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Staphylococcal food toxicosis

Staphylococcal food toxicoses are acute diseases that occur after eating food or prepared foods containing toxic substances - staphylococcal enterotoxins. Staphylococci, which cause food poisoning, are distinguished by the ability to produce enterotoxins, which cause diseases. The source of contamination of food products with such staphylococci may be people (and animals): operators of dairy farms, workers of various food sources, if they suffer from pustular lesions of the skin and mucous membranes. With any skin lesion - pyoderma, furunculosis, panaritics - a significant amount of staphylococci is released into the environment. People with festering cuts and burns can infect food and food. Epidemiological danger is also presented to those suffering from angina, acute respiratory-viral infectious diseases, patients with influenza, with tooth caries, and periodontitis. Food products can become infected with microorganisms in contact not only with sick people, but also with healthy carriers of staphylococcus aureus. Thus, scientists have proved that the healthy carriers of staphylococci on the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract are the source of contamination of food products and food by staphylococci. Healthy carriers of staphylococcus are less dangerous to others than sick persons: in the latter, pathogenic staphylococci are detected much more often and in greater numbers. However, the greatest danger is represented by persons with pustular lesions of the skin and mucous membranes of the mouth and nose. From pustular foci, from the mucous membranes of the nose and throat of staphylococcus enter the air, seed equipment, equipment, utensils, food. Very dangerous are people in contact with food, suffering from a runny nose, a cough.
Staphylococci are found in human feces.
The cause of human infection with the milk can be infected with enterotoxigenic staphylococci, hit him on the farm animals suffering from inflammatory diseases of the udder. Staphylococcal mastitis cows, goats often occur without external manifestations. Milk obtained from animals with subclinical (latent) mastitis, also often contain pathogenic staphylococci.
The most common animals they infect milk with dermatitis and other skin lesions of the udder. This is facilitated by injuries in zhivottsyh.
High-quality milk obtained from healthy animals, under a model of sanitary-hygienic regime contains almost no bacteria. Observations show that the consumption of products containing a small amount of staphylococci, intoxication causes. Typically, products that cause diseases, contain up to 16 50 Company LLC and more staphylococci in 1, the
The rate of reproduction of staphylococci and the formation of enterotoxins depend on the composition of food products and temperature conditions. Staphylococci develop in foods, both rich in proteins and carbohydrates. Therefore, the cause of staphylococcal toxicosis may be a variety of foods - sour milk, especially samukvas, cottage cheese, sour cream, yogurt, young unreserved cheese, minced meat dishes, jelly, pate, confectionery with cream, ice cream. There are diseases associated with the use of poor-quality salads, vinaigrette, boiled pasta with meat ("in-naval"), etc.
Reproduction staphylococcal enterotoxins and their accumulation in the food products takes place at room temperature. Thus, when the air temperature above 20 ° C toxin can be formed over 4-8 hours at a temperature 37 ° C -. 4 hours of intensively multiply staphylococci at 25-30 ° C. At a temperature of 8 ° C they can survive. At a temperature of 2-4 ° C is delayed, but not stopped breeding of staphylococci.
Staphylococci are rather resistant to high concentrations of sugar. The complete their reproduction delay occurs when sugar concentrations over 60%, at lower concentrations of sugar (33-55%) they can reproduce, while the growth of dysentery and other pathogenic bacteria is delayed.
Staphylococci are relatively resistant to high concentrations of salt. Their reproduction does not stop at products containing 5-10% of salt. Delayed reproduction of the bacteria at a concentration of salt over 12%. Death occurs in staphylococci 20-25% concentration of sodium chloride in foods.
Staphylococcal enterotoxin is resistant to high temperature. Even boiling for 1 h does not lead to complete destruction of the enterotoxin. At the same time, staphylococci completely die, but the product continues to be dangerous, since enterotoxins remain in it. In this regard, toxicosis is possible after consuming boiled and pasteurized milk, if it was contaminated before heat treatment. Staphylococci reproduce well and produce enterotoxins in thermally processed foods. It should be noted that food products containing staphylococci and enterotoxins do not externally differ from benign ones.
From the time of use of the product containing enterotok¬siny, before the disease takes 3-5 hours. In cases there was a sharp pain in the abdomen, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness. In some cases, diarrhea may be absent and the leading symptoms are nausea, vomiting, cramping abdominal pain, dizziness, weakness. The body temperature with normal or low-grade, and occasionally rises to 38-39 ° C. Short-term course of the disease, recovery occurs within 1-2 days.
Prevention of staphylococcal toxicosis should include a set of measures aimed primarily at strict control over the health of people in contact with food. Persons with pustular diseases on hands, body are not allowed to work with food. In order to prevent the entry of enterotoxigenic staphylococci into foodstuffs, food products and the preparation of food for workers with angina, with colds accompanied by cough and runny nose should not be tolerated. If a carrier of staphylococci is found in healthy individuals, it is necessary to sanitize the nose and throat. These measures can prevent or reduce the contamination of staphylococci by raw materials, semi-finished products, food.
It is important to use effective propagation delay on the measures already caught in foods of pathogenic staphylococci. The security conditions do not allow the breeding of staphylococci and the formation of entero-toxin, it has a value of widespread use of cold at all stages of receiving, processing, storage, transportation and marketing of food. Milk, dairy products, cream-filled pastries, as well as other perishable
Products should be stored in refrigerated rooms, refrigerators, household freezers.
In our country developed and approved (1986 g) sanitary rules "conditions, the shelf life of perishable foods particularly." These health rules are designed for all enterprises, producing and selling particularly perishables.
It especially perishable products are not to be stored without cooling, maximum storage time during which the temperature is not above 6 ° C is from 6 72 to h (depending on product type). This meat, dairy, fish, vegetable products, confectionery and others.
Strict adherence to accepted rules of storage and sale of food products is of great importance in the complex of measures on prevention of food poisoning, including staphylococcal origin.
To prevent poisoning with milk and dairy products, the use of milk obtained from animals with mastitis is prohibited. In our suffering, sick animals are identified and isolated, recycling or special treatment of milk received from sick cows is carried out. At dairies milk is subjected to special heat treatment - pasteurization. This method, proposed by the French scientist Louis Pasteur, ensures the death of the majority of microorganisms in milk, including pathogens, while the quality of milk does not change. Since under existing pasteurization regimes it is not possible to achieve the destruction of all microorganisms, milk must be quickly sold or stored in the refrigerator.
Good provarivaniya and frying foods - the main measures to prevent the development of staphylococcal toxins and release them as a sufficient heat treatment ensures the destruction of food caught in staphylococci product.
In the manufacture of confectionery products with a cream should strictly observe the cream formulations, to avoid reducing the concentration of sugar in them, as well as breach of terms and conditions of storage of finished products.

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