15.

Chopped meat dishes. These meals include all health diets. Chopped meat products, as well as lumpy meat, are steamed, fried, stewed and baked. They are cooked natural, with bread (meatballs), with beaten egg (dumplings). The meat is passed through a meat grinder, water, salt are added to the minced meat and thoroughly mixed. Natural cutlets are chopped from natural mass, chopped schnitzel, beef steak (products differ in various shapes and thicknesses). Chopped meat combined with wheat bread without crust, pre-soaked in milk and squeezed, and chilled with water (0,5 kg of meat, 125 g of bread, 150 g of water) make cutlets, meatballs, zrazy, meatballs, meatloaf, meat bread. For the manufacture of the knel mass, the meat passed through the meat grinder is injected with butter, egg whites, chilled milk and whipped until lush. From it form knels. Chopped mass can also be prepared from boiled meat.

Dishes from poultry and rabbit. In medical nutrition, meat of chickens, chickens, turkeys and rabbits is used. The bird has less connective tissue than beef, bird fats are fusible, contain more essential polyunsaturated fatty acids and are easier to digest. Rabbit meat is close to chicken in nutritional value. The meat of chickens and young rabbits is easily digested, boiled dishes from it are included in the menu diets No. 1,4, 13, and fried - in the diet No. 2. At the same time, the increased content of purines in young meat limits its use in diets No. 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, which include the use of boiled meat of adult poultry and rabbits.

Dishes from offal. The nutritional value of offal is not the same. The most valuable are the liver, heart, tongue, brain, kidneys. Many by-products are used for medicinal purposes. Dishes from the liver are recommended for patients with anemia, brains for inclusion in the diet No. 11, scar and jelly in diets No. 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15 due to their low content of extractives and relatively high content of connective tissue. At the same time, the liver, kidneys, heart are rich in purine bases, therefore they are limited in diets No. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or are completely excluded from them. Cooking offal requires strict adherence to sanitary rules. Boiled, fried, stewed dishes are prepared from them. The liver is fried without preliminary heat treatment, the remaining offal is boiled before frying and stewing. The kidneys are poured with cold water, brought to a boil, the broth is drained, the kidneys are poured with hot water and cooked until cooked 1 -h. Chilled kidneys are stored without broth under a damp cloth. Tongues are poured with boiling water and boiled at a low boil until 2 — 2,5 hours are ready. Hot boiled tongues are dipped for 5 min in cold water and cleaned. Store in broth. Brains for boiling are placed in a saucepan, poured with cold water (1 —1,5 l per 1 kg), add butter, salt, greens.

Puree cooked meat: meat (beef of the II category) - 80, butter - 5, meat broth - 50, salt - 1. Yield — 100; Proteins — 14,19; fats — 9,72; carbohydrates — 0,04. Energy value - 605 kJ. This dish is included in diets No. 16, 1,4.

Meat dumplings steam: meat (beef of the II category) - 90, milk - 30, wheat flour - 3, butter - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 100. Protein - 19,36, fats - 11,41, carbohydrates - 3,64. Energy value - 815 kJ. Include in the diet number 16, 1, 4.

Cutlets meat steam: meat (beef of the II category) - 80, bread - 15, salt - 1. Exit— 100 Belkov -fats - 5,75, carbohydrates - 7,78. Energy value - 637 kJ. Include in the diet No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 1, 3, 5, 9.

Cutlets meat fried with vegetable oil: meat - 80, bread - 15, vegetable oil - 10, onion - 10, breadcrumbs - 7, salt - 1. Yield - 110. Protein - 18,29, fats - 15,83, carbohydrates - 13,79. Energy - 1135 kJ. Include in the diet number 2, 15.

Stroganoff of boiled meat: meat - 80, butter - 5, milk - 50, wheat flour - 5, greens - 5, sour cream - 5, salt - 1. Exit - 50 / 50 Belkov -fats - 5,75, carbohydrates - 7,78. Energy value - 637 kJ. Include in the diet No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 1, 3, 5, 9.

Boiled meat: meat - 80, carrots - 5, white roots - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 50. Protein - 16,3, fats - 5,5, carbohydrates - 0,9. Energy value - 495 kJ. Include in the diet No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 3, 5, 9, 15.

Meatballs, meat, baked in sour cream: meat - 90, butter - 5, sour cream - 15, wheat bread - 20, wheat flour - 5, greens - 5, meat broth - 50, water - 15, salt - 2. Yield - 55 / 60. Proteins - 17,8, fats - 17,8, carbohydrates - 25,5. Energy - 1396 kJ. Include in the diet number 2, 11, 15.

Goulash of boiled meat: meat - 80, tomato paste - 5, butter - 5, wheat flour - 5, greens - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 50 / 100. Protein - 17,14, fats - 9,78, carbohydrates - 5,04. Energy value - 740 kJ. Include in the diet No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 5, 9, 15.

Stuffed cabbage stuffed with boiled meat and rice: meat - 80, cabbage - 170, rice - 15, tomato paste - 5, flour - 5, vegetable oil - 10, greens - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 300 / 60. Protein - 21,22, fats - 15,74, carbohydrates - 25,75. Energy - 1380 kJ. Include in the diet No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 2, 3, 5, 9.

Steam chicken quenelle: chicken meat - 100, butter - 5, wheat flour - 5, milk - 50, salt - 1. Yield - 115. Protein - 19, fats - 18, carbohydrates - 5,7. Energy - 1092 kJ. Include in the diet No. 8 and 10 (without salt), 1, 5, 9.

Chicken boiled: chicken - 100, butter - 5, white roots - b, onion - 6, salt - 1. Yield - 75. Protein - 18,9, fats - 10,9, carbohydrates - 0. Energy value - 727 kJ. Include in the diet No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 1, 2, 5, 9, AND, 15.

Boiled tongue: beef tongue - 90, salt - 1. Yield - 65. Protein - 10,4, fats - 10,26, carbohydrates - 0. Energy value - 561 kJ. Include in the diet No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 1, 2, 5, 9, AND, 15.

Fish dishes

From fish prepare boiled, steamed, baked, fried and steam dishes. Since the muscle fibers more delicate fish than meat, because it rarely makes pureed food.

Boil the fish in whole carcasses or portioned pieces laid in a deep baking sheet or pan. The carcasses are poured with cold water, and portioned portions are filled with hot broth or water to speed up the cooking time in order to reduce the output of soluble nutrients into the broth. After boiling, the fire is reduced, salt is added. Further cooking is continued without boiling (85 — 90 ° С) until the fish is completely ready. The readiness of the fish is determined by piercing it with a fork. If the fork enters the thick part of the finished piece freely, then the fish is ready. For cooking 0,5 kg of fish, take 1 l of water or broth. In the broth, you can lay onions, roots (if the patient is not contraindicated). When cooking trout, sturgeon fish, aromatic vegetables are not added, so as not to change the pleasant aroma and taste of the dish. In portions, the fish is cooked for 12 — 15 min, carcass - 25 — 45 min.

The best way to heat fish for diet is by using steaming. To do this, put the fish in a whole carcass or portioned pieces in a row in a deep baking sheet or pan with the addition of 150 ml of water per 0,5 kg of fish. Add portioned fish 15 — 20 min, and the whole carcass - 25 — 45 min.

Ready boiled or poached fish is kept in the broth for no more than 30 — 40 min. Pieces of the finished fish should retain their shape, have a white or gray color in section. Before use, fish is watered with sauce.

For diets that partially limit the use of nitrogenous extractives, the fish is first boiled until half-cooked, and then fried or baked. When frying, fish retains more nutrients than when boiled.

For frying, fish is pre-breaded in flour or grated breadcrumbs. Fry it in a small amount of heated refined vegetable oil until a brown crust forms on both sides. Fried fish should retain its shape, taste and aroma. If desired, it can be poured with sauce or seasoned with a slice of butter.

Stew fish raw or pre-boiled, stewed or fried, for 2-3 hours, with the addition of sour cream, milk or tomato sauce. Readiness is determined by softening the bones.

Fish is baked on a baking sheet raw, stewed or pre-fried, oiled or doused with sauce.

To bake raw fish without sauce, small fish or portioned dishes, previously sprinkled with salt, sprinkled with vegetable oil or greased with sour cream, are placed on a baking tray greased with oil and baked at 110-120 ° C for 10 min, then the temperature is raised to 150 ° WITH. During baking, the fish is periodically greased with vegetable oil or sour cream. When baking fish in sauce, use a portioned pan, which is greased with oil, pour a little sauce into it and put a piece of fish. You can add a side dish, sauce to the fish, sprinkle it with mild grated cheese, pour with vegetable oil and bake at a temperature of 200-250 ° С until a crust forms. The finished dish is poured with melted butter and sprinkled with herbs.

The cutlet mass is prepared from fish with a small number of bones (pink salmon, cod, hake, pike, etc.). The fish fillet is cut into small pieces, passed through a meat grinder, add white bread, previously soaked in cold water or milk and squeezed, salt. All mixed, again passed through a meat grinder and beat off. In the minced meat from lean fish add butter at the rate of 5 g per 100 g of pulp. Cutlets, meatballs, meatloaf, meatballs are prepared from the resulting mass. Fish cakes are breaded in breadcrumbs, fried in a pan on both sides and cooked in a baking oven. Instead of meatballs, you can cook meatballs from the same stuffing. They are placed on a greased baking sheet or pan, pour hot water and cook until cooked.

To prepare the knelloin mass, fish fillet, sliced ​​into pieces (without skin and bones), soaked in milk and pressed white bread is passed through a meat grinder with a fine wire rack three times. To the resulting mass add egg white and cold milk or cream, whip and cook the knives.

Steamed fish products are cooked in special pots with liners for 15 — 20 minutes. To prepare the steamed roll, the mince is wrapped in gauze and placed on the wire rack of the steam pan. Prior to serving, the product is stored in a pan on a wire rack at a temperature of 60 — 65 ° C for no more than 40 min. To avoid crusting, the products are covered with boiled moist gauze, greased with oil or lightly poured with the sauce recommended for the corresponding diet.

Products from cutlet weight and knelnoy served with side dishes, on top put a piece of butter or sauce added.

Salad of sea fish with vegetables: pike perch (cod, Pacific hake or catfish) - 40, potatoes (varéfresh, peeled) - 30, fresh cucumbers - 25, fresh tomatoes - 25, lettuce (green onions or canned peas) - 10, dressings - 38, greens - 2, salt - 0,5. Yield - 150. Protein - 8, fats - 18,6, carbohydrates - 11,9. Energy value - 1034 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 2, 3, 5 (without onion), 7, 8, 9 and 10 (without salt), 11, 15.

Vinaigrette with fish: cod, sea bass, merlang, Pacific hack, pollock, cod or hake fillet - 45, potatoes - 30, beets - 20, carrots - 10, green onions or onions - 15, greens - 2. Yield - 150. Protein - 9,6, fats - 9,0, carbohydrates - 11,1. Energy value - 686 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 5 (without onions), 7, 8, 9, 10, 15.

Fish in aspic: Siberian white salmon (or trout, Squam, spotted catfish, perch sea, catfish, pike, perch, carp, fangscha) - 100, eggs - 6 (- pcs.), lemons - 10, parsley - 5, carrots - 5, gelatin - 3, salts - 1. The way out is 180. Proteins — 16,8; fats — 1,4; carbohydrates — 2,3. Energy value - 373 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7 and 10 (without salt), 1, 2, 3, 11, 15.

Terrine of herring: salted herring - 37, wheat bread - 15, milk - 15, butter - 10, eggs - 24- PC.). The yield is 60. Protein — 10,0; fats — 13,5; carbohydrates — 8,7. Energy value - 822 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 2, 3, 5, 9, 10, 11, 15.

Meatballs steam fish: fish - 100, wheat bread - 20, milk - 20, butter - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 130. Protein - 18,2, fats - 5,7, carbohydrates - 11,5. Energy value - 712 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 16, 1, 5, 6, 9.

Steam fish knits: fish fillet - 100, white bread - 9, milk - 50, butter - 7, salt - 1. Yield - 150. Protein - 17,9, fats - 6,9, carbohydrates - 5,8. Energy value - 657 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 16, 1, 5, 6, 9.

Boiled fish: fish - 100, onions - 3, carrots - 3, parsley (root) - 2, butter - 5, salt - 2. Yield - 90. Protein - 17, fats - 4,7, carbohydrates - 0,02. Energy value - 462 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 1, 2, 3, 9, 15.

Fish fried in vegetable oil: fish - 100, wheat flour 5, vegetable oil - 10, salt - 1. The yield is 90. Protein — 17; fats — 10,4; carbohydrates — 3,5. Energy value - 735 kJ. Recommended for diets N9 2, 11, 15.

Steam fish cutlets: fish - 100, butter - 5, wheat bread - 20, salt - 1. Yield - 130. Protein - 17,6, fats - 5, carbohydrates - 10,6. Energynost - 661 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt) 1, 1, 9.

Baked fish with milk sauce with vegetable oil: fish - 100, vegetable oil - 10, milk - 30, wheat flour - 3, cheese - 5,3, salt - 1. Yield - 85. Protein - 18,2, fats - 12,4, carbohydrates - 3,6. Energy value - 832 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 1, 2, 5, 6, 9.

Egg dishes

For dietary use fresh chicken eggs. They are used soft-boiled (3,5 min), in a bag (5 min) or hard-boiled (8 — 10 min). Before heat treatment, eggs should be washed in cold water. Boiled eggs are dipped in cold water, which facilitates the removal of the shell and prevents the greenish coloring of the yolk.

Steam or fried omelets, scrambled eggs are prepared from raw eggs. Omelets are made from eggs and milk. For a fried omelet on 1, 15 — 20 g of milk is taken, for steam or baked - 40 — 50 g. The egg mass is beaten well with milk, poured onto a baking tray, oiled, and baked in a frying oven or fried over an open fire.

Egg omelets can be stuffed with meat, vegetables, rice.

Omelette steam: eggs - 72 (1,5 pcs.), butter - 2, milk - 80, salt - 0,5. Exit - I30 Belkov —9,9 fats - 12,5, carbohydrates - 3,97. Energy value - 703 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 1, 16, 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.

Omelette protein steam: egg white - 60 (2 pcs.), milk - 60, sour cream 30% - 10, butter - 2, salt - 1. The yield is 110. Proteins - 8,2, fats - 6,4, carbohydrates - 3,3. Energy - 434 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 8 and 10 (without salt), 5.

Omelette steam, stuffed with meat: eggs - 72 (1,5 pcs.), meat - 50, butter - 2, milk - 60, salt - 1. Yield - 150. Protein - 18,2, fats - 13,6, carbohydrates - 3,1. Energy - 869 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

Omelette fried: eggs - 72 (1,5 pcs.), butter - 10, milk - 30, salt - 1. Yield - 90. Proteins - 8,5, fats - 17,04, carbohydrates - 1,76. Energy value - 814 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7 (without salt), 2, 15.

Dishes of cottage cheese

Cottage cheese is used to prepare cold (with the addition of cream, sour cream, sugar) and hot dishes. You can cook cottage cheese in combination with vegetables, fruits, berries, nuts and cereals. For nutritional therapy using curd 9, 20% fat and fat-free. Before cooking cheese Mince or wiping the machine. To prepare the soufflé pudding or mashed, the curd is introduced into a thick foam whipped into the egg whites.

Cottage cheese is prepared from pasteurized milk. From unpasteurized milk, cottage cheese should be used for dumplings, cottage cheese pancakes, etc. In diet No. 1, non-sour calcified cottage cheese is used. To prepare 100 g of calcined cottage cheese, add 700 tablespoons 2% calcium chloride or 10 teaspoon of calcium lactate to 1 g of milk. The milk is boiled, cooled slightly, and when stirring, a calcium solution is added to it. After cooling, the cottage cheese is reclined on cheesecloth, placed under a light press. To improve the taste, add vanilla, raisins, candied fruits to the cottage cheese.

Cottage cheese with sour cream: cottage cheese 9% fat - 100, sour cream 30% fat - 20, sugar - 20. The way out is 135. Proteins — 12,4; fats — 14,1; carbohydrates — 23. Energy value - 1124 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 15.

Cottage cheese pudding without sugar: cottage cheese 9% fat - 100, butter - 2, eggs - 12 (0,25 pcs.), Milk - 25, semolina - 10. Exit — 130 Belkov - fats — 12,4; carbohydrates — 11,5. Energy value - 909 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 8 and 9.

Cheese pancakes: cottage cheese 9% fat - 100, sugar - 15, butter - 3, sour cream 30% fat - 10, wheat flour — 15, eggs — 12 (0,25 pieces), milk — 15, salt - 0,25. Yield - 130. Proteins - 15,3, fats - 15,7, carbohydrates - 29,2. Energy - 1337 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7 and 10 (without salt), No. 8 and 9 (without sugar), 2, 3, 5, 6.

Dumplings are lazy: cottage cheese 9% fat - 120, sugar - 10, wheat flour - 20, butter - 5, eggs - 12 (0,25 pcs.). Yield - 150. Proteins - 23,71, fats - 16,56, carbohydrates - 26,3. Energy - 1461 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 8 and 9 (sugar free), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 15.

Pancakes with curd: cottage cheese 9% fat - 80, wheat flour - 50, milk - 50, butter - 10, eggs - 12 (0,25 pcs.), sugar - 5. Yield - 180. Proteins - 21,6, fats - 19,08, carbohydrates - 45,1. Energy - 1836 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 2, 3, 7, 10, 11, 15.

Dishes and garnishes from groats and pasta

Dishes and side dishes from cereals can be cooked in water, broth and milk. Cereal cereals are divided by consistency into friable, viscous and liquid.

Friable porridge can be made from all cereals except oats and corn. prepared beforehand pour the cereal into salted boiling water and, with constant stirring, bring to a thickening. After that, the dishes are tightly closed and held for 2 — 2,5 hours at the edge of the stove or in a water bath. In the latter case, a pot of large capacity with water is put on fire. A pot of smaller capacity with porridge is immersed in boiling water.

Viscous cereals are a dense mass that does not spread on a plate. They are prepared in water or milk diluted with water. Oat, pearl barley, semolina, rice, millet are placed in boiling water and boiled for 10-20 min, after which hot milk is added to the porridge and, stirring, boil it until tender. Butter is added to the finished porridge.

From semolina, rice or buckwheat flour, liquid cereals are prepared in milk or water. At the same time, cereal or flour should be poured into boiling milk or water gradually, in a small stream, thoroughly stirring so that lumps do not form.

To prepare mashed cereals, the cereal is poured into boiling water, boiled for 10 — 15 minutes, then hot milk is poured, stirred and boiled for 1 hours at a low boil, stirring constantly. Cooked porridge in hot form is passed through a washing machine or rubbed through a sieve and heated to 75-80 ° C in a water bath.

Cereal puddings are prepared from friable cereals: rice, semolina, millet. Sugar, yolk and other recipe products are added to the porridge that has cooled down to 60 ° С, whipped egg whites. The mass is placed on a baking sheet, oiled, and baked in the oven.

Eggs are introduced into casseroles whole without whipping proteins.

Pasta is cooked for 25 — 40 minutes, noodles - 25 — 30 minutes, vermicelli — 10 — 15 minutes. Products are laid in boiling salted water. Cooked products for draining water are thrown into a sieve or colander and then mixed with butter, cheese, cottage cheese, meat products or used without the addition of other products as a side dish seasoned with oil. To prepare casseroles, noodles, noodles or vermicelli are boiled in a small amount of water; pureed cottage cheese is mixed with raw eggs, sugar, salt and combined with noodles chilled to 70 ° С. The mass is laid out on a greased baking sheet with a layer in 2,5 — 3 cm, greased on top with sour cream and baked in a baking oven.

Dishes made from cereals or pasta can be seasoned with oil, sweet gravy or various sauces.

Semolina porridge milk: semolina - 40, milk - 100, butter - 5, sugar - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 250. Protein - 7,35, fats - 7,6, carbohydrates - 39,05. Energy - 1063 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7 and 10 (without salt), 1, 16, 1, 2, 3, 5, 15.

Boiled rice milk: rice - 50, milk - 100, butter - 5, sugar - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 200. Protein - 6,33, fats - 7,62, carbohydrates - 48,38. Energy value - 1202 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7 and 10 (without salt), 4, 5, 15.

Boiled rice (side dish)  rice - 60, water - 100, butter - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 110. Protein - 4,23, fats - 4,48, carbohydrates - 46,42. Energy value - 1017 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7 and 10 (without salt), 2, 5, 9, 15.

Buckwheat porridge dairy mashed: buckwheat - 50, milk - 100, butter - 5, sugar - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 250. Protein - 9,13, fats - 8,62, carbohydrates - 43,73. Energy - 1210 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 1, 16, 1, 2.

Buckwheat porridge crumbly: buckwheat - 70, butter - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 200. Protein - 8,85, fats - 5,94, carbohydrates - 47,64. Energy value - 1170 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 3, 5, 9, 15.

Buckwheat casserole (pudding) with cottage cheese: cottage cheese 9% fat - 50, buckwheat - 50, milk - 100, butter - 5, eggs - 24 (0,5 pieces), sour cream 30% fat - 5, sugar , water - 10, salts - 100. Yield - 1. Protein - 200, fats - 16,7, carbohydrates - 16,9. Energy - 48,1 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 1722, 7 and 8 (without salt), 10 and 8 (without sugar), 9, 2, 5.

Boiled vermicelli (side dish): vermicelli - 60, butter - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 185. Protein - 6,45, fats - 4,9, carbohydrates - 44,56. Energy value - 1039 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7 and 10 (without salt), 1, 2, 5, 15.

Food test

In a diet, hot dishes from baked and fried dough are used relatively rarely, however, pies, rolls with various fillings can be included in diets No. 5, 7, 11 and 15.

More often, flour is used to prepare sweet dishes, noodles, dumplings are prepared from it, and soup with dumplings and noodles are cooked. Pancakes with various minced meat are prepared from flour. Pancakes for therapeutic nutrition need to be prepared thin or they should be well baked and served to patients who have cooled down.

To prepare the yeast dough, two methods are used — unpaired and unpaired. In the non-steam method, all products are kneaded in one go. For this purpose, yeast, salt, sugar, previously diluted in a small amount of this liquid, pre-diluted in a small amount of this liquid are added to water heated to 35 ° C, flour is sifted through a frequent sieve, eggs are introduced and the dough is kneaded. Sprinkle the dough on top, cover gauze and left in a warm place (at 35 — 40 ° C) at 2 — 3 h for fermentation. During this time, the dough 2 — 3 is crushed once.

The dough method for preparing the dough consists of the steps for preparing the dough and kneading the dough. Dough is made from 60 — 70% liquid and 30 — 40% flour of their total amount. In yeast heated to 30 ° C, lay yeast, pour out the indicated amount of flour, mix and place the dough on 2-3 h for fermentation in a warm place. After the risen dough begins to settle, add the rest of the liquid in which salt and sugar are dissolved, lay the eggs, pour out the remaining flour and knead the dough. Before the end of kneading, the melted butter is poured into the dough and it is kneaded again until a homogeneous mass is obtained. The dough thus prepared is left on 2 hours for fermentation, during which 2 times are crushed.

To prepare shortbread dough (for cakes, cookies, rolls), softened butter with sugar and salt is triturated until the lumps disappear, after which eggs are added to the resulting mass and triturated again, then flour and dough baking powder are introduced (1 —1,5 g soda on 1 kg flour), knead the dough with a steep consistency.

Sponge dough for the preparation of cakes, rolls, pastries is prepared in this way. Flour is added to the egg yolks, ground with sugar, and after mixing the mass, beaten egg whites are introduced into it. The biscuit dough is poured onto greased and floury baking sheets and baked at 220 ° C for 30 minutes.

Dough products are fried in a pan or baked in a baking oven. Only for diets No. 11 and 15 are allowed to fry pies in deep fat with a lot of fat (2 kg per 0,5 kg of product).

Pancakes with curd: cottage cheese - 80, sugar - 5, wheat flour - 50, milk - 50, butter - 10, eggs — 12 (0,25 pcs.). Exit — 180 of Protein — 21,6, Fat —19,08  carbohydrates - 45,1. Energy value - 1836 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 2, 7, 10, 11, 15.

Lapshevnik baked with cheese: flour wheat - 50, milk - 50, cottage cheese 20% fat - 50, butter - 5, eggs - 24 (0,5 pcs), sour cream 30% fat - 25, sugar - 10, water - 15, salt - 1,5. The way out is 215. Protein — 14,6; fats — 25,9; carbohydrates — 49,4. Energy value - 2048 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 7 and 10 (without salt), 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 11, 15.

Cheesecake with cream cheese: wheat flour - 50, cottage cheese - 50, butter - 10, milk - 25, eggs - 24 (0,5 pcs.), sugar - 20, yeast - 4, salt - 1. Exit - 130 Belkov -

 fats - 16,1, carbohydrates - 57,3. Energy value - 1797 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7 and 10 (without salt), 2, 5, 6, 11, 15.

Pie with apples: wheat flour - 50, apples - 75, milk - 25, sugar - 20, butter - 10, eggs -12 (0,25 pcs.), Yeast - 4, salt - 1. Yield — 120; Proteins — 8,1; fats — 10,4; carbohydrates — 62,7. Energy value - 1578 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7 and 10 (without salt), 3, 5, 11, 15.

The dishes and side dishes of vegetables

Independent dishes and side dishes for meat and fish products are prepared from vegetables. The mass of independent dishes should not be less than 200 — 250 g, side dishes should be about 150 — 200 g. Hot dishes are prepared by cooking, stewing, baking and roasting.

Particular attention should be paid to the cold culinary processing of raw vegetables. They are cleaned of spoiled parts, rotten leaves. The peel is removed from root crops and tubers, they are thoroughly washed 3 — 4 times in running water. To preserve vitamins, processed vegetables, especially green ones, should be cooked immediately after washing. Dried vegetables are washed in cold water, then poured with fresh (cold) water, left for 1 — 2 hours for swelling and boiled in the same water, since mineral salts and vitamins partially pass into it.

Heat treatment of vegetables is carried out in compliance with a hygienic regime, ensuring the preservation of their nutritional value. It is best to steam vegetables, for this they use an ordinary pan or boiler, into which they put the wire rack. Vegetables are placed on a wire rack, under which water boils. If root vegetables are boiled in water, they should be lowered into salted (10 g per 1 l) water, the level of which above vegetables does not exceed 1 cm.

When boiling potatoes through 15 — 20 minutes after boiling water, it is drained and the potatoes are steamed.

Cook vegetables, except for beets and dried green peas (if there are no contraindications for diet), it is recommended in salted water. Vegetable broth can be used for soups and sauces.

Cooked vegetables intended for mashed dishes, after being prepared, are wiped through a sieve, sieve or passed through a meat grinder with a frequent grate. It is forbidden to add baking soda to vegetables for better digestion, as this leads to the destruction of vitamins. Potatoes are wiped only hot. Freshly frozen vegetables, not thawing, put in boiling water.

Baked dishes are prepared from boiled, stewed or fried vegetables in the form of cutlets, casseroles, soufflé. Bake dishes in white (milk), sour cream sauce or sour cream. For casseroles, prepared vegetables are cut, baked until cooked, and if the dish is intended for diets No. 1, 5, 13, then they are rubbed through a sieve or passed through a meat grinder. To give the dish a shape, rubbed semolina is introduced into mashed vegetables and this mass is boiled.

Stuffed cabbage, stuffed cucumbers, zucchini are made from vegetableski, turnips, peppers, beets, eggplant, tomatoes, cabbage strudel, carrot zrazy and other dishes.

Most vegetables before stuffing for softening fiber is heat treated.

Stuffing is made from pritushennyh vegetables, pour milk or cream sauce. Filled minced vegetables baked in the cabinet top land.

Fried foods are prepared from raw, pre-cooked or cooked vegetables. They fry vegetables in their natural form or make cutlets, pancakes, zrazy out of them. The duration of the heat treatment depends on the type of vegetables, their maturity.

For the preparation of fritters, cutlets, casseroles, zrash, roulade, prepared vegetables and roots are cut, let in milk or water until tender, passed (if indicated) through a meat grinder, brought to a boil again, pour semolina into them, then boiled for about 10 minutes, cool slightly, add eggs, salt and knead. From this mass, appropriate products are molded that are fried or baked. For raw frying, prepared potatoes are cut, washed on a sieve or colander with cold water; to glass the water, leave it on a sieve for several minutes, then fry.

Mashed potatoes with butter: potatoes - 210, milk - 50, butter - 5, salt - 1. Exit - 200. Proteins - 3,9, fats - 5,7, carbohydrates - 32,3, Energy - 821 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7 and 10 (without salt), 16, 1, 2.

Souffle from potatoes with vegetable oil: potato - 210, milk - 50, vegetable oil - 7, sour cream 30% fat — 15, eggs - 24 (0,5 pcs.), Salt — 1. Yield - 200. Protein - 6,8, fats - 15,2, carbohydrates - 32,8. Energy - 1236 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 10 (without salt), 1, 3, 5, 10, 15.

Potato casserole with boiled meat: meat - 120, potatoes - 210, eggs - 24 (0,5 pcs.), Milk - 50, cheese - 5,3, butter - 10, sour cream 30% fat - 5, salt - 2. Yield - 260. Protein - 20,1, fats - 21,1, carbohydrates - 32,3. Energy value - 673 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7 and 10 (without salt), 1, 2, 5, 6, 9.

Beetroot puree with vegetable oil: beets - 190, vegetable oil - 10, wheat flour - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 180. Proteins - 3,08, fats - 10,64, carbohydrates - 19,86. Energy value - 785 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 3, 5, 15.

Beets stewed with apples: beets - 190, apples - 57, vegetable oil — 10, wheat flour - 5, a little citric acid. Exit - 200. Protein - 3,8, fats - 10,05, carbohydrates 25,51. Energy value - 869 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 3, 5, 15.

Carrot puree with vegetable oil: carrots - 190, milk - 30, flour - 5, butter - 5, salts — 1. Yield - 200. Proteins - 3,35, fats - 5,29, carbohydrates - 15,61. Energy value - 516 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7 and 8 (without salt), 1, 2, 3, 9, 15.

Cabbage schnitzel, fried in vegetable oil: cabbage - 250, semolina - 15, an egg - 12 (0,25 pcs.), vegetable oil - 10, salt - 1, milk - 30. Yield - 150. Proteins - 7,65, fats - 12,43, carbohydrates - 23,28. Energy value - 986 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 3, 9, 15.

Stuffed cabbage stuffed with vegetables and rice: cabbage - 190, carrots - 75, rice - 10, parsley - 15, vegetable oil - 10, milk - 50, flour - 5, sour cream 30% fat - 10, salt - 1. Yield - 250. Proteins - 6,76, fats — 13,77, carbohydrates — 27,17. Energy value - 1087 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 3, 5, 9, 11, 15.

Zucchini baked in sour cream: zucchini - 270, vegetable oil - 10, wheat flour - 5, sour cream 30% fat - 10, salt - 1. Yield - 200. Protein - 2,1, fats - 12,65, carbohydrates - 15,38. Energy value - 769 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 15.

Pumpkin puree: pumpkin - 290, milk - 50, semolina - 15, butter - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 200. Protein - 5,12, fats - 55,82, carbohydrates - 26,38. Energy - 747 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 1, 2, 10.

Sheep stew: potatoes - 105, carrots - 60, greens - 7, cauliflower - 40, zucchini - 25, onions - 30, wheat flour - 18, tomato paste - 5, sour cream 5, fat% - 30, vegetable oil -

 Yield - 250. Protein - 5,41, fats - 7,25, carbohydrates - 29,98. Energy value - 865 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 3, 5, 7, 8, 10 (without onion and tomato), 7, 8, 10 (without salt), 9,11, 15

Cold dishes and snacks

Cold dishes and snacks include salads, vinaigrettes, sandwiches, various meat, fish and vegetable dishes. In some diets, they are used as independent dishes for breakfast and dinner, as well as snacks or side dishes for lunch. Seasonings for cold dishes can be sour cream, vegetable oil, vinegar, mayonnaise, salad dressings, 2% citric acid solution, lemon juice.

For the preparation of salads and vinaigrettes, all vegetables are boiled separately, better peeled, and not in the peel. Chilled vegetables are diced and mixed. Prepared for mixing carrots and beets are stewed in a small amount of water or vegetable broth. Raw vegetables that enter the dish raw, after thorough mechanical cleaning of contaminants, are washed at least 3 times in cold water, pour boiled water, cut and introduced into the dish before consumption. Salads and vinaigrettes are seasoned immediately before serving.

Chilled meat, fish, seafood, eggs can be added to salads or vinaigrettes. Preliminary heat treatment of these products is the same as for the preparation of hot dishes. When preparing salads and vinaigrettes, it is forbidden to introduce into them any food product in warm or hot form. Cold dishes and starting products for their preparation require particularly careful hygiene during storage and processing.

Tomato salad with onions: tomatoes - 70, green onions - 10, parsley - 10, vegetable oil - 10, salt - 1. Exit - 100, Protein - 0,95, fat -

 carbohydrates - 4,39. Energy value - 462 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 5 (without onions), 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 9, 15.

Fresh cabbage salad with sour cream: cabbage - 150, sour cream 20% fat - 20, citric acid - 2, salt - 1. Yield - 170. Protein - 3,26, fats - 4, carbohydrates - 8,7. 352 kJ energy value. It is recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 5, 9, 15.

Salad of prefabricated vegetables: radish - 60, fresh cucumbers - 30, green onions - 10, sour cream 20% fat - 20, salt - 1. Yield — 120; Proteins — 1,65; fats — 4; carbohydrates — 4,43. Energy value - 252 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 8 and 10 (without salt), 9, 15.

Beetroot salad in vegetable oil: beets - 100, vegetable oils - 10, citric acid 2% - 5, salts 1. Yield — 115; Proteins — 1,7; fats — 9,99; carbohydrates — 10,8. Energy value - 586 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 2, 5, 15.

Vinaigrette with vegetable oil (spring): potatoes - 50, beets - 45, carrots - 30, fresh cucumbers - 30, tomatoes - 20, lettuce - 15, green onion - 5, vegetable oil - 10, citric acid 2% - 5, salts - 1. Exit - 200. Proteins - 2,79, fats — 10,07, carbohydrates -

 Energy value - 745 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 5 (without onion), 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 2, 9, 15.

Vinaigrette with vegetable oil (winter): potatoes 50, beets - 60, carrots - 30, pickled cucumbers - 30, green peas - 30, onions - 10, vegetable oil - 10, citric acid 2% - 5. Yield 220. Proteins - 4,04, fats - 10,11, carbohydrates - 21,19. Energy - 804 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 5 (without onions), 7, 8 and 10 (without * cucumbers), 9, 15.

Carrot, apple and lemon salad with sour cream: apples - 50, carrots - 70, sour cream 30% fat - 20, sugar - 5, lemons - 5. Yield - 140. Protein - 1,5, fats - 5,6, carbohydrates - 16,9. Energy value - 519 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 8 and 9 (sugar free), 2, 5, 7, 10, 15.

Sauces

Sauces are part of many hot and cold dishes. They improve the taste of food, change the appearance of dishes, increase their nutritional value. Various flavors are introduced into the composition of sauces. They are cooked in milk, sour cream, butter, meat, fish and mushroom broths, vegetable or rice broths with dressings (in the absence of contraindications) —usus, citric acid, pickled cabbage brine. Most often sauces are consumed hot.

Meat, fish and mushroom sauces are prepared on broths, including broths from bones fried in a baking oven to light brown in color. Bones prepared in this way are poured with water at the rate of 2 L per 1 kg of bones and boiled 8 — 10 h on low heat with periodic removal of foam and fat. Fried without fat until brown and chilled wheat flour is diluted with cooled broth and boiled, then combined with sautéed vegetables, boiled for 45 min, filtered and again brought to a boil.

White sauce is prepared on the broth, which is added to the dried flour, mashed with butter, mixing the mass until a homogeneous consistency. The sauce is boiled 25 — 30 min, salted and filtered. Then mashed vegetables are introduced into the sauce, brought to a boil and citric acid is added.

Milk sauces are prepared in milk diluted with broth or water, x by adding a small amount of wheat flour, browned in a frying pan to a light yellow color (with thorough grinding). The resulting mixture is poured into boiling milk (or milk with water) and boiled with constant stirring until a sauce of the desired consistency is obtained. Butter is added to the prepared hot sauce.

Mushroom sauce of dried mushrooms is prepared after soaking them in water for 3 — 4 hours. After this, the mushrooms are boiled, washed, passed through a meat grinder or chopped. The boiling broth is seasoned with pan-dried wheat flour and butter.

Below is the recipe and the chemical composition of sauces.

Milk sauce with chopped egg: milk - 50, wheat flour - 5, eggs - 12 (1 / 4 pcs.), Sour cream 30% fat - 10, salts - 0,25. Yield - 60. Protein - 3,3, fats - 5,9, carbohydrates - 6,1. Energy value - 379 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 15.

Milk sauce: milk - 50, wheat flour -

5, butter - 5, salts - 0,25. Exit - 50 Belkov -

fats - 5,7, carbohydrates - 5,8. Energy value - 342 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 1, 16, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, AND, 15.

Sour cream sauce on vegetable broth: 30% sour cream - 15, vegetable broth - 15, wheat flour - 3, salt - 0,1. Exit - 30, Protein - 0,6, Fat - 4,3, carbohydrates - 2,6. Energy value - 216 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15.

Red meat sauce: butter - 5, wheat flour - 5, tomato paste - 5, onion - 5, carrots - 5, sugar - 3, parsley - 5, meat broth - 30. Yield - 50. Protein - 1,12, fats - 4,18, carbohydrates - 8,85. Energy value - 324 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 2, 3, 7, AND, 15.

Sweet dishes,

Sweet foods include berries and fruits, natural and in syrup, stewed fruit, jelly, jelly, mousse, creams, sweet dough and ice cream. Usually sweet foods are served cold.

To prepare sweet dishes, fresh fruits are washed in cold water, peeled, cut into slices, cut out a seed box and washed again in running water. Products prepared in this way should be cooked immediately so as not to darken.

The berries are sorted, cleaned of stalks. From plums, cherries, apricots bone removed.

Dried fruits and berries are sorted, washed 2 times under running water.

Kissels and compotes are made from fresh, dried and canned fruits and berries. Kissels come in a thick, semi-liquid and liquid consistency, depending on the amount of starch added. Prepared fruits are immersed in boiling water and cooked until cooked, wiped with water, brought back to a boil, previously adding prepared potato starch and sugar. Ready jelly is poured immediately or after cooling into molds or glasses.

Knead fresh berries with a wooden spoon in a non-oxidizing bowl (or separate the juice in a juicer). After separating the juice, the berry pulp is poured with warm water and cooked for 5 — 10 minutes, and the juice is refrigerated. After cooling, the pulp is filtered, the starch and sugar diluted in a four-fold volume of water or juice are added to it, mixed and boiled for 3-5 minutes. After that, the juice squeezed earlier is introduced into the finished kissel and poured into molds or glasses.

To prepare milk jelly, starch and sugar diluted with cold water or milk are added to boiling milk, the mixture is again brought to a boil and cooled.

To make compotes, freshly prepared fruits or berries are poured with boiling water, sugar is added, the mixture is brought to a boil, and then cooled. Dried fruits must be cooked for 15 — 20 min, after which sugar is added to the compote and cooled. To prepare mashed compotes, boiled fruits or berries are thrown into a colander, wiped, stir with broth, add sugar, after boiling compote is cooled.

Jelly and mousses are cooked on gelatin. The gelatin is soaked in cold water until completely swollen, poured into boiling juice or a decoction of fruit, after which the dishes are removed from the heat. Jelly is poured into molds. To prepare the mousse, the jelly is cooled to 40 ° C and beat until frothy, after which it is finally cooled poured into molds.

Creams are used as separate dishes and as seasonings for other dishes. They are made from cream (sour cream), milk, sugar, eggs and gelatin. To do this, gelatin is ground with sugar and mixed with hot milk. The mixture is heated without boiling, with constant stirring, cooled to 30 ° C and whipped cream or sour cream is introduced into it. The whole mass is thoroughly mixed, poured into molds and finally cooled.

In sweet foods for diets No. 8 and 9, sugar is replaced with an equal amount of sorbitol or xylitol (but not more than 20 — 25 g per serving).

Dried blueberries kissel: dried blueberries - 15, sugar - 15, potato flour - 8. Yield - 200. Protein - 0,34, fats - 0, carbohydrates - 31,17. Energy value - 528 kJ. Recommended for diet No. 4.

Apple puree jelly: apple puree - 35, sugar - 15, potato flour - 8. Yield - 200. Protein - 0,2, fats - 0,035, carbohydrates - 28. Energy value - 474 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 1, 16, 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 15.

Milk jelly: milk - 150, sugar - 15, potato flour - 8. Yield - 200. Protein - 4,2, fats - 4,8, carbohydrates - 28,38. Energy value - 727 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 1, 16, 1, 5.

Fresh apple compote: fresh apples - 55, sugar - 15. Yield - 200. Protein - 0,2, fats - 0, carbohydrates - 21,1. Energy value - 357 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 8 and 9 (sugar free), 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15.

Compote of fresh apples on xylitol: fresh apples - 55, xylitol - 15. Yield - 200. Protein - 0,2, fats - 0, carbohydrates - 6,2. Energy value - 107 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 8, 9.

Apple jelly: apple juice - 50, sugar - 15, gelatin - 3. Yield - 125. Protein - 2,8, fats - 0,012, carbohydrates - 20,8. Energy value - 396 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 1, 16,1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 (sugar free), 10, 15.

Apple mousse on xylitol: fresh apples - 40, xylitol - 15, gelatin - 3. Yield - 125. Protein - 2,7, fats - 0,012, carbohydrates - 4,5. Energy value - 121 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 8 and 9.

Fruit juice mousse: grape juice - 50, sugar - 15, gelatin - 3, water - 70. Exit — 125. Protein - 2,3, fats - 0, carbohydrates - 23,4. Energy value - 430 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 15.

Milk cream: milk — 100, eggs — 12 (1 / 4 pcs), sugar — 15, gelatin — 3, vanilla — to taste. Yield - 125; Proteins - 6,2; fats - 4,8; carbohydrates — 19. 603 kJ energy value. Recommended for diets No. 1, 16, 1,2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 15.

Apple juice: apple juice - 100. Exit - 100. Proteins - 0,5, fats - 0, carbohydrates - 11,7. Energy value - 204 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 1,2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15.

Tea with milk: milk - 50, tea - 0,25, water - 150. Yield - 200. Protein - 1,4, fats - 1,6, carbohydrates - 2,3. Energy - 122 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 1, 16, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15.

Coffee with milk: natural coffee - 3, milk - 100. Yield - 200. Protein - 3,21, fats - 3,63, carbohydrates - 4,82. Energy value - 271 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15.

Cocoa with milk: milk - 100, cocoa - 5. Yield - 200. Protein - 4, fats - 4, carbohydrates - 6. Energy value - 318 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 15.

Dishes of non-traditional food

For non-traditional foods are beneficial, rich in nutrients non-fish seafood.

Of the non-fish products of the sea, seaweed, mussels, scallops, squids, crab, shrimp, spiny lobsters and krill are most often used in dietary foods.

Seaweed in the diet is most often used frozen or dried, as well as in the form of canned food. In the process of preliminary preparation, dried cabbage is cleaned of mechanical impurities and soaked in cold water for 10 — 12 h at the rate of 0,5 kg of cabbage in 4 l of water. After the expiration of the soaking period, the cabbage is thoroughly washed. Frozen cabbage is first thawed in cold water and then washed.

For hot processing, seaweed is poured with cold water. After boiling the water, it is boiled for 15 — 20 minutes, the broth is drained, the temperature 45 — 50 ° С is poured again with warm water, and the 15 — 20 temperature is boiled. The broth is again drained and the cabbage drenched in warm water is boiled for the third time 15 — 20 min, after which the broth is drained again. Cooking seaweed three times significantly improves its smell, taste and color. After cooling, seaweed cooked in this way is chopped in the form of noodles and poured with marinade on 8 — 10 hours. Marinade for sea kale is prepared by adding sugar, salt, cloves, bay leaf to hot water; cook for 10 — 15 minutes Add a little vinegar to the chilled broth. Pickled seaweed is used to make salads.

Vegetable salad with seaweed: pickled sea cabbage - 75, white cabbage - 100, fresh cucumbers - 25, green onions - 25, tomatoes - 24, apples - 23, vegetable oil - 20. The yield is 250. Protein — 1,5; fats — 9,3; carbohydrates — 8,3. Energy value - 515 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 3, 8, 10.

Frozen scallops are placed in a pan with water and thawed at room temperature for 2-3 hours, then washed thoroughly with cold water. After that, the scallop is immersed in boiling slightly salted water with the roots of carrots, parsley, celery and boiled for 10 min. Chilled scallop meat is finely chopped and mixed with chilled potato, apples, cucumbers and green onions, cooked in peel and chopped into small pieces. The salad is seasoned with vegetable oil, put on a plate and garnished with green onions.

Vegetable salad with scallop: scallop (meat) - 100, fresh cucumbers - 20, potatoes - 20, apples - 20, green onion - 20, vegetable oil - 10, salt - 2. Exit - 180, Protein - 16,1, fat -

carbohydrates - 11. Energy value - 827 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 2, 3, 5, 9, 11, 15.

Shrimps, cleaned of panyir, boiled, cut into fibers and cooled. Peeled, chilled and peeled potatoes, apples, cucumbers and green onions combine with 2 / 3 prepared shrimps and green peas. Salad forrule vegetable oil, mix thoroughly, put on a plate slide, decorate with the remaining shrimp, cucumbers and green onions.

Vegetable salad with shrimp: peeled boiled shrimps - 100, fresh cucumbers - 20, potatoes - 20, apples - 20, green onions - 20, green peas - 20, vegetable oil - 10, salt - 1,5. Yield - 200. Protein - 18,4, fats - 10,3, carbohydrates - 11,7. Energy value - 892 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 2, 5, 9, 11, 15.

Pasta "Ocean". Pasta is produced from small shrimp (krill) that lives in Antarctic waters. The paste freed from the packaging film is thawed at room temperature for 2 – 6 hours. The shelf life of thawed pasta at 4 – 8 ° C is no more than 6 hours. It is not recommended to freeze thawed paste a second time.

Thawed Ocean paste is placed in a wide pan with a layer of 2 — 3 cm, a little hot water is added, the pan is covered and its contents are allowed to boil for a small boil for 10 minutes. The stewed paste is cooled. Re-freezing it is not allowed. Store the paste at a temperature of 4 — 8 ° C for no more than 6 hours. Use for preparing cold dishes.

Vegetable salad with pasta "Ocean" in vegetable oil: pasta "Ocean" - 23, potatoes - 55,

carrots — 15, green peas — 15, fresh cucumbers — 15, eggs — 12 (0,25 pieces), vegetable oil — 15, greens — 5, salt — 1. Yield - 145. Protein - 7, fats - 8,6, carbohydrates - 14. Energy value - 676 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 3, 5, 11, 15.

Vegetable salad with apples and Ocean pasta on sour cream: Ocean pasta - 47, potatoes - 45, fresh apples - 30, fresh cucumbers - 20, eggs - 12 (0,25 pieces), sugar - 1, sour cream 30% fat - 20, greens - 5, salt - 1. Yield - 160. Protein - 10,3, fats - 10,1, carbohydrates - 15,2. Energy value - 808 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 7 and 10 (without salt), 2, 5, 9, 11, 15.

Belip - a protein product consisting of fresh cottage cheese, cod and vegetable oil, is a product of high biological value. To prepare a belip from cod fillet, skin is removed, the fillet is washed well, twice passed through a meat grinder, mixed with cottage cheese, bread soaked in water, onion fried in vegetable oil and passed through a meat grinder again. Pepper is added to the minced meat, salt and mass are well kneaded. From the minced meat prepared in this way, dumplings, meatballs, cutlets are prepared, it is also used as a filling for pies.

Belip meatballs: cod (fillet) - 50, low-fat cottage cheese - 50, carrots - 20, onion - 15, tomato paste - 5, vegetable oil - 15, wheat flour - 5, eggs — 12 (0,25 pcs.), some pepper. Yield — 150. Proteins — 16,8; fats — 15,9; carbohydrates — 9,2. Energy value - 1035 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 5 (without onions), 2, 7, 8, 9, 10.

Belip paste: cod (fillet) - 80, milk - 300, onion - 10, butter - 10, vegetable oil - 5, a little pepper. Yield - 80. Protein - 13,6, fats - 17,4, carbohydrates - 4,6. Energy value - 960 kJ. It is recommended for diets No. 5 (without onions), 7, 8 and 10 (without salt), 2, 9.

Belip meatballs in milk sauce: cod (fillet) - 80, low-fat cottage cheese - 50, onion - 15, vegetable oil - 15, eggs - 12 (0,25 pieces), wheat flour - 5. Yield - 80 / 50. Protein - 20,8, fats - 16,0, carbohydrates - 6,6. Energy value - 1062 kJ. Recommended for diets No. 5 (without onions), 2, 7, 8, 10.

Enpits are composed of soluble milk proteins. They are biologically balanced in a variety of nutrients. At present, various compositions of entpits have been created: protein, carbohydrate, World and fat-free. The most affordable for home use is protein entp. The composition of 100 g of dry protein enpit includes: proteins — 44, fats — 14, carbohydrates — 30,7. The energy value of this concentrate is 1779 kJ.

Enpits are used as an additional, easily digestible source of proteins. The diluted protein entpit (50 g of dry matter is dissolved in an 1 glass of boiled water) is added to porridge, mashed potatoes, soups, juices. The dose is gradually increased: start with 50 ml and bring up to 200 ml in one go.

Diets with the inclusion of protein entit have a positive effect on the well-being of patients with cancer, burn disease, after various surgical interventions on the intestines. The use of enpita can improve the supply of the body not only with proteins, fats and carbohydrates, but also with vitamins and minerals.

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