Categories
Popularly about nutrition

The need for adult in nutrients

A balanced diet, taking into account the physiological needs of the body, provides for the satisfaction of all nutrients and energy.

The recommended values ​​of human need for nutrients and energy are determined for all (five) groups of the working-age population, depending on the intensity of labor, sex and age. The average nutrient requirement of the elderly and old people, as well as eleven groups of children, pregnant women and nursing mothers has also been established.

The average protein requirements, including ANIMALS, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals are given in Table. 2 — 4.

In addition to the vitamins listed in table. 3, for all groups of the population, the use of the same amount per day is recommended: cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) - 3 µg, folic acid - 200 µg, retinol (vitamin A) - 1000 µg, calciferol - 100 IU (2,5 µg of vitamin 03), tocopherol (vitamin E) - 15 IU (10 mg alpha tocopherol) for men and 12 IU for women.

2 Table. Daily demand for basic materials ptsschevyh (g) of the adult working age population

Group

inten

siv

of

labor

Age,

years

Men Women
Proteins

Ji

ry

Coal

water

Proteins

Fat

Coal

water

total including animal origin total

including animal origin

1-I 18-29 91 50 103 378 78 43 88 324
30-39 88 48 99 365  75 41 84 310
40-59 83 46 93 344 72 40 81 297
2-I 18-29 90 49 110 412 77 42 93 351
30-39 87 48 106 399 74 41 90 337
40-59 82 45 101 378 70 39 86 323
3-I 18-29 96 53 117 440 81 45 99 371
30-39 93 51 114 426 78 43 95 358
40-59 88 48 108 406 75 41 92 344
4-I 18-29  102 56 136 518 87 48 116 441
30-39 99 54 132 504 84 46 112 427
40-59 95 52 126 483 80 44 106 406
5-I 18-29  118 65 158 602 -.
30-39  113 62 150 574
40 — 59 107 59 143 546 1 -

Notes. 1. The daily requirement of the body of a pregnant woman (during pregnancy 5 — 9 months) is on average 100 g of proteins, including 60 g of animal proteins. 2. The daily requirement of the body of a nursing mother is on average 112 g of proteins, including 67 g of animal proteins.

Of the mineral substances, the norms of the physiological needs of the organism are established for four elements - calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron (see tab. 4).

3 table. The daily need for vitamins of the working age population, depending on the intensity of labor, mg

Group

inten

igate

labor

Age,

years

thiamine riboflavin pyridoxine niacin

Ascorby

new

acid

Husband

chi

on

Wives

soup

on

Husband

chi

on

Wives

soup

on

Husband

chi

on

Wives

soup

on

Husband

chi

on

Wives

soup

on

Husband-

or-

a ^

Wives

soup

on

1-I 18-29 1,7 1,4 2,0 1,7 2,0 1,7 18 16 70 60
30-39 1,6 1,4 1,9 1,6 1,9 1,6 18 15 68 58
40-59 1,5 1,3 1,8 1,5 1,8 1,5 17 14 64 55
2-I 18-29 1,8 1,5 2,1 1,8 2,1 1,8 20 17 75 64
30-39 1,7 1,5 2,0 1,7 2,0 1,7 19 16 72 61
40-59 1,7 1,4 1,9 1,6 1,9 1,6 18 15 69 59


Group

inten

igate

labor

Age,

years

thiamine riboflavin pyridoxine niacin

Ascorby

new

acid

Husband

chi

on

Wives

soup

on

Husband

chi

on

Wives

soup

on

Husband

chi

on

Wives

soup

on

Husband

chi

on

Wives

soup

on

Husband

chi

on

Wives

soup

on

3-I 18-29 1,9 1,6 2,2 1,9 2,2 1,9 21 18 80 68
30-39 1,9 1,6 2,2 1,8 2,2 1,8 20 17 78 65
40-59 1,8 1,5 2,1 1,8 2,1 1,8 19 16 74 62
4-I 18-29 2,2 1,9 2,6 2,2 2,6 2,2 24 20 92 79
30-39 2,2 1,8 2,5 2,1 2,5 2,1 23 20 90 76
40-59 2,1 1,7 2,4 2,0 2,4 2,0 22 19 86 73
5-I 18-29 2,6 3,0 3,0 28  — 108
30-39 2,5 2,9 2,9 27 107
40-59 2,3 2,7 2,7 25 98
Pregnant women 1,7 2,0 2,0 19 72
nursing mothers 1,9 2,2 2,2 21 80

4 table. Daily need of adult population in mineral substances, mg

population Group Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Hardware
Men 800 1200 400 10
Women 800 1200 400 18
Pregnant 1000 1500 450 20
nursing mothers 1000 1500 450 25

Fundamentals of rational, balanced nutrition

So, we already know that rational nutrition is nutrition that is sufficient in quantitative terms and complete in quality, satisfies the energy, plastic and other needs of the body and provides the necessary level of metabolism. Rational nutrition is based on gender, age, nature of work, climatic conditions, national and individual characteristics. The principles of good nutrition are:

1) matching caloric food entering the human body, its consumption of energy;

2) intake of a certain amount of nutrients in the body in optimal ratios;

3) correct power mode;

4) variety of food consumed;

5) moderation in eating.

A balanced diet provides the optimal ratio for the human body in the daily diet of proteins, amino acids, fats, fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins.

According to the balanced nutrition formula (A. A. Pokrovsky, 1977), the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates should be 1: 1: 4 (Table 5). In the current recommendations, the ratio 1: 1,2: 4,6 is assumed. The amount of proteins in the diet is 11 —13% of daily energy, fat — on average 33% (for the southern regions — 27 — 28%, for the north — 38 — 40%), and carbohydrates — around 55%.

In the total amount of proteins consumed per day, half of the proteins should be of animal origin as being more digestible than vegetable ones. They contain more essential amino acids (not synthesized in the human body). Food products such as meat, fish, eggs, and milk, which are characterized by the most favorable ratio of amino acids, are especially valuable. At the same time, from the point of view of rational nutrition, such protein sources that do not differ in high energy value are of the greatest importance: egg white, lean fish, low-fat veal or beef, rabbit meat, chicken meat, low-fat cottage cheese, and from vegetable products - lettuce, cabbage , eggplants, etc. It is recommended to eat animal and vegetable proteins together (for example, meat with a vegetable garnish), since they are better absorbed and used by the body.

It is important to balance the essential amino acids, especially tryptophan, methionine and lysine. The greatest amount of methionine is found in cottage cheese, chicken meat, peas, beans, soy; lysine - in meat, fish, cottage cheese, eggs; Tryptophan - in meat, milk, cereal products.

In order for the body to be provided with polyunsaturated fatty acids, about 30% of fat must be supplied to it in the form of vegetable oils.

Thus, 10% of the total amount of fat in the diet should be polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly found in plant foods; 30% - saturated fatty acids and 60% - monounsaturated fatty acids.

Of the total amount of carbohydrates, 75% is allocated to starch, 20% to sugar, 3% to pectin and 2% to dietary fiber.

The need for a balance of vitamins is determined by the body's need for energy. Thus, the amount of food that has an energy value of 4187 kJ (1000 kcal) requires ascorbic acid (vitamin C) - 25 mg; thiamine (vitamin b1) - 0,6 mg; riboflavin (vitamin b2) - 0,7 mg; Niacin (vitamin PP) - 6,7 mg; pyridoxine (vitamin b6) - 0,7 mg, etc. Vitamin provision of the body is achieved by the receipt of these substances from food as

5 Table. The daily human need for nutrients

nutrients Daily requirement nutrients Daily requirement
Water, mg 1750-2200 calcium 800-1000
- "- drinking 800-1000 phosphorus 1000-1500
(Including tea, sodium 4000-6000
coffee and so on. d.) potassium 2500-5000
Water soup 250-500 chlorides 5000-7000
- "- in products 700 magnesium 300-500
Power iron 15
Proteins, g 80-100 zinc 10-15
- "- animals 50 manganese 5-10
essential chrome 0,20-0,25
amino acid g copper 2
tryptophan 1 cobalt 0,1-0,2
leucine 4-6 Molybdenum 0,5
isoleucine 3-4 selenium 0,5
valine 3-4 ftoridы 0,5-1,0
threonine 2-3 iodides 0,1-0,2
lysine 3-5 Vitamins mg
methionine 2-4 ascorbic 50-70
phenylalanine 2-4 Acid
Replaceable amino acid, g (Vitamin C)
gistidin 1,5-2 thiamine (vita min BI) 1,5-2,0
arginine 5-6 riboflavin
cystine 2-3 fireplace B2) 2,0-2,5
tyrosine 3-4 niacin (vita
alanine 3 min PP) 15-25
applause 3 pantothenic
glutaminovaya acid 5-10
acid 16 (Vitamin V3)
asparaginovaя pyridoxine (vi
acid 6 fireplace B6) 2-3
proline 5 cianokobalamcn
glikokol 3 (vitamin B12) 0,002 — 0,005
Carbohydrates, g 400-500 biotin 0,15-0,30
starch 400-450 mixed 500-1000
mono and disaccharides 50 — 100
Organic acids (dairy, citric and g. P.), G rutin (vitamin P) 25
2 folacin (vitamin B9) 0,2-0,4
Ballast thing 25 ergocalciferol 0,0025 — 0,01
CTBA (fiber, (Vitamin D) (100 — 400 ME)
pectin), d retinol (vita
Fat, g 80-100 A min) 1,5-2,5
- "- vegetable 20-25 carotenoids 3,0-5,0
Polinenasыshtennыe a-tocopherol
fatty acids g 2-6 (Vitamin E) 10 — 20 (5 — 30)
cholesterol 0,3-0,6 vitamin K 0,2-3,0
phospholipid 5 lipoic acid 0,5
Mineral substances mg inositol (vitamin B8), g 0,5-1,0
Energy value - 11 900 kJ (2850 kcal)


plant and animal origin. Optimal ratios of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and magnesium (#g) have been established. In a balanced diet of an adult, the ratio Ca: P = 1: 1,5, Ca: L ^ = 1: 0,5.

healthy diet

The concept of a litany regime includes the multiplicity and meal time during the day, its distribution by energy value and volume. The diet depends on the daily routine, the nature of work and climatic conditions. For normal digestion, regularity of food intake is of great importance. If a person always eats food at the same time, then he develops a reflex to release gastric juice at that time and conditions are created for better digestion.

It is necessary that the intervals between meals do not exceed 4 — 5 hours.

The most favorable four meals. At the same time, breakfast accounts for 25% of the energy value of the daily ration, for lunch - 35%, for afternoon tea (or second breakfast) - 15%, for dinner - 25%. Breakfast (about 7 — 8 h) should be hearty. It can consist of cottage cheese, sandwiches with cheese and butter, or from a second dish - meat or fish - with a vegetable or cereal side dish. In any case, must be a salad of raw vegetables, a cup of tea, coffee or milk. During breaks, a second breakfast or lunch is recommended. The second breakfast should be light - (tea with a sandwich or kefir with a bun). Lunch includes appetizers (vinaigrette, salad), hot first and second (meat or fish with a combined side dish) dishes, as well as sweets (compote, jelly, mousse). Dinner for young people can consist of a second course, for the elderly - of fermented milk products, vegetable or cereal dishes.

Not recommended for dinner indigestible food, spicy meat dishes, coffee, strong tea. In any case, dinner must be no later than 2 hours before bedtime.

In a different way, the diet is built for those working on the second or night shift. When working on the second shift, breakfast should not be plentiful, but you should have lunch just before going to work. During the break in work should arrange afternoon tea, and at the end of the work (at home), light dinner. Night shift workers need to eat dinner before starting work and take some food in the second half of the night shift.  

The amount of food taken depends on the individual needs of the body, but on average it is 2,5 — 3,5 kg per day. You should never be fed up with a feeling of heaviness in the stomach.

The first dishes and hot drinks should have a temperature of 60 ° С, the second - 55 ° С, cold snacks - 14 ° С. Food temperatures above 60 ° C can cause irritation of the gastric mucosa. Suddenly chilled drinks are pleasant, but they do not quench thirst and are harmful, as they disrupt the normal functioning of the digestive glands and can cause the occurrence of colds.

Physiological basis of digestion and absorption of food

Digestion is the process of physical and chemical processing of food in the digestive canal to a state suitable for absorption and participation in the metabolism. It occurs with the help of juices secreted by large glands that have ducts (salivary, pancreatic) and glandular cells of the mucous membranes of the mouth, stomach and intestines.

Motor (motor) activity of the digestive system, ensuring the promotion of food, better wetting with digestive juices is carried out by reducing the annular and longitudinal loose muscle tissue located in the walls of the stomach and intestines.

Digestion begins in the mouth with the help of saliva, which is the first digestive juice. Food that is milled in the mouth is wetted by saliva (a food lump is formed), and the enzymes in the saliva (amylase and maltase) begin to break down carbohydrates. Due to the dissolution of food substances in saliva, there are taste sensations that promote further digestion.

In the stomach, food is exposed to the action of gastric juice, which contains hydrochloric acid (which determines its acidic reaction) and enzymes that break down proteins to albumosis and peptones. The acidity of the gastric juice depends on the nature of the food. For the digestion of meat food, the most acidic juice is secreted and in greater quantities than for the digestion of food of a different nature. The intake of milk and plant foods causes the secretion of gastric juice with a lower content of hydrochloric acid. Due to the presence of certain enzymes, in particular lysozyme, and also due to the acidic reaction, gastric juice has a bactericidal effect. It contains a small amount of enzymes that digest fats and carbohydrates. With the contraction of the stomach muscles, the food gruel passes in separate portions into the duodenum, into which pancreatic juice, bile and intestinal juice are secreted. These juices have a pronounced alkaline reaction, in connection with which the acidic reaction of the food gruel changes and it becomes alkaline. Digestive juices contain enzymes that break down proteins and their breakdown products to low molecular weight compounds and amino acids, as well as carbohydrates and fats. The process of splitting fats by enzymes to fatty acids and phospholipids is activated by bile, its emulsifying ability.

The pancreas produces the greatest amount of juice for digesting bread, a little less for digesting meat and the minimum for digesting milk. Juice secreted by eating meat, has a pronounced alkaline reaction.

The stage of digestion in the intestines ends, where food is subjected to the powerful action of intestinal juice. Enzymes in the intestinal juice break it down both in the intestinal cavity and at their walls. Food absorption occurs after the so-called parietal digestion, carried out by enzymes located on the cell membranes of the villi of the mucous membranes of the intestines. Cavitary and parietal digestion is interconnected. The final stage of digestion, turning into absorption, takes place in perfectly sterile conditions.

Water and a small amount of nutrients are absorbed in the colon, fecal masses are formed.

Of great importance for digestion is the normal secretion of bile - a product of the activity of liver cells related to the digestive juices of the alkaline reaction. The main components of bile are bile acids, pigments and cholesterol. In humans, bile acids are mainly found in bile, from pigments bilirubin and biliverdin. It contains enzymes, vitamins, salts. The main function of bile is to activate lipase - an enzyme that breaks down fats. Bile acids emulsify fats, breaking them down to the smallest particles and improving the processing of fats by enzymes. Bile activates digestion, prevents the development of putrefactive germs, stimulates intestinal motility. As you can see, the normal formation and separation of bile is important for human health. The bile-forming and biliary functions of the liver are regulated by the nervous system and hormones. A huge influence on these processes has the nature of power. The separation of bile is enhanced by vegetable fats, egg yolk, vegetable fibers of cereals and vegetables.

Microorganisms that inhabit the intestines play an active role in digestion and metabolism. They take part in the formation of lactic acid, B vitamins, phylloquinones, vitamin-like substances, enzymes. To maintain the normal intestinal microflora, it is useful to use dairy products, plant fiber, especially cereals.

What determines the appetite

Hunger is accompanied by the mobilization of neural mechanisms to search for and consume food. However, if the state of hunger, as a rule, is accompanied by emotions of an unpleasant nature, then the emotional manifestation of appetite is always determined by the pleasant sensation of the taste of those foods that the body needs and to which it is accustomed. Often, appetite is also understood as the degree of those positive emotions that directly accompany food intake. Unlike hunger, appetite is not innate, but arises as a reaction to the smell, sight, or even the memory of favorite dishes.

Appetite is closely related to the activity of the food center. Centers of hunger and saturation are located in one of the brain regions - the hypothalamus. They are interconnected, so reducing the feeling of hunger depends on saturation, which, in turn, depends on the presence of nutrients in the blood. So, with a decrease in the amount of sugar in the blood (hypoglycemia), the feeling of hunger increases.

Two forms of manifestation of appetite are known: general (emotional reaction of the body to food in general) and selective (emotional reaction of the body to certain types of food). As a rule, selective appetite arises in connection with a decrease in the level of certain nutrients in the internal environment of the body: acids, salts, vitamins, etc. This type of appetite is often observed in children * and pregnant women. In some cases, selective appetite may turn into a perverted appetite form, when the body begins to feel the need for such substances that are not usually consumed (chalk, clay). Often the cause of perverse appetite are neuropsychiatric diseases.

Appetite disorders can be divided into two types. The first type is a decrease in the feeling of hunger and appetite or its absence (anorexia), the second is a sharp increase in appetite (bulimia).

Lack of appetite can be associated with extreme excitation of the brain caused by strong emotions, mental illness, endocrine diseases, acute and chronic infections, diseases of the digestive system. Irregular and monotonous nutrition, unsatisfactory taste of food, as well as an unpleasant atmosphere when eating, reduce appetite. Appetite often depends on the state of health. Good appetite often indicates the physical and mental well-being of a person. Increasing appetite can be achieved by observing a strict diet, improving the quality of cooked food, introducing snacks and spices into the diet. For the favorable effect of appetite on the digestive process, it is necessary to prevent haste in food, reading during meals, etc. The aesthetic design of dishes and eating places is important for increasing appetite.

Add a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to combat spam. Find out how your comment data is processed.