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Salmonellosis - a disease caused by microorganisms of the genus Salmonella. salmonella Pathogens cause disease, as a rule, only when they get into the human body in very large quantities. At the enterprises of substantial power or at home it is for gross violations of the rules of cooking and storing food.
Salmonella is characterized by a high degree of stability in the environment. They are well tolerated by low temperature, drying, smoking. So, at a temperature of minus 10 ° C they retain their vital activity up to 115 days, and when cooled to 0 ° C - 142 days. At a temperature of 75 ° C, salmonella is killed in 5-10 min, at a temperature of 100 ° C - instantaneously. However, in pieces of meat with a thickness of 8 cm and weight of 2,5 kg, salmonella is rendered harmless only by cooking for 3 h. In water, they can persist up to 1-1,5 months, in the soil - 137 days, in indoor dust - 2-3 months. In salted meat with a high concentration (up to 19%) of salt they persist up to 3 months. In ready-made meat and dairy products, in minced meat, salmonella can not only preserve vital activity, but also reproduce without altering the appearance, smell and taste of the products.
Salmonella are widespread in our environment. The main reservoir of Salmonella in nature are animals - cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, rodents, cats and birds, especially waterfowl (ducks, geese). Salmonella habitats are animal intestine.
The source of the Salmonella contamination of foodstuffs and ready meals can be and people - patients with salmonellosis or bacillicarriers. Salmonella can enter the food using contaminated water or ice, utensils, where they entered the flies, rodents, cockroaches.
In humans, salmonellosis is more likely to occur as a result of consuming meat and meat products infected with pathogens. The seeding of the muscles and organs of the animal can occur both during his life, and during slaughter and carcass cutting. Sick animals can excrete salmonella with milk. A certain role in the emergence of salmonellosis is played by meat and eggs of waterfowl. The cause of salmonellosis may be the use of infected liver or blood sausage, products from minced meat, offal (liver, kidney, etc.). Especially dangerous is the jelly (the cold). Contamination of salmonella jelly occurs in cases when grinding boiled meat using boards or tables, on which raw meat was cut. The same role can play mincers, not washed and not scalded with boiling water after crushing raw meat. If the rules of personal hygiene are violated, the bacterium carriers of salmonella through the hands sow equipment, dishes, food and ready meals - meat, fish, jelly, curdled milk, cottage cheese, ice cream, cream used for confectionery.
If you use cottage cheese, cheese, syrkovoy mass, ice cream, raw milk and Samokvasov salmonella it can also occur. Development of salmonellosis due to both the massive colonization of foods and ready meals with salmonella, and with the lack of heat-treating them, violation of conditions of storage and terms of realization.
From getting salmonella pathogens in the human body to the signs of the disease extends from B to 3 hours a day (more often - 6 - 18 hours). The disease usually begins acutely: with the increase in body temperature up to 38-40 ° C, chills. There are abdominal pain, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and then joins (up to 10-15 times a day). The duration of the disease - up to 3-5 days.
To prevent salmonellosis, it is important not to allow the infection of foods with Salmonella, and also to handle food products at high or low temperature, limiting the propagation of the pathogen. It is impermissible to store perishable products in a warm room. In order to prevent the contamination of meat with salmonella, veterinary and sanitary supervision of slaughter animals, slaughtering and carcasses, veterinary examination of meat is carried out. According to the legislation, meat, in which salmonella is found during laboratory testing, is to be rendered harmless. The house slaughter of animals is forbidden. Eggs of waterfowl are not allowed for sale in raw form. Goose eggs to kill salmonella should be cooked 14 min (from the boiling point of water), duck - 13 min.
Subject to certain conditions, goose and duck eggs used for baking small-piece products from the test.
An important requirement for the prevention of salmonellosis is the observance of the rules of cooking food, especially perishable. To prevent Salmonella contamination in the use of jelly, cooked meat after grinding should be re-boiled in broth for 10 minutes, the finished dish is rapidly cooled and stored at 4-8 ° C for up to 12 hours.
Dishes stored without the cold, before drinking is recommended to subject re-heat treatment. At all stages of production, storage and sales must be used cold, which, although it does not kill salmonella, sharply reduces the intensity of their reproduction.
The prevention of contamination of food and ready meals Salmonella are essential compliance with the rules of personal hygiene manufactured food parties and tak¬zhe protecting food from contact with insects and rodents.

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