toxicological safety Monitoring the use of food additives

toxicological safety Monitoring the use of food additives

When toxicological evaluation of food additives investigated:

1) acute toxicity;

2) metabolism and toxicokinetics;

3) mutagenicity (the ability to cause hereditary changes in the body);

4) teratogenicity (the ability to cause abnormalities in the development of the fetus);

5) reproductive toxicity (impact on the ability to reproduce offspring);

6) subchronic toxicity (determination of organs and systems most susceptible to toxic effects);

7) chronic toxicity (the ability to have a toxic effect on the body with regular use of small doses of a substance throughout life);

8) carcinogenicity (ability to cause cancerous tumors);

9) allergenicity.

The most reliable way to check the dangers of food additives would be direct human trials. For known reasons, it is only possible after the successful studies in experimental animals, and only to a limited extent.

The research and evaluation of the toxicological hazard of food additives is dealt with by an ad hoc committee of experts established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (FAO / WHO), the Joint Committee of Experts on Food Additives (JECF A). The Committee organizes research on additives in authoritative laboratories and testing centers around the world, analyzes and processes the information received. The result is the issuance of recommendations for the authorization or prohibition of food additives, as well as the definition for the permitted supplements of the recommended daily allowable intake (ADI = Acceptable Daily Intake). Particleboard is the amount of substance expressed in mg per 1 kg of body weight per day, the daily intake of which in the body throughout life does not have a negative effect on human health. The DSP is equal to the amount of the food additive, which does not yet have a toxic effect in the experiments on chronic toxicity divided by the safety factor. This factor is usually equal to 100. It takes into account the risk of transferring the results of experiments with animals to humans, the peculiarities of the metabolism of various experimental animals, the possible synergism of nutritional supplements with simultaneous use, the peculiarities of the metabolism of various groups of people (children, pregnant women, patients, etc.), variations in individual consumption. The actual intake of food additives is usually significantly lower than EAF. Calculations show that the consumption of, for example, sorbic acid is 1-10% of the EAF.

Direct transition from the CPD to the concentration permitted in food complex. At the same time, this value is the basis on which the calculated value of the maximum permissible number of food additives in certain foodstuffs [66]. For Russia, these values ​​are calculated and presented in the document "Hygienic requirements for the use of food additives" SanPiN 2.3.1293-03.


In conclusion, because of the fact that to the natural constituents of foods traditionally have shown and are showing far less interest than to food additives, a paradoxical situation: the toxicity of food supplements studied is better than the toxicity of many foods and natural ingredients.

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