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Prevention of food poisoning. Food toxicosis.

Food products under certain conditions, can cause poisoning. Food poisoning are non-communicable diseases (Vol. E.ON is not transmitted from one person to another by contact), are the result of eating the food, massive contamination of certain kinds of microorganisms or containing toxic substances to the body of microbial or non-microbial nature.

Food poisoning occur as mass outbreaks with a considerable number of victims or as a family, group of diseases, as well as sporadic cases.

Mostly they are acute, but there are also chronic ones associated with prolonged use of products containing a small amount of toxic substances.

The most common food poisoning, which, according to modern classification, relate to food poisoning of a microbial nature.

Foodborne infections of microbial origin include toxic infections caused by microbes (and their poisons), and toxicoses associated with exposure to toxins, bacteria, or microscopic fungi.

Regardless of the cause of food poisoning, they are not transmitted directly from a sick person to a healthy person. This is their main difference from infectious diseases. Foodborne infections are contagious diseases that occur when food is contaminated with live microbial pathogens. The causative agents of foodborne infections are sticks of typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, dysentery, and vibrio cholera, which, once in the digestive system in small quantities, multiply and cause disease. After clinical recovery, a person often remains a bacteriocarrier for a long time.

A common intestinal infection is salmonellosis, the pathogens of which - salmonella - are also able to multiply intensively in foods. When eating foods containing massive amounts of salmonella, the disease can occur as a foodborne toxicosis.

Foodborne diseases. Nutritional toxic infections occur only as a result of eating foods containing a large number of living pathogens. The causative agents of foodborne toxicoinfections are microorganisms characterized by moderate or weak pathogenicity (pathogenic properties), therefore, the disease develops only with abundant multiplication of microbes in food in case of violation of the sanitary-hygienic and technological modes of its preparation, as well as storage conditions.

Foodborne infections, regardless of the type of pathogen, have a number of common symptoms. So, the disease occurs only after eating foods that are massively seeded with live pathogens. Sick for several hours a significant number of people who ate a seeded product. The duration of the incubation (hidden) period is several hours, rarely more than a day. The main symptoms of the disease are vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, poor health. The rapid development of painful phenomena and their rapid subsidence are characteristic. Patients with foodborne toxicoinfections are not dangerous to others, since the pathogen is excreted with vomit and feces for a very short time and has a weak pathogenicity.

Food toxicosis (intoxication) - This is an acute (bacterial) or chronic (mycotoxicosis) disease that occurs as a result of eating food containing toxin that has accumulated in it as a result of the development of a specific pathogen. Toxicosis is divided into two types: bacterial (staphylococcal intoxication, botulism) and mycotoxicosis (caused by toxins of microscopic fungi).The main measures to prevent food poisoning and foodborne infections are to prevent microorganisms from seeding products, to prevent the growth of microorganisms in products by carefully observing the sanitary-hygienic and technological regimes of their processing and storage conditions; destruction of the microbes contained in the product through heat treatment.Staphylococcal food toxicosisStaphylococcal food-borne toxicosis - acute diseases that occur after eating foods or prepared foods containing toxic substances - staphylococcal enterotoxins. Staphylococci, causing food poisoning, are distinguished by the ability to produce enterotoxins, which cause diseases. People (and animals) can be a source of contamination of food products with such staphylococci: dairy farm operators, workers of various food facilities, if they suffer from pustular lesions of the skin and mucous membranes. With any skin lesion - pyoderma, furunculosis, panaritium - a significant amount of staphylococci is released into the environment. Persons with festering cuts and burns can infect food and food. Epidemiological danger is also presented to those suffering from tonsillitis, acute respiratory viral infectious diseases, patients with influenza, tooth decay, and periodontal disease. Food products can be infected by microorganisms through contact not only with sick people, but also with healthy carriers of pathogenic staphylococci. So, scientists have proved that healthy carriers of staphylococci on the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract are a source of contamination of food products and food by staphylococci. Healthy staph carriers are less dangerous for others than sick persons: in the latter, pathogenic staphylococci are found much more often and in greater numbers. However, the greatest danger is represented by persons with pustular lesions of the skin and mucous membranes of the mouth and nose. From pustular foci, from the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, staphylococci fall into the air, seeding equipment, apparatus, utensils, food. Very dangerous people in contact with food, suffering from a runny nose, cough. Staphylococci are found in human feces. The cause of human infection may be milk infected with enterotoxigenic staphylococci that got into it from farm animals suffering from inflammatory diseases of the udder. Staphylococcal mastitis of cows and goats often proceed without external manifestations. Milk obtained from animals with subclinical (latent) mastitis also often contains pathogenic staphylococci.
Most often, animals infect them with milk with dermatitis and other skin lesions of the udder. This is facilitated by injuries in animals.High-quality milk obtained from healthy animals, in conditions of an exemplary sanitary-hygienic regimen, contains almost no germs. Observations show that the use of products containing a small amount of staphylococci does not cause intoxication. Typically, disease causing products contain from 16 LLC to 50 LLC LLC and more than staphylococci in 1The rate of propagation of staphylococci and the formation of enterotoxins by them depend on the composition of food products and temperature conditions. Staphylococci develop in foods, both rich in proteins and carbohydrates. Therefore, the cause of staphylococcal toxicosis can be a variety of food products - sour milk, especially sour milk, cottage cheese, sour cream, yogurt, young unstable feta cheese, ground meat dishes, jelly, paste, cream confectionery, ice cream. There are diseases associated with the use of poor-quality salads, vinaigrettes, boiled pasta with meat ("navy"), etc.The propagation of staphylococci and their accumulation of enterotoxins in food products occurs at room temperature. So, at an air temperature above 20 ° С, enterotoxin can form in 4 – 8 hours, at a temperature of 37 ° С in 4 hours. Staphylococci intensively reproduce at 25 – 30 ° С. At a temperature of 8 ° C they remain viable. At a temperature of 2 — 4 ° C, staphylococcus proliferation is delayed but does not stop.Staphylococci are quite resistant to high concentrations of sugar. A complete delay in their reproduction occurs when sugar concentrations exceed 60%, at lower sugar concentrations (33 — 55%) they can multiply, while growth dysenteric and other pathogenic bacteria is delayed.
Staphylococci are relatively resistant to high concentrations of sodium chloride. Their reproduction does not stop in products containing 5 — 10% sodium chloride. The reproduction of these bacteria is delayed when the concentration of sodium chloride exceeds 12%. Staphylococcus death occurs at 20 — 25% concentration of sodium chloride in foods.Staphylococcal enterotoxin is resistant to high temperature. Even boiling for 1 hours does not completely destroy enterotoxin. At the same time, staphylococci completely die, but the product continues to be dangerous, since enterotoxins remain in it. In this regard, toxicosis is possible after drinking boiled and pasteurized milk, if it was infected before heat treatment. Staphylococci multiply well and produce enterotoxins in thermally processed foods. It should be noted that food products containing staphylococci and enterotoxins do not seem to differ from benign.From the time of use of a product containing enterotoxins to the onset of the disease, 3 — 5 hours pass. Patients have severe abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and dizziness. In some cases * diarrhea may be absent and the leading symptoms are nausea, vomiting, cramping abdominal pain, dizziness, general weakness. The body temperature is normal or subfebrile, occasionally rises to 38 — 39 ° С. The course of the disease is short-term, recovery occurs within 1 — 2 days.Prevention of staphylococcal toxicosis should include a set of measures aimed primarily at strict control over the health of people in contact with food. Persons with pustular diseases on their hands and body are not allowed to work with food products. In order to prevent the ingestion of enterotoxigenic staphylococci into food products, workers with angina, with colds, accompanied by cough and runny nose, should not be allowed to process food and cook food. If staphylococcus carriage is detected in healthy individuals, it is necessary to carry out sanitation of the nose and pharynx. These measures can prevent or reduce staphylococcal seeding of raw materials, semi-finished products, food.It is very important to apply effective measures to delay the reproduction of pathogenic staphylococci already in food. In providing conditions that exclude the possibility of staphylococcus propagation and the formation of enterotoxins by them, the widespread use of cold at all stages of the receipt, processing, storage, transportation and sale of food products is important. Milk, dairy products, pastries with cream, as well as other perishable Products should be stored in refrigerated rooms, cold rooms, household refrigerators.
In our country, the sanitary rules “Conditions, periods of storage of especially perishable food products” (see Appendix 1986) have been developed and approved (6). These sanitary rules are intended for all enterprises producing and selling especially perishable products.Particularly perishable are products that cannot be stored without cold, whose maximum shelf life at temperatures not exceeding 6 ° C is from 6 to 72 h (depending on the type of product). These are meat, dairy, fish, vegetable products, confectionery, etc.Strict observance of the adopted rules for the storage and sale of food products is of great importance in the complex of measures to prevent food poisoning, including staphylococcal origin.To prevent poisoning with milk and dairy products, the use of milk obtained from animals with mastitis is prohibited. In our country, sick animals are identified and isolated, utilization or special processing of milk obtained from sick cows is carried out. At dairies, milk is subjected to special heat treatment - pasteurization. This method, proposed by the French scientist Louis Pasteur, ensures the death of most microorganisms found in milk, including pathogens, while the quality of milk does not change. Since the destruction of all microorganisms cannot be achieved under the existing pasteurization regimes, milk must be quickly sold or stored in the refrigerator.Good boiling and frying foods are the main measures to prevent the development of staphylococci and the release of toxins, since sufficient heat treatment of food products ensures the destruction of staphylococci that have fallen into the product.In the manufacture of confectionery products with a cream should strictly observe the cream formulations, to avoid reducing the concentration of sugar in them, as well as breach of terms and conditions of storage of finished products.botulismBotulism is not common, but the prevention of this disease remains an important task, since it is difficult in most cases and often ends with the death of the patient. The fatal outcome in botulism is associated with a deep damage to the nervous system, which is growing extremely rapidly and requires an urgent complex of therapeutic measures.Botulism results from eating foodproducts containing botulinum toxin, which is considered the most potent natural poison.
The term "botulism" comes from the Latin word "botulus" - sausage. He was known in Germany for a long time. Initially, the disease was associated with the use of animal products (meat sausages), but subsequently it was found that it occurs after the use of low-quality products of plant origin, as well as fish.The causative agent of botulism is widespread in nature, especially in soil and water, so plants and fish are easily infected by spores and vegetative cells of botulism bacillus.For the multiplication of these microbes and the formation of toxin in food products, it is necessary to have simultaneously a number of conditions: a favorable temperature, lack of oxygen, a long stay of the pathogen in these conditions, under which it manages to multiply plentifully and form botulinum toxin.Since the causative agent of botulism reproduces without access to air, the formation of toxin occurs inside large pieces of ham, fish, and sausages. Hermetically sealed canned foods are a favorable environment for the development of botulism sticks. An oxygen-free environment can also form in fish when air enters, if there has been abundant reproduction of microbes that consume oxygen and thereby create conditions for the propagation of the pathogen and toxin formation.In order for the toxin to accumulate in food, a certain time is needed, and the rate of its formation depends on the temperature at which the product is stored. The most favorable temperature for toxin formation is 30 — 37 ° С. Under these conditions, the amount of toxin dangerous to humans can accumulate in less than a day. The lower the temperature, the slower the toxin formation, and at a temperature below 3 ° C, the toxin does not form.It should be remembered that, as a rule, no special signs of spoilage of products that contain this toxin are noted. Their appearance changes only occasionally: they soften and get an unpleasant smell, gas forms in them, as a result of which tin cans or lids on glass jars are inflated (“bombing”). Most often, poisoning occurs with the use of "impeccable" by external signs of products.In the soil, feed, and food products, the causative agent of botulism forms spores that are highly heat-resistant. Thus, complete destruction of spores occurs at a temperature of 120 '° C for 20 min. Freezing spores at a temperature of - 190 ° C does not lead to their death. The resistance of spores to heating depends not only on temperature, but also on the duration of heating, their amount in the product, and the acidity of the latter.

In contrast to spores, botulinum toxin is not very resistant to heat. When boiling, it breaks down within a few minutes, at a temperature of 58 — 60 ° C — for 3 h, at 80 ° C — in less than 30 min. In this case, the sticks of botulism also die.

There are cases when the product did not cause illness after boiling, but after keeping the remaining part of it warm for 2 — 3 days, this product caused fatal botulism. This happened because during the heat treatment the vegetative forms of the microbe were destroyed, the toxin was destroyed, but the spores that sprouted and formed the toxin were preserved.In most cases, the early symptoms of botulism appear after 12 — 36 hours after the use of the toxic product, in rare cases after 2 hours, but sometimes after 14 days. Gastrointestinal disorders (nausea, vomiting) with subsequent neuralgic symptoms (weakness, fatigue, dizziness) are noted at an early stage of the disease. Often the disease is manifested by blurred vision, double objects (before the eyes “fog”, “net”), dilated and immobilized pupils, weakened reflex to light. In addition, there are symptoms of drooping eyelids, weakness of the facial muscles, difficulty speaking and swallowing, constipation, dry tongue, mucous membranes of the larynx and oral cavity, muscle weakness, decreased blood pressure. With the progression of the disease in case of untimely administration of a specific anti-botulinum serum, paralysis of the respiratory muscles and diaphragm occurs. Death occurs most often due to respiratory failure.In recent years, in connection with the enthusiasm of the population for home canning, cases of botulism have spread due to the use of low-quality home-prepared products. Botulism disease after consuming industrial products is very rare, since the sterilization mode of canned food in autoclaves ensures the death of vegetative forms and pathogen spores.Botulism can occur after eating canned mushrooms and vegetables, as well as salted, smoked, dried, pickled fish, ham, ham, canned meat, poured with pork fat, made at home. Eggplant, eggplant caviar, green peas, beets, tomatoes, tomato juice, apricot compote in homemade hermetically sealed jars can also cause botulism. This happens most often with prolonged storage of products, when spores that enter them from the soil or from the intestines of animals and fish multiply and form a toxin.At home, it is not always possible to wash products from spores. Thermal processing at home does not eliminate them, since spores die during processing in special carsclavas, which are equipped with canneries. That is why at home it is impossible to hermetically sealed mushrooms in jars (to close them with metal lids). This creates favorable conditions for the development of the causative agent of botulism.
All canned goods in hermetically sealed jars, as well as sausages and ham cooked at home, must be put in a saucepan before meals, add water and boil for 30 minutes or thoroughly fry. Subsequent storage of such canned food is not allowed.A boiled-over or fried product is safe for consumption on the same day, although there are still disputes in it. The latter will germinate only during 1 — 2 days and begin to form a toxin. Thus, the full heat treatment of products in most cases prevents botulism poisoning.Of course, not at home canned foods contain botulism toxin, but this danger should always be remembered. It is impossible to verify the good quality of canned food before use at home, as this requires special studies on laboratory animals. Any fruit and vegetable canned food, prepared at home and stored in airtight packaging (even in the cold), is recommended to boil for 8 — 10 minutes before meals.All home canned foods are recommended to be stored for no more than 1 years at a temperature of 8 — 10 ° С.When preserving green peas, cucumbers that practically do not contain organic acids, it is necessary to use fillings (marinades) with the addition of at least 2% acetic acid.It is necessary to strictly observe the sanitary-hygienic and technological conditions when making smoked, salted, dried fish at home. After catching, the fish must be gutted and immediately chilled with ice or in the refrigerator. It must be poured in a chilled state using a sufficient amount of salt. When the content in the fish of sodium chloride in an amount of not less than 11%, the reproduction of the causative agent of botulism and toxin formation are delayed.Meals with yeast and branPressed baker's yeast and natural wheat bran, which are added to various foods and dishes, are used as a source of protein, B vitamins, trace elements and dietary fiber in medical nutrition.To get rid of the specific smell and taste of yeast, they are crushed and poured with warm water. The mixture is stirred until a lump free mass is formed. Adding table salt at the rate of 25 g per 1 kg of yeast to the resulting mixture and placing it in a pan with a thick bottom, it is heated to boiling over low heat with constant stirring. Boiling is maintained until a light brown syrup is formed. To add to the first dishes and sauces, the amount of yeast syrup by evaporation is adjusted to 60% of the initial mass of the mixture, in the second dishes to 40%. The resulting yeast syrup is added to vegetable soups (30 — 50 ml per serving) or to second courses (30 — 35 ml per serving).To prepare the yeast groats (crumbs) used in the preparation of the second dishes, the yeast is crushed and ground in a saucepan with a small amount of warm water until the consistency of thick sour cream. The resulting mass is poured onto a slightly greased baking sheet or pan and heated with constant stirring until dark brown lumps form. To the resulting lumps add butter at the rate of 5 g per 100 g yeast and the mixture is triturated with heating until a dry fine cereal is formed. 1 kg of yeast yields 300 g of cereal yeast, which is added to puddings, cereals, etc. You can make broth from yeast cereals (50 g of yeast groats, 30 g of wheat flour in 1 l of water and bay leaf).Soup with meat and cheese and yeast. Boiled meat is passed through a meat grinder 2 — 3 times, combined with white sauce and boiled, seasoned with salt, grated cheese and raw yolks, and then mixed with cream. The yeast is diluted with cold water and boiled for 30 — 40 minutes, filtered and introduced into the soup. 15 minutes before serving, sprinkle with grated nutmeg. The dish is recommended for diets No. 9 and 15.Vegetable caviar with yeast. Cabbage and carrots are chopped into strips and allowed to half-cooked. Onion and tomato are passaged in vegetable oil and combined with finely chopped sweet pepper, then stewed until cooked. At the end of the quenching, yeast chips are introduced. The mixture is passed through a meat grinder and caviar is served cold. Recommended for diets No. 8, 9 and 15.Pate with yeast. Salt is added to baked pressed yeast based on 2 g per 100 g yeast, which is ground to a creamy mass. Flour is added here and the mass is fried in butter with chopped onions with constant stirring until the consistency of the paste. On 500 g


pressed yeast uses 35 g of flour, 100 g of onion, 60 g of fat and 10 g of salt. Crumbled rye or wheat rusks can be added to the pate (20 g per 100 g of yeast), which reduces its viscosity. Recommended for diets No. 9 and 15.Yeast and hematogen paste The yeast groats are ground in cold boiled water, hematogenous crumbs, crushed crackers, finely chopped onions and salt are added. Here you can add sour cream and grated cheese. The mixture is kneaded to a homogeneous mass and fry until the consistency of the paste. For one serving, hematogenous crumbs 40 g, yeast groats - 30 g, boiled water - 50 g, crushed crackers - 25 g, onions - 5 g, salt - 2 g. The dish is recommended for diets No. 9 and 15.Yeast drink. Dried crackers from rye bread are poured with boiling water and infused at room temperature for 4 hours, after which the infusion is filtered. The filtered infusion is filled with 25 g of yeast and the mixture is heated to a temperature of 80 ° C, after which the mixture is cooled to room temperature and the remaining 5 g of yeast is added. The beverage thus prepared is left at room temperature for fermentation for 6 — 8 hours, and then refrigerated. Before serving, you can add sugar, honey (for diets No. 10 and 15), lemon or orange zest. Yeast drink can be prepared without sugar or honey (for diets No. 8 and 9).Natural wheat bran is a source of B vitamins, magnesium salts and dietary fiber. Products containing bran are recommended for patients with hypertension, obesity, diabetes, colitis with constipation, as well as for various lesions of the nervous system.For the preparation of carbon-free bran used in obesity and diabetes mellitus, bran in a gauze bag is placed under running cold water, periodically squeezing, until the water becomes clear (about 2 h). Then the bran bag is immersed in a pot of boiling water and boiled for 30 minutes, after which they are washed with cold water. This operation is repeated twice. After the second boiling and washing of the bran under running water, the water is squeezed out and the bran is dried in a non-hot oven.Dried yeast was passed twice through a meat grinder. Bran is added to dishes of vegetables, cereals, flour products.Buckwheat porridge with bran and onions. After sorting and drying in a cabinet oven, buckwheat is cooked in salted water. Passed onions and fried bran to a reddish color are introduced into the loose buckwheat porridge. Before serving, add butter. Recommended for diets No. 3, 8, 9, 10 and 15.Beet bran bran patties. 50 g sifted and dried wheat bran is mixed with 50 g wheat flour, two yolks, 30 g sour cream and 5 g butter. The finished mass is divided into cakes and in the middle of each put boiled grated beets (100 g for all cakes). The edges of the cakes are combined, greased with oil (15 g) and baked in the oven. Recommended for diets 4, 8, 9 and 10.
Pies bran. Ground bran combine with cottage cheese, sour cream, eggs and butter, knead and cool for 15 — 20 minutes to 10 — 15 ° C. From the dough form cakes, which are wrapped in minced meat made from cabbage, meat or cottage cheese. For the preparation of minced meat, fresh cabbage is chopped and stewed with milk and butter, after which chopped eggs and parsley are added. Finely chopped sauteed onions are added to the minced meat and fried until tender. In cooled minced meat put chopped eggs and greens. Recommended for diets No. 3, 4, 8, 9 and 10.Butter cakes of bran. Bran is poured into boiling sour cream, everything is mixed and cooled. Cheese, butter, eggs, xylitol or honey are introduced into the warm mixture and mixed again. Small cakes are formed from the dough and baked. Recommended for diets No. 8 and 9 (without honey), 4 and 10.Wheat bran kvass. Wheat bran (100 g) is poured into 1 liters of boiling water and boiled for 1 hours, after which it is filtered and cooled. 75 g of sugar and 25 g of yeast are added to the broth, put in a warm place for fermentation. The finished drink is consumed cold. Recommended for diets No. 2, 5, 10 and 15.

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