Correct methods of production
The correct methods of production imply compliance with occupational health and food safety, and, naturally, they are closely related to the HACCP system. Labor hygiene, strictly speaking, does not refer to the actual production technology of the MCI, but since it is very important in their manufacture and the technology department needs consultations on this issue, a discussion of the general hygiene principles, practices and practices of occupational hygiene is quite appropriate. Lack of attention to PMP can lead to the ingress of unwanted impurities into the products, and therefore PMPs are directly related to quality control.
Many provisions that should be taken into account do not need special mention, since in the preparation of food products much prompts common sense. The problem is that cleaning the equipment and paying attention to the small things that ensure the receipt of useful and safe products require labor-intensive operations that do not in themselves generate profit. Therefore, hygiene is often neglected, and very soon negligence and lack of control become the norm. This can serve as a bad example for new workers and lead to complacency in relation to unhygienic working conditions. The producer of food products has a great moral and legal responsibility for the production of safe and useful products for consumers.
The main factors that pose a threat to health or reducing consumer properties of finished products, include:
* Spoilage bacteria and molds;
* Friendly contamination (rodents, birds, insects) and the people;
* The presence of foreign matter (glass, metal, paper, stone, plastic and fabric);
* Contamination of chemicals (insecticides, detergents, bleaches, lubricants).
Different countries have laws and regulations on these issues are significantly different, but the rules and regulations are constantly evolving, and all manufacturers must adhere to them as closely as possible. In the following sections we will try to summarize these rules and regulations.
Sources of pollution
Microorganisms of people fall into the product usually with the hands. The product can also get hair, buttons, jewelery, clothes and things out of his pockets. Here, the most important requirement is to comply with the basic rules of personal hygiene by those who come into contact or may come into contact with food groduktom. Some diseases can spread rapidly when in contact with food staff neglect hand washing after using the toilet. Very unpleasant, if food is contaminated by fat and other dirt with unwashed hands
All premises where food products are located must be equipped with suitable places for washing hands with constant presence of hot and cold water, soap without flavors and disposable towels. Do not wash with cold water without soap and shared towels. Liquid soap should be in fixed dispensers. Do not use soap in the form of bars that can be stolen, accidentally get into the dough, etc. Do not use the same sinks and detergents for washing your hands or washing equipment. Before working with food, all workers should wash their hands and make sure they are clean.
All workers should be provided with clean overalls and hats, which should be used only in food production. It is forbidden to make personal food, beverages, money, pins, jewelry (except for simple wedding rings), watches, radios, books, newspapers and smoking accessories in production zones. Hair should be completely cleaned for headgear, and remove them in production areas, even for combing should be prohibited. Thus, the probability of contamination by various "foreign bodies" can be significantly reduced.
Smoking accessories should not be brought into the production area even in the pockets of smokers. In industrial zones smoking should be completely banned.
Production staff should be especially careful with cuts, abrasions, or skin diseases (especially on the hands). Bandages must be of good quality and are brightly colored (at least partially), so they can be easily detected at a loss. When working in areas with metal detectors can be useful to put in an additional metal strip bandages to be automatically detected in case of contact with the product.
Workers with gastric diseases should be outside the production areas until they are fully recovered. Often operators need to bring some small items with them during operation. Pens, pencils, gauges and various tools should not be worn in the top pockets, as when tilted they can get into the product or equipment. In this regard, it is recommended to use overalls without upper pockets. If the work requires gloves made of fabric (as when working with chocolate) or waterproof, they require regular washing / washing and drying both inside and outside. Use gloves only one person, and if damaged, they should be replaced immediately.
The probability of contamination is particularly high when opening and emptying bags or boxes. Pieces of rope or paper removed when opened, should be disposed of in the bins and not on the floor. Before tipping the bag, box or other type of container, make sure that they are on the floor or other surface prevent dust, which may get into an undesired place. Disposing of empty containers, you need to minimize the generation of dust and dirt, as well as make sure that it does not present a hazard to other workers.
Small pieces of equipment
In most enterprises, the production of MCI need to use special containers, beakers or trays for transferring and weighing of raw materials or the test that must be made of metal or plastic, as the pieces of glass are very dangerous. The glass containers is prohibited to use in industrial environments!
When the raw material is shipped in a glass container, it should be transported in unbreakable containers in special rooms outside the production areas. Color coding tare proved to be better than stickers (labels, tags, labels) that can get unstuck. Especial danger is represented by elastic bands, as they are used to "fly away" in the most unexpected directions and get lost. All utensils, empty or full, should be stored on special clean pallets or shelves - not on the floor. Due to this, when they are turned over, dust from the floor does not fall on the product or equipment. After use, all packagings should be washed with hot water (if necessary with detergent) and left in an inverted form for drying.
Cleaning supplies (rags, brushes, mops and squeegees) should be stored and dried after use in special supports, shelves or hooks, not on the floor. Detergents used for cleaning equipment must be approved types; their stocks should be stored separately from raw materials and packaging for the test. Such stationery, as elastic rubber bands, paper clips and especially the buttons used in the production is prohibited.
To test residues and other materials are not solidified, not moldy and did not "bait" for insects, after the release of each batch of all equipment should be washed immediately. Usually wash equipment easier when the dough ingredients and other residues are still fresh.
Some vehicles are particularly difficult to carry out cleaning and cleaning in the grooves, recesses and so. N., Which should be considered when selecting new equipment. As for equipment, suitable from the hygienic point of view, it may be useful work. The main equipment installation principle is to place it on the floor so that the floor can be regularly sweep and wash thoroughly.
The housings of moving parts of the equipment must be undamaged and permanently secured in place. All surfaces should be regularly cleaned and rinsed with warm water and detergent if necessary.
Production conveyors should be checked regularly for obsolete edges and seams. If necessary, they should be cleaned with a sharp knife or even replaced the conveyor. If the equipment is not to be used for some time, it should be covered with dustproof coatings. Liquid collection trays and other containers for the collection of residual raw materials and semi-finished products should be regularly emptied and cleaned (including without fail - after the release of each batch of products). Particular attention should be paid to ensure that food is not contaminated with lubricating oils. Leaks in engines, gearboxes or bearings must be reported immediately to the repair service.
Wherever it is necessary to climb high up to the tops of the vehicles or bridges and staircases are required to pass through the installations, special tracks should be provided with appropriate protection to prevent dirt, such as floors, carried on the shoes from getting into the dough, the product or on their surface. To fix wires or other objects in production areas, do not use ropes; Fabric materials or materials with loose insulation must be covered and securely fixed to prevent their destruction. In industrial areas, do not use wood, because it easily breaks and chips (debris) can get into the raw or dough.
When replacing the equipment it must be completely removed from the production area and stored (preferably in a sufficiently pure form) in a warehouse located outside industrial zones. In many enterprises, the "graveyard vehicles" is a perfect haven for rats, mice and insects. In the industrial zone of similar convenience shelters for pests it should not be.
Buildings and general purpose area
The main source of pollution - insects, animals and birds. The source of potential danger can also be falling from the top dirt and small particles. Avoid penetration of flying insects and birds by using special screens near the ventilation holes and windows. To catch flying insects that have entered the enterprise, it may be useful to combine high voltage grids using ultraviolet light to attract insects. Such a system does not provide 100% reliability, and therefore it is better not to allow insects to enter buildings at all. Open inputs must have air curtains (air or plastic strips). External doors should be tightly fitted to the floor - so that animals can not enter the room at night or at other times. Deratization systems must function continuously, and any bait should be placed only in specially designated places, in specially designated containers, which must be clearly marked. Damaged containers with bait should be immediately eliminated.
Channels for cables and other official communications must be sealed to prevent accumulation of dust and subsequent insect infestation. The high eaves and beams, which can be collected dust should be sloped and should be cleaned regularly. In all production areas should be maintained good lighting, and to prevent glass falling in the event of the destruction of bulbs, where possible, should be placed plastic shields.
It is essential that all employees of food industries are aware of these potential dangers of pollution and immediately reported to the management of all cases of inadequate sanitary and hygienic condition of the enterprise.
STEWART, J. L. (1980) Product Recall: Guidelines on Policy, Procedure and Industry Responsibility, Biscuit and Cake Manufacturing Association Conference. USA.
JOWITT, R. (ED.) (1980) Hygienic Design and Operation of Food Plant, Ellis Horwood, Chichester.
Food and Drink Manufacture, Good Manufacturing Practice, a guide to its responsible Management, (1998) 4th ed., IFST, London.
C & CFRA, Food Legislation Notes, EEC, C & CFRA, Chipping Campden, UK (these materials are regularly updated).
MANLEY, D.J. R. (1986) «Biscuit and Flour Confectionery», in Quality Controlinthe Food Industry, Vol. 3, 2nd edn. Academic Press, London.