As we already know, the prevention of obesity is closely related to nutrition. If the body weight of an adult does not change over a long time, this indicates that the amount of energy produced in the body as a result of food processing corresponds to energy expenditures.
If the energy value of food exceeds the daily need of the body by 5%, then throughout the year a person can gain in body weight up to 5 — 10 kg
In order to prevent obesity, it is recommended to take food 4 — 5 once a day in small portions. At the same time most of the food should be consumed in the morning. The intervals between meals should not exceed 4 hours. You must have dinner no later than 3 hours before bedtime. After dinner, it is useful to take a walk in the fresh air or do some work related to physical activity.
Every healthy person is obliged to monitor their body weight and, when it increases, take measures aimed at losing weight, limit the amount of energy-efficient foods in the diet, and also try to move more.
To reduce the energy value of food, first of all, they limit the consumption of simple carbohydrates, from which not only fat but also cholesterol is synthesized in the body. Excess simple carbohydrates in food can increase the development of not only obesity, but also atherosclerosis.
Persons who can not refuse sweets can recommend the use of sorbitol or xylitol (up to 30 g per day) for sweetening tea, compote and other products.
Proteins do not contribute to the development of obesity, since their absorption requires more energy. Therefore, persons predisposed to obesity, the protein part of the diet can not be limited.
Excess fat intake in the diet, especially with excessive consumption of carbohydrates, can also lead to obesity.
People who are prone to corpulence, should limit the use of food in pepper, mustard, horseradish, stimulating the secretion of gastric juice. Consumption of meat broth and fish soup should also be limited. From alcoholic beverages, including beer, you need to completely give up, because even in small quantities, they increase the appetite and contribute to overeating. It is useful to eat various vegetables and fruits daily.
Thus, in the fight against obesity plays a big role correct diet. An ancient aphorism says: "Man does not live to eat, but eats to live."
The relationship of diabetes and diet
In the development of diabetes mellitus hereditary predisposition matters. So, if both parents are sick with diabetes, the risk of children becoming ill is 60 — 100%. When one of the parents is sick with diabetes, the likelihood of children falling to 30 — 50%.
The main factors that trigger the appearance of diabetes, the following: 1) overeating, consumption of large quantities of sweets, leading to the development of obesity; 2) long-term neuro-mental strain, or acute stress situations, 3) viral infections, 4) age-related changes in the body occurring in the elderly and old age; 5) expressed atherosclerosis and hypertension.
The main cause of diabetes is obesity. In people with obesity, this disease occurs 7 — 10 times more often than people with normal body weight. Of particular importance in provoking diabetes is overeating due to the abuse of simple carbohydrates that stimulate the function (3 pancreatic cells that produce the hormone insulin. In the initial stages of obesity, insulin produces an excessive amount (hyperinsulinemia). Insulin contributes to the conversion of carbohydrates from food into fat, which accumulate in fat cells (adipocytes) In the adipocytes enlarged as a result of this, the development of obesity decreases the number of receptors of sensitive nerve cells insulin, which leads to a relative insulin deficiency.
Precautions aimed at preventing diabetes mellitus, first of all, should be followed by people who have at least one of the parents sick with this disease, women who have given birth to a child weighing 4,5 kg or more; patients with obesity, atherosclerosis, hypertensive illness and elderly people (older than 60 years)
Of great importance in the prevention of diabetes is a rational diet. Eating is necessary at least 4 once a day (frequent consumption of small portions of food less stimulates the insular function of the pancreas). An indispensable condition is a sharp restriction in the diet of simple carbohydrates, especially foods that contain large amounts of sucrose. Since bee honey has a lot of fructose (up to 39% depending on the variety), which does not require insulin for absorption, instead of sugar, you can use honey (but not more than 40 — 50 g per day) or pure fructose, sorbitol or xylitol, also digested without insulin. Sorbitol and xylitol are not toxic, they are characterized by low energy value: the body receives 1 kJ when 13 g oxidizes sorbitol, and 1 kJ xenitol when oxidizing 17 g xylitol.
Energy value of food should be adjusted taking into account body weight, age, sex and profession. The integral indicator of the correspondence of the energy generated in the body (as a result of food processing) to its needs is the constancy of body weight. If you are prone to obesity, you should limit yourself to eating, guided by scientifically based recommendations (see the relevant sections of the book)
The amount of proteins in the diet of persons predisposed to diabetes should strictly comply with the physiological needs of the body. Considering the ability of fats to inhibit the synthesis of insulin, their number in the diet should not be drastically reduced (compared to the norm). However, with some increase in the amount of vegetable oils (up to 30 — 35 g per day), it is necessary to limit the consumption of refractory fats of animal origin, which contain predominantly saturated fat acid.
Thus, preventive nutrition provides adequate intake of vitamins, minerals and trace elements in the body, excluding from the use of alcoholic beverages, provoking the development of diabetes. In combination with other measures (rationalization of work and rest, fighting hypodynamia, hardening the body and preventing viral infections), proper nutrition can prevent the development of such a serious disease like diabetes in a person with a genetic predisposition to this pathology.
Nutrition in the prevention of peptic ulcer
Peptic ulcer is a chronic disease with exacerbations associated with impaired activity of the regulatory systems (nervous, endocrine), with a decrease in the resistance of the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum to the effect of gastric juice, leading to the formation of a defect (ulcer) on its surface. A peptic ulcer most often affects middle-aged people (35 — 64 years). Men get sick much more often than women, which is explained by the fact that they are more likely to be exposed to adverse environmental factors (they smoke, consume alcoholic beverages, do not follow the diet, etc.), which weaken the body and contribute to the disease.
During the clinical examination of the population, people are identified with the so-called pre-ulcer state or risk factors contributing to the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease. Persons with a tendency to allergies are predisposed to a peptic ulcer, persons whose parents suffer from a peptic ulcer, smokers, alcohol-abusing women during menopause, persons with increased acidity of gastric juice or signs of gastritis. This contingent of the population should strictly follow the principles of good nutrition. For the period of the most possible exacerbation of the disease (spring and autumn), it is necessary to exclude from the food strong pathogens of gastric secretion: spices (mustard, cinnamon, horseradish, pepper); beverages containing alcohol or carbon dioxide; fried foods; canned food; meat, fish and mushroom Navar; strong vegetables made of vegetables; black bread, coffee, strong tea. At this time, it is strictly forbidden to smoke. Between meals there should be no long breaks, you should avoid overeating, haste in food and eating food dry rations. From the diet it is necessary to exclude also those products to which there is an individual intolerance.
In spring and autumn, people prone to peptic ulcer should consume mainly dishes and foods that are weak causative agents of gastric secretion: dairy, cereal or vegetable soups; well cooked meat or fresh boiled fish; milk and dairy products (cottage cheese, cheese); soft-boiled eggs or in the form of an omelet; yesterday's white bread; alkaline water, not containing carbon dioxide; any fats; weak tea; milk milk porridge.
It should be borne in mind that food has a so-called anti-acid (reducing the acidity of gastric contents) action. For example, taking 400 ml of whole milk has this effect for 45 — 60 minutes. This not only reduces the acidity of the contents of the stomach, but also facilitates its transition into the cavity of the duodenum. Antacid action has meat and fish, the proteins of which in the stomach bind free hydrochloric acid.
However, the duration of antacid action taken food does not exceed 100 min. Subsequently, due to the release of new portions of gastric juice, this effect gradually disappears and again the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum is exposed to the adverse effects of hydrochloric acid. That is why, when the acidity of gastric juice is high, it is often necessary (5 — 6 once a day) to eat food. Frequent meals, in addition, contribute to the normal flow of bile into the intestines, which improves digestion and reduces the risk of gallstones. Frequent meals in small portions prevent heartburn associated with throwing the contents of the stomach into the esophagus; belching with bitterness caused by throwing the contents of the duodenum into the stomach; normalize the work of the intestines.
Important in the prevention of peptic ulcer disease is adequate intake of vitamins, especially ascorbic acid. In early spring, the diet should be enriched with fruits rich in ascorbic acid (for example, lemons), fruit juices, dogrose decoction. In the autumn, you need to consume more fresh vegetables and fruits.
Exacerbations of peptic ulcer disease, its complications with a significant spread of this pathology lead to significant disability, an increase in the number of people with disabilities. That is why the prevention of the incidence of peptic ulcer and its recurrence is of important not only medical, but also social importance.
Prevention of peptic ulcer disease in our country is carried out by continuously improving the material conditions of life of the population, organizing rational, preventive and dietetic food for workers at industrial enterprises, improving the health of workers in health centers and resorts. However, each person must first of all take care of his own health, pay enough attention to the prevention of the disease by adhering to the principles of good nutrition.
Prevention of relapse of peptic ulcer
It was found that the various dysfunctions of the digestive system in patients with peptic ulcer disease noted within 2 years or more after each exacerbation. Exacerbations of peptic ulcer disease are observed more often in spring and autumn, as well as after excessive neuro-emotional stress, eating disorders rough character of alcohol consumption and smoking,
Important in the prevention of acute peptic ulcer disease is proper nutrition. In this case, readers should pay attention to the two main mistakes made by patients, indiscriminate eating or excessive long-term enthusiasm for a sparing diet regime. Both are equally harmful, because they contribute to the exacerbation of the disease.
In spring and autumn it is especially important to take regular four meals a day. Eating should be in a relaxed atmosphere. In the dietary canteens or dietetic departments, proper conditions are created for this: a cozy atmosphere, a rest room.
Dietary prophylaxis of peptic ulcer exacerbations in conjunction with other measures is carried out for about 3 months after each exacerbation, during which the patient usually undergo inpatient treatment. In the subsequent 3 — 5 years after the exacerbation, preventive nutrition courses are held 2 once a year: in spring and autumn (for 1 — 2 months).
Preventive nutrition for peptic ulcer should be varied in terms of food substances and energy value, depending on the work performed. To prevent the exacerbation of peptic ulcer, it is recommended to follow the diet according to the diet number 1.
Dietary prophylaxis of peptic ulcer exacerbations is carried out by excluding food with strong sokogonnym action: strong broths, meat soups, fish and mushroom Navar, fried or insufficiently cooked meat, strong tea, coffee, strong cocoa, alcoholic beverages, soda, salty and smoked meat and fish products, pepper, spices, products containing coarse fiber, grape and cranberry juice, very hot and cold drinks.
Meat and fish dishes are mainly steamed or in water. Non-rough varieties of meat and fish, as well as poultry can be cooked in a piece. Useful cottage cheese, natural milk, cream, sour cream. You can consume soft-boiled eggs or cook steam omelets out of them. The total amount of proteins in the daily diet should be 110 — 125.
The amount of fat in the diet of patients with peptic ulcer during the prevention of exacerbations should be 100 — 120 g per day; the amount of vegetable oils is up to 30% of the fat part of the diet (the remaining fats should come mainly in the form of butter and in the composition of other dairy products).
Vegetables and fruits during this period it is better to use chopped. They can be added to mucous soups, mashed porridge, cooked in the form of mashed potatoes or steam puddings. To meet the increased need of the patient in ascorbic acid, it is necessary to drink the broth of the hips daily. In liquid cereals from buckwheat, oatmeal and other cereals, mucous soups from wheat bran contains thiamine, which has a beneficial effect on the nervous system and the excretory function of the stomach. The amount of carbohydrates in the daily diet of the patient should be 100 — 450 g, but simple carbohydrates should be limited, since they increase the excitability of the nervous system and stimulate the secretion of gastric juice.
A patient with a peptic ulcer is recommended to take food slowly, chewing well, and rest after eating 15. If it is not possible to eat in the dining room, it is necessary to bring warm milk or weak tea with milk in a thermos to the second breakfast, as well as to use various medicinal mineral waters (according to the doctor's advice).
Complex anti-relapsing (against exacerbation of the disease) treatment can be carried out at home, in sanatoriums, at resorts, in the conditions of stationary therapeutic or gastroenterological departments. With proper organization of preventive treatment, patients with peptic ulcer disease remain healthy for a long time.
The role of nutrition in the prevention of gallstone disease
Gallstone disease is caused by the formation of gallstones and bile ducts. About 10% of the world's population are “carriers” of gallstones, but not everyone has a disease.
A violation of cholesterol metabolism leads to the formation of gallstones (an increase in the amount of cholesterol in bile with a relative decrease in the amount of bile acids).
Epidemiological studies show that the increased incidence of cholelithiasis in economically developed countries is associated with inadequate intake of dietary fiber by the population and a high content of sucrose in food. In rural areas, consuming less refined products and more plant fiber, gallstone disease is less common than among urban residents.
A relative decrease in the formation of bile acids contributes to the stagnation of bile in the gallbladder, which occurs as a result of irregular nutrition, during pregnancy, obesity, inflammatory diseases of the gallbladder and biliary tract (cholecystitis and cholangitis).
Part of the bile acids is formed not in the liver, but in the intestines under the influence of microflora. They are absorbed from the intestines into the blood, and then re-excreted by the liver in the composition of the bile. Therefore, the maintenance of normal intestinal microflora is an important event in preventing the formation of gallstones.
Dietary interventions should be aimed at preventing the formation of gallstones (primary prevention of cholelithiasis), and at preventing biliary colic in the presence of stones (secondary prevention).
Dietary food aimed at the prevention of cholelithiasis is necessary for obesity, cholecystitis, dyskinesias (movement disorders) of the biliary tract, after suffering acute hepatitis, during pregnancy, as well as for hereditary susceptibility to this disease. At the same time, food should be taken at certain hours, at least 4 once a day, because each meal causes stimulation of bile secretion. With regular meals, digestive juices are released at the same hours, which ensures normal biliary excretion and digestion.
Raw yolks of chicken eggs have a choleretic property, but boiled and roasted are not. The consumption per day of yolks 1 — 2 eggs does not harm human health, even with a tendency to stone formation.
Known choleretic effect of vegetable oils. They are able to increase the formation of bile acids. Therefore, in order to prevent cholelithiasis, the amount of fat in food should not be limited, using mainly vegetable oils.
Simple carbohydrates (sugar and confectionery) in the diet of people prone to gallstone disease, it is necessary to significantly reduce, and for obesity - completely eliminate. It is better to replace them with carbohydrates of fruits and vegetables rich in fiber, which increases bile secretion and increases the excretion of cholesterol through the large intestine. Herbal products, in addition, "alkalize" the body, which prevents the formation of cholesterol crystals in bile. Alkaline mineral waters have the same property. In general, it is useful to consume a sufficient amount of fluid (about 2 liters per day), as it contributes to the dilution of bile and enhances its secretion.
For the prevention of the formation of gallstones it is useful to carry out the so-called blind sensing. To this end, 1 times in 3 — 4 of the day in the morning (on an empty stomach) use 1 yolk, 1 a tablespoon of vegetable oil or 30 g of sorbitol. After taking one of these stimulants of bile secretion, it is necessary to lie on the 30 — 40 min on the right side, placing a heating pad under the right hypochondrium region. After such a sounding, you can continue the usual daily routine. Rational nutrition of a preventive nature, combined with the correct mode of work and rest, alternating mental work with physical, adequate sleep (7 — 8 hours per day) helps prevent the formation of stones in the bile-excreting pathways and prevents attacks of gallstone disease.
Meals in the centers of endemic goitre
Endemic diseases are called those that arise in areas with special natural conditions. Such diseases include endemic goiter, caused by a lack of iodine in the environment, in which the thyroid gland increases (sometimes to large sizes) with a significant disruption of its hormone-generating function.
Endemic goiter is more common in mountainous areas, but can be the inhabitants of the plains and coastal areas. In our country, the incidence of massive goiter in endemic areas (in particular, in the western regions of Ukraine) eliminated, but preventive measures in these centers carried out systematically.
The most important preventive activities carried out in the centers of endemic goiter, applies a balanced diet of the population.
The vitamin usefulness of nutrition is also important for the prevention of diseases of endemic goiter. The scientists of the Department of Food Hygiene of the Lviv Medical Institute proved that the lack of nutritional retinol, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, niacin, pantothenic acid and pangamic and calciferol tocopherols and impairs thyroid condition, compounding effect on the body of iodine deficiency. Based on the research, an important conclusion was made: vitamins are a factor regulating the function of the thyroid gland.
To prevent diseases of the endemic goiter it is necessary to use food products that are rich sources of vitamins in the diet. In the foci of endemic goiter, you should limit the consumption of products from high-grade flours and sagas, which contribute to the occurrence of vitamin B deficiency. Special attention should be paid to the rules of storage, cold and heat treatment of food products in order to reduce losses of ascorbic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, retinol, carotene.
Since the main reason for the development of endemic goiter is insufficient intake of iodine, proteins and vitamins from food, the nutritional requirements of people living in areas of endemia are particularly high. The diet should be varied, in addition should include iodine-containing seafood (fish, crabs, clams, mussels, scallops, seaweed). It is known that iodine from organic natural compounds of sea products is absorbed much better than from inorganic (such as, for example, potassium iodide). Sea fish should be consumed daily around 50 g after various cooking.
A large amount of iodine is found in shrimp (110 µg / 100 g). Protein paste “Ocean” made from the meat of small shrimps has a special biological value in the diet of people living in the foci of endemic goiter. The Ocean Paste contains proteins, lipotropic substances, polyunsaturated fatty acids, trace elements, including iodine. With pasta "Ocean" you can cook a variety of salads, vinaigrette and other dishes.
Sea kale is a source of mineral salts, it contains from 136 to 196 mg / 100 g dry weight of iodine (the daily need of an adult healthy person for iodine is just 100 - 200 μg). From sea cabbage produce a variety of canned food. A technology has been developed for the production of cheese curds with the addition of seaweed. These products are successfully used for the prevention of endemic goiter and atherosclerosis.
Our industry produces a lot of canned food from sea animals and seaweed (sea cabbage with vegetables, sea cucumber with sea cabbage and vegetables, scallop meat in accelerated sauce, mussels in meat juice, pasta "Ocean", etc.).
Given the high nutritional quality of meat from marine invertebrates, we can recommend them for regular consumption of local foci of endemic goiter.
In order to specifically prevent endemic goiter, food salt iodization is used for the population living in endemic foci. Iodization is carried out at salt plants, where 25 of potassium iodide is added to each ton of salt.
Salt absorbs water very quickly, which destroys potassium iodide. Therefore, during storage, salt often loses about 50% iodine. Storage of iodized salt should be carried out in dry warehouses, in hermetic packaging, without access of light, at a constant temperature.
Alcohol and Health
The harmful effect of alcohol on the body is manifested in the fact that it takes water from living tissues, as a result of which metabolic processes and their vital activity are disturbed in the cells. So, for example, seeds of cereal plants, placed in a glass of water, lose their ability to germinate, if 15 — 20 g of alcohol is added to water. Animal tissues are sensitive to alcohol in even lower concentrations. An isolated cat heart stops working if 4 — 5% alcohol is added to the nutrient fluid. The nerve cells of the brain are particularly sensitive to alcohol. In the presence of 0,5 in the blood — 0,6% alcohol, paralysis of the respiratory and vasomotor center occurs, which can lead to death.
The absorption of alcohol begins in the mouth. 20% is absorbed in the stomach in the first 10 — 15 min; the rest is diluted with gastric contents and released into the duodenum and then into the small intestine. Part of the alcohol penetrates through the wall of the stomach and small intestine into the abdominal cavity, from where it is sucked in by the large surface of the peritoneum and is already yot in the blood flow.
When alcohol comes into contact with cells of the mucous membrane of the digestive system, normal metabolism is disturbed in them, and protein coagulation occurs. Repeated consumption of alcoholic beverages leads to persistent irritation of the mucous membranes of the stomach and duodenum, their inflammation, resulting in extremely difficult absorption of the most important substances for the body's nutrition - amino acids, microelements, vitamins.
Although alcohol and increases the amount of gastric juice, however, it dramatically worsens its composition, reduces the digestive power due to a decrease in the content of enzymes and their activity. By X-ray examination revealed that persons who abuse alcohol, the folds of the stomach is dramatically thickened, then completely absent or smoothed (atrophied). In alcoholics, gastric and duodenal ulcers develop several times more often than non-drinking people. With constant use of alcohol, the inflammatory process extends to the intestines.
Significant changes under the influence of alcohol occur in the liver. Already a single dose of a large dose of alcohol can cause disruption of the functions of the liver cells. With prolonged alcohol intoxication, the liver increases, carbohydrates (glycogen) disappear from its cells, fat accumulates in the cells, resulting in liver obesity. Over time, many liver cells die, and in their place microscopic cavities are formed, filled with disintegrating fat, or inflammation of the liver tissue (hepatitis) occurs. Acute alcoholic hepatitis gradually becomes chronic and in some patients ends with cirrhosis of the liver.
Systematic use of alcoholic beverages causes swelling of the mucous membrane of the duodenum, a violation of the outflow of bile and pancreatic juice. The situation is also aggravated by the often observed lack of protein nutrition associated with anorexia in appetite for alcoholics. There is acute inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), the prognosis for which is always difficult. The course of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis progresses and is often complicated by diabetes.
Drinking alcohol can cause acute inflammation of the kidneys (glomerulonephritis), often resulting in death or becoming chronic, leading to disability. Under the influence of alcohol, diseases such as pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, are sharply exacerbated. In men with prostate adenoma, after drinking alcohol, severe urination disturbances and even urinary retention may occur.
Alcohol is very harmful to the function of the heart. It has a toxic effect on the heart muscle. According to the WHO, more than 25% of heart diseases are caused by alcohol.
When alcoholism increases in size of the heart, quickens the pulse, shortness of breath at rest, swelling.
Alcohol significantly increases blood clotting, as a result of which a thrombus can form in the coronary arteries. If a thrombus completely clogs their lumen, a myocardial infarction occurs, that is, the death of a whole portion of the heart muscle. Chronic alcohol intoxication contributes to the occurrence of hypertensive disease, which occurs among those who consume alcohol, 3 — 4 times more often than among those who observe a sober lifestyle.
Endarteritis is often observed in persons who consume alcohol; it is a serious disease that most often affects the arteries of the legs and leads to gangrene (necrosis).
Alcohol causes pathological processes in the veins. In most cases, the vessels of the legs are affected. In alcohol abusers, as a rule, thrombophlebitis develops a chronic course with frequent exacerbations.
The lungs are particularly vulnerable to chronic alcoholism. Alcohol is partially excreted unchanged through the lungs, affecting the trachea, bronchi, alveoli, and contributes to the emergence of acute respiratory viral diseases, bronchitis, pneumonia. If patients with alcoholism also smoke, the effect of alcohol is enhanced by the equally harmful effects of nicotine.
Even pre-revolutionary Russia doctors believed that alcoholism is a “bed of consumption”. Indeed, patients suffering from alcoholism, as a rule, are malnourished. In this regard, they have protein deficiency, deficiency of vitamins and trace elements. Decreases the body's defenses, weakens the immune system. A weakened body is not able to fight mycobacterium tuberculosis, and they find in it a fertile ground for reproduction. The risk of contracting tuberculosis in alcoholics is also increasing because they do not follow the rules of personal hygiene. Late turn to the doctor for specialized help, do not withstand the prescribed terms of inpatient treatment, prematurely discharged from hospitals and sanatoriums, as a result of which pulmonary tuberculosis progresses and becomes severe.
Glands of internal secretion, especially the adrenal glands and sex glands, undergo significant changes. Even a single drink affects the state of the sex glands, in particular on the chromosomal apparatus. Conception in a state of intoxication can be the cause of the birth of children suffering from dementia, epilepsy, deformities.
The intoxicated man and woman easily suppose casual sexual communications during which time often there is an infection with sexually transmitted diseases.
There is no such organ in a person who would not suffer from alcohol intake. However, the brain is hardest and hardest hit. Alcohol penetrates into brain tissue in greater quantities than into other organs. If its content in the blood is taken as a unit, then in the liver it will be equal to 1,45, in the cerebrospinal fluid - 1,5, and in the brain - 1,75.
In individuals who consume alcoholic beverages, there is an increased adhesion of red blood cells - red blood cells. Red blood cells clog the lumen in the smallest blood vessels (capillaries) that bring blood to the brain cells. The supply of brain cells with oxygen ceases, and if this condition continues 5 — 10 minutes, the cells die.
In the brain of “moderately” drinkers, whole “treasure chest” of dead cells is found. Brain volume decreases - a “wrinkled” brain is formed. These changes most of all relate to precisely those parts of the cerebral cortex, where mental activity takes place, memory function is performed, etc. Complex mental processes, the ability for fresh and original thinking of a person is weakened and attenuated.
Alcoholism causes irreparable damage to production and society as a whole. That is why such a broad approval and active support of the people was found by the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU from 7 in May 1985, “On measures to overcome drunkenness and alcoholism”, the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR from 7 in May 1985, “On measures to overcome drunkenness and alcoholism, eradicate home brewing "Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU on September 18 1985," On measures to overcome drunkenness and alcoholism, "aimed at eradicating this antisocial phenomenon.
On the dangers of smoking
Smoking causes great harm to the health not only of the smoker, but also of his descendants, as well as those around him. Tobacco smoke contains nicotine, cyanide, formic, butyric, sulfuric acid, carbon monoxide, lead sulphide, benzopyrene, three arsenic oxide, the radioactive element polonium, tobacco tar and other toxic substances. One of the most harmful to health is nicotine.
The central nervous system is most susceptible to the action of nicotine. Initially, the central nervous system is excited, and then comes its depression and exhaustion. Nicotine leads to a narrowing of the arterial vessels, reducing their lumen. Blood vessels are shrinking from
effect of nicotine on untirched muscle tissue, as well as due to stimulation of the adrenal cortex and the release of large amounts of adrenaline into the blood. Scientists have found that smokers develop angina in 12 — 14 times more often than non-smokers. Mortality from myocardial infarction in smokers is 2,5 times higher than in non-smokers.
According to statistics, every seventh smoker develops obliterative endarteritis, which is called “smoker's disease”. This disease condemns a person to a complete loss of working ability, the development of disability, until gangrene appears and the leg is amputated.
Swallowing together with saliva, nicotine irritates the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, causing inflammatory processes in them. The secretion of gastric juice increases, but the contractile activity of the stomach decreases sharply. As a result, its blood supply and nutrition are impaired. This creates favorable conditions for the development of peptic ulcer. It is established that smokers make up 98% of the total number of patients suffering from gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. Nicotine inhibits the nerve centers that regulate sexual activity, reduces the production of sex hormones, leads to atrophy and degeneration of the sex glands.
Pregnant women who smoke or are in a smoky room for a long time often have abnormalities in the development of the fetus. Tobacco smoke through the placenta passes from the mother’s blood to the baby’s blood, poisoning it, disrupting development.
Very harmful tobacco. Smoke for children and young, not yet strong body. In families where they constantly smoke in the living room, children can lag behind their peers in physical and mental development, grow sluggish, irritable, have a poor appetite. Often, they develop oxygen starvation of the body, disturbed metabolism. Tobacco smoke in some children causes respiratory diseases of the upper respiratory tract, allergic rashes.
Even the most inveterate smoker is able to permanently abandon the bad habit.
Virtually no one who would not be able to get rid of addiction to tobacco. The key to success - in a strong desire to quit smoking forever.
Only a third of smokers have a true dependence on tobacco. When you try to quit smoking, their nervous irritability increases, sleep is disturbed, anxiety, anxiety, general malaise, and rapid heartbeat appear. In these cases, you need the help of a doctor who will prescribe drugs that relieve these symptoms. Sometimes the course of treatment with these drugs must be repeated. Unpleasant sensations in the period of disaccustoming from tobacco disappear in 3 weeks, moreover, those who quit smoking immediately, within one day.