Water in the human body performs numerous important functions. With her participation, metabolic processes take place, it is an integral part of blood, lymph, tissue fluid
In an adult, water is about 65% of the body, in newborns - 80%. Most water in the blood - 92%, muscles - 70%, internal organs - 76 — 86%. Smaller than it in adipose tissue - 30% and bones - 22%.
Water is one of the main end products of metabolism in the body. The biochemical oxidation of 100 g of fat produces 107 ml of water, while the oxidation of 100 g of carbohydrates - 55 ml of water, 100 g of proteins - 41 ml of water. For the normal functioning of the body, it is necessary that the amount of water flowing into it completely covers the amount released. Violation of this balance leads to a deterioration of the body's vital activity.
It is known that without food a person can live up to 30 — 40 days, without water — the entire 2 — 3 day.
Among the reasons leading to dehydration, can be called deprivation of drinking water, food dry rations. Water is strongly excreted from the body during the transition from a carbohydrate diet to a fat diet and is retained in it during the transition from a fat diet to a carbohydrate diet. With a lack of water in the body, the optimal conditions for the occurrence of biochemical processes in tissues are violated, and the efficiency is deteriorating. Therefore, it is not recommended to reduce body weight by visiting the sauna (sweating) and then taking dry food.
A person on average loses 1000 — 1500 ml of water with urine per day, 500 — 1000 ml with sweat, 350 ml with exhaled air vapors, and feces — 100 — 150 ml with urine. In hard physical work, sports, at high ambient temperatures (in the hot season, in hot workshops) water loss increases dramatically (to 5000 — 8000 ml or more per day).
A person's need for water is determined by environmental conditions, the level of metabolic processes in the body, muscular work, the quantity and quality of food taken. Under normal conditions, an adult’s need for water is about 40 g / kg, an infant child is 120 — 150 g / kg. The daily fluid requirement of an adult under normal temperature conditions with moderate exertion is on average 1750 — 2200 ml, but in pure form (water, tea, compote) it is necessary on average only 800 — 1000 ml. A person receives the rest of the water with the first dishes - 250 — 500 ml, second courses and other food products — 600 — 700 ml. In addition, 300 — 400 g of water is formed in the body due to biochemical oxidation processes.
Vegetables, berries, and various fruits are particularly rich in water (80 — 90% water is in them). In flour dishes the amount of water is - 2 / 3 - 4 / 5 their mass, in fresh bread - up to - mass. There is little free water in fatty foods, breadcrumbs, eggs, cheese, rice.
When the ambient temperature is high (39 — 40 ° C), when working outdoors, a person consumes 6 — 6,5 l of water throughout the day. With lower air temperature and moderate labor, the daily need for drinking water decreases.
High demand for water is experienced by workers in hot workshops, for example in the metallurgical industry. At the same time, it is important to maintain a rational drinking regimen. thirst. Excessive consumption of water leads to water intoxication, excessive load on the heart and kidneys. Continuous overflow water gastric reflex increases the activity of the sweat glands, increases sweating. Thus digestion of food in the stomach deteriorates.
It is necessary to refrain from abundant and frequent drinking. It is recommended to drink water in small portions through 20 — 30 minutes, since its absorption and admission to the tissues do not begin immediately, but after 10 — 15 minutes.
The exchange of water in the body is closely related to the exchange of mineral salts. Increased introduction and excretion of water leads to the depletion of the body with salts, since they are eliminated with sweat. As a result, colloidal (from the Greek. 11 - glue + eidos - type) blood substances lose their ability to bind water, and, despite the increased drinking, it does not linger in the body. In these cases, you should not drink fresh water, but salted water (water should contain 0,5% salt), since sodium salts contribute to water retention in the body. On the contrary, salts of potassium and calcium contribute to the excretion of water from the body and increase urination.
Drinking water should be clean, clear, refreshing, but not very cold. It is recommended to drink boiled water. You can not drink water from rivers, lakes, ponds. Among thirst quenching drinks, tea is of particular value. The indigenous people of Central Asia have long preferred to quench their thirst with tea, which they drink in small sips without rushing. Tea is the best of all known means for the normalization of water-salt metabolism in conditions of heat. In Siberia, to quench their thirst, they use bread kvass. Well quench thirst tomato and berry juices, salted tap and sparkling water.
In the hot season it is recommended to drink more tea in the morning, in the afternoon, it is desirable to limit drinking.
Dining mineral water and other beverages
Mineral waters of low mineralization, in which carbonate salts of sodium, potassium, and magnesium predominate, are used as table beverages and to quench thirst. Such natural mineral waters include Narzan, Borzhomi, Yessentuki, Moscow, Zolochevskaya, Polyana Kvasova, Odessa, Luzhanskaya and others.
Artificial mineral water can also be used as a table. To obtain them, ordinary drinking water is saturated with carbon dioxide with the addition of pure alkaline salts (sodium carbonate, magnesium chloride). Drinking water, saturated only with carbon dioxide to a concentration of 0,4%, is called carbonated. There are other types of artificial mineral waters: seltzer, containing sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, calcium and magnesium; soda, containing sodium hydrocarbonate and sodium chloride. In hot shops, thirst-quenching uses water with sodium chloride, saturated with carbon dioxide.
However, it should be emphasized that even poorly mineralized table waters cause significant changes in the human body. For example, such well-known mineral water as Borjomi, contains a lot of fluorine (350 μg%) and strontium (480 μg%), so its uncontrolled long-term consumption can lead to adverse effects. Mineral waters containing carbon dioxide are essential stimulators of gastric secretion, so their long-term uncontrolled consumption is also undesirable.
Food non-alcoholic beverages include tea, coffee, cocoa, fructose water, vitamin drinks, Baikal, pepsi-cola, etc.
Quenching thirst, tea has a stimulating effect on the human body due to the caffeine it contains (from 2 to 3,3%, depending on the variety). In tea, there is a relatively large amount of tannin tanning material (up to 19%), which favorably affects the activity of the intestines, especially during diarrhea. Tea with milk reduces the secretory function of the stomach.
Like tea, coffee contains 0,6 — 2,4% caffeine and 4 — 8% caffeine tannic acid on the human body. Coffee has a lot of nicotinic acid. The extract of natural coffee is instant coffee, containing more caffeine (3 — 4,5%) and slightly less aromatic substances. Coffee drinks taste like natural coffee, but they have no caffeine. They are made from toasted and ground cereals, dry fruits, acorns and chicory. Coffee has the same effect on the digestive system as tea does, but it is a stronger stimulator of gastric secretion.
Cocoa drink, usually cooked in milk with sugar, has a high energy value, has good taste. 100 g cocoa powder contains 42,2 g proteins, 17,4 g fats, 27,9 g carbohydrates, 0,4 — 0,8 g caffeine and 1,5 — 2 g theobromine. The last two substances are due to the stimulating and tonic effect of cocoa. Cocoa is rich in potassium, calcium, phosphorus and iron. It contains a large amount of oxalic acid, due to which it is not recommended to drink in case of diseases of the liver and kidneys. It is undesirable to use cocoa for gastric diseases, as it has a strong stimulating effect on the excretory function of the stomach.
Fruit waters are prepared on infusions or essences of various fruits and berries with the addition of sugar and saturation with carbon dioxide. These drinks are widely used to quench your thirst. Because of the relatively high sugar content (7 — 10%), they are contraindicated in diabetes, obesity, and other diseases in which it is recommended the restriction of simple carbohydrates in the diet.
Various vitamin drinks are widely used. Drink from hips (broth hips) is prepared by immersing dried fruits, washed in cold water and ground for better extraction, in boiling water. The broth is boiled for 10 minutes in a sealed container, then put in a dark cool place on 12 h for infusion, then filtered through gauze or a sieve with a thorough wringing, so that the pulp is transferred to the broth. This drink contains a lot of ascorbic acid. To prepare 1 l drink requires 100 g of dried rosehips. The finished drink can be stored in the refrigerator. to 48 h (take a cup of 3 once a day).
To prepare 1 1 g of wheat bran bran, boil the 200 bran into boiling water, boil with stirring on low heat for 1 hours. After cooling and settling, strain the broth twice through gauze or frequent sieve, first squeeze, and the second is not squeezed. Broth is added to sauces or soups. You can make kvass from it by adding sugar and yeast (2 g of yeast and 10 g of sugar per 200 ml) and putting it in a warm place on 24 — 48 h (for fermentation). Bran Drink is a good source of B vitamins and magnesium salts.
Fresh cranberries are made into juice. Cranberries are washed in boiled water, squeezed juice in a china dish, covered with a lid and put in a cool place. Berry cake is boiled in water (100 g of water is added to 750 g of squeezed berries). After cooling, the broth is filtered, add sugar and raw cranberry juice.
Natural lemonade is made from lemon juice, mixing a certain amount of pressed lemon juice with water and sugar.
Table mineral waters, vitamin drinks and fruit and berry juices take instead of a sweet dish at the end of a meal in one glass, except for hips and bran drinks, which are consumed at the beginning of a meal.
In addition to these vitamin drinks, a source of vitamins and mineral salts can be natural juices from vegetables, fruits and berries, as well as compotes. All these drinks are non-alcoholic and can be used in the diet of healthy and sick people.
Taste substances are added to food in very small quantities to give it a specific spicy flavor and persistent flavor. These properties of spices are associated with the presence in their composition of specific chemicals - essential oils, glycosides and alkaloids.
Classic spices are all types of pepper (black, red, fragrant, white), cinnamon, cloves, bay leaf, vanilla, ginger, cardamom, nutmeg, etc. Most spice plants (there are about 200) grow in hot countries (in our country - more than 100 wild and over 60 cultivated plant species).
It is necessary to distinguish spices from spices, which are capable of giving salty, sour, bitter (salt, mustard, vinegar) taste to food, and aromatic substances (rose, jasmine, toffee, cocoa, etc.).
Improving the taste properties of food, spices increase the effect of food on the olfactory, taste and digestive organs, contributing to its better absorption due to more intensive release of digestive juices, activation of enzymatic processes and metabolism. Many types of spices have antioxidant and bactericidal properties, which allows them to be used in canning, food concentrates, baking and other food industries. They contain vitamins, mineral elements, some medicinal substances.
In cooking, the peoples of the world use over 1500 different types of spices, but the most widespread and recognized are no more than 20: mustard seeds, nutmeg, nutmeg color; vanilla, pepper, star anise, cardamom; Carnation flowers, saffron, bay leaf; cinnamon bark; roots of ginger, turmeric, galagan.
To improve the taste properties of food, so-called local spices are widely used, the range of which is determined by the characteristics of the region and national cuisine in the places where they are grown. These include spicy vegetables (various types of onions, garlic, parsley, parsnip, celery, horseradish, wild garlic) and spicy herbs (dill, coriander, cumin, anise, mint, root, melissa, sweet clover, marjoram, thyme, juniper, etc. )
The food industry for the replacement of expensive natural spices produces artificial: vanillin, powdered substitutes for cinnamon, saffron, cloves, nutmeg and some others. However, none of them has the full range of flavor that is inherent in natural spices.
Spice mixtures have been widely used in cooking (a set of spices for soup, adjika, tkemali, hops-suneli, sets for making marinades, jellies, etc.), which give it specific peculiar smell and taste.
Food Industry Workers
Increasing the level of technical equipment of modern production, mechanization and automation of production processes radically changed the conditions and nature of labor of industrial workers. This led to a decrease in fizic load and the size of the energy costs of workers.
Food for workers employed in industry should be sufficient and fully reimburse the body's energy and plastic costs. The amount and composition of food included in the diet, are determined by the degree of intensity of labor, age and sex of the worker.
Of particular importance is the qualitative value of the nutrition of industrial workers: the chemical composition of the diet, the content of necessary nutrients for the body, balanced in the most favorable ratios.
In the diet of people of physical labor are important proteins. The need for them is the higher, the harder work (on average - 82 — 118 g for men and 70 — 87 g - for women). Particular attention should be paid to the protein value of the products. Proteins of food products of animal origin, containing all essential amino acids, well balanced, should be 55% of the total amount of proteins in the daily diet. Combined ingestion of food products of animal and vegetable origin allows for optimal protein nutrition due to the mutual addition of their amino acid composition. Proteins should provide 11 —12% of the daily energy value of the diet.
The daily body's need for fats, as well as in proteins, is the higher, the harder work is 101 —136 g and more for men and 86 — 116 g for women. At the expense of fats, 33% of the daily energy value of the diet is covered, which in weight units slightly exceeds the amount of proteins. 60 — 65% dietary fats are made up of butter, lard, vegetable oils, margarine, and 35 — 40% are the fats that make up food products (hidden fats). The share of vegetable fat should be at least 30% of the total amount of fat.
Carbohydrates cover the main energy expenditure of the body. The need for them of a person, depending on the intensity of his labor, is 378 — 546 g for men and 337 — 441 g for women.
Carbohydrates should be represented on average on 80 — 85% starch, on 15 — 20% sugars.
By hygienic standards, the carbohydrate content in the diet of industrial workers is provided for in an amount that provides 56% of its energy value.
It is important to include in the daily diet 25 g dietary fiber.
Food during physical labor must be complete in terms of the content of vitamins. The more intense the work, the greater the need for vitamins. Thus, the daily need for ascorbic acid, depending on the severity of labor and age, varies between 74 — 108 mg for men and within 62 — 79 mg for women. Satisfying the need for vitamins provided mainly by fruits and vegetables. Since the second half of winter and in early spring, when the assortment of vegetables and fruits is reduced, it is useful to use broth of hips and dishes enriched with ascorbic acid.
At some industrial enterprises, in order to increase the protective forces and adaptive abilities of workers, they are provided with free treatment and preventive nutrition in the form of breakfasts. The presence of canteens creates favorable conditions for the organization of rational, dietary and therapeutic and preventive nutrition of workers.
The development of catering at industrial enterprises and the introduction of regulated breaks in work allow us to ensure regular meals at a fixed time. Compliance with diet is an important condition for maintaining health. For industrial workers, four meals a day with a daily energy distribution of the ration are recommended: for breakfast — 25%, for second breakfast — 15%, for lunch — 35%, for dinner — 25%. For those who dine at the company, such a distribution of energy value is recommended: for breakfast - 25%, for lunch - 35%, for high tea - 15%, for dinner - 25%. For three meals a day, it is recommended for breakfast - 30% of the energy value of the daily diet, for lunch - 45% and for dinner - 25%.
Great attention is required to the organization of food workers night shifts. The most rational diet for such workers is a dense meal before starting work and the next - in the second half of the shift. For night workers, the following daily ration energy distribution is recommended: for breakfast (after work) - 25%, for lunch - 30%, for dinner (before leaving for work) - 30% and for the second dinner (in the second half of the night shift) - 15%. In this mode, it provides high performance and well-being of workers.
In order to improve the nutrition of industrial workers, it is necessary to introduce a complex lunch system in the canteens. Complex rations should be built on the basis of their biological usefulness, taking into account the need to match their energy costs of the organism. Rations should be balanced on the main indispensable factors of nutrition.
Meals agricultural workers
The industrialization of agriculture, the introduction of advanced technology in the cultivation of crops, the production of meat, milk and fodder are increasingly transforming the work of collective farmers and agricultural workers, bringing it closer to industrial work.
In the interests of preserving health and increasing the efficiency of agricultural production workers, the organization of their proper nutrition is of great importance. Rations nutrition of collective farmers and state farm workers should be based on the energy expenditure of the organism, which significantly decreased as a result of the introduction of new machines and mechanisms into agricultural production.
The diet of agricultural workers must contain at least 55% of animal protein of the total protein content. This requirement is taken into account when catering is organized in basic rural canteens of collective farms and state farms or in canteen field mills. For better protein digestibility, it is useful to use dairy and meat dishes with cereal and cereal, meat and fish - with vegetable side dishes (for example, oatmeal or buckwheat porridge with milk; dumplings with cottage cheese; dumplings or meat patties; meat with steamed vegetables)
In order to preserve its biological value, it is better to add milk fat (oil) to ready-made cereals, potato dishes, etc. Vegetable oils should be consumed daily in quantities of 20 — 25 g with salads, vinaigrettes, etc. For frying, use combined dietary fats, margarine.
Of the total carbohydrates in the daily ration, complex carbohydrates should be 80 — 85%, sugars — 20%. The main amount of carbohydrates should be ingested with bread products, potatoes, pasta, cereals, vegetables.
In order to provide the human body with the necessary amount of vitamins and mineral salts, a wide range of vegetables, fruits and berries should be included daily in the menu.
The organization of catering on collective farms, state farms, on field camps is an important event for the rehabilitation of field workers.
It is recommended to organize catering in canteens at the central estates of collective farms, state farms, in field camps, using kitchen cars and camping kitchens. This makes it possible to provide field farmers and machine operators during the period of intense field work with three meals a day (hot food).
Along with fresh meat, dairy products, fresh vegetables, canned first and second dishes (tourists' breakfasts, canned meats, soups) are used at the nutrition points of temporary field mills. Stocks of fresh meat, fish, fat should be available only for one day. In order to prevent food infections and poisoning, it is prohibited to sell jelly, aspic, meat and fish dishes, pasta in a naval manner, pancakes with minced meat, self-sour milk (samokvas), boiled sausages, brawn seeds, blood cells. Milk and water must be boiled. Prepared food for food supply points of temporary field mills is delivered in thermoses. Food must be fresh, cooked before shipping. Its shelf life from the moment of preparation to sale should not exceed more than 2 h. Clean dishes and used should be stored separately.