Author's Note. Much of the information in this chapter is based on the experience and practice of the UK, but we hope that it will benefit both readers from other countries. Due to differences in climate and more population problems in other countries may be even more serious, but the knowledge of the general quality control methods, including hygienic measures necessary everywhere.
Some parts of this section are based on publications of the well-known chain stores in the UK system of "Marks & Spencer" - Hygienic Food Handling ( «Methods of hygienic handling of food") and Hygiene in Marks and Spencer Staff Kitchen and Dining Rooms ("Hygiene in the dining rooms and the cooking of" Marks & Spencer"").
In humans, there is no "hygienic instinct", and people historically regarded health care that arose from ignorance and sheer neglect. Until now, the attitude of many to sanitation and hygiene, unfortunately, exasperated sanepidnadzora employeesAnd to maintain in the food industry the necessary sanitary standards required constant pressure on managers and staff.
Here is a story related to the rural West of England and the characteristic attitude towards sanitation and hygiene in some parts of the developed countries.
The traveler, who wants to escape from the urban civilization among the rural beauty and quiet location, removed one of the farms (residents earned money by letting housing for rent).
Arriving tired late at night, the traveler went to bed. Getting up early in the morning, he walked around the house in search of a toilet and, not finding it, asked a relevant question worked in the yard man.
— Closet, sir, there, behind the trees.
Our guest, finding "convenience", and returned again met in the courtyard of the same employee.
— Found, sir?
Yes, but there are hundreds of fat black flies!
— And, flies, sir ... Yes ... You should have gone in half an hour, then they would be in the kitchen!
At certain periods of the history of civilization (for example, the Babylonians and the Romans) related to health in line with the best modern standards, although old and did not understand the true causes of diseases and ailments.
After the Romans conquered Europe and the resettlement of people in the city, where the water was dirty, it was not enough, there was no sewage system, and the products were often corrupt, hygiene standards have fallen to very low levels. Such conditions prevailed over 1000 years, and is therefore not surprising that the rampant plague, cholera and other epidemics. The nature of these diseases in those days was not known - it was believed that they work of the devil and other supernatural beings.
The modern understanding of hygiene and sanitation emerged a little more than 100 years ago, although the opening of the "germs" Dutchman Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) Gave rise to a general interest in finding a variety of causes of disease.
You can call the great names associated with this area: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Made the discoveries that led to the creation of the famous Scottish surgeon Joseph Lister (1827-1912) antiseptic surgery. Robert Koch (1843-1910) tied some diseases with certain microorganisms and discovered the bacillus that causes tuberculosis. Austrian obstetrician Semmelweis (1818-1865) discovered the cause of puerperal infection, causes more deaths in childbirth.
By the middle of the XIX century. Medicine has made significant development, but a significant reduction in the incidence occurred only after major social changes.
Living conditions in the industrial regions, has developed rapidly in the beginning of the XIX century., Were just awful that 1830-ies, along with cholera epidemics. was the reason for calling for the improvement of the sanitary legislation. In the UK, the names of Sir Edwin Chadwick (1801-1890) and Sir John Simon (1816-1904) went down in history thanks to their work, which laid the foundation for the development of public health. Thanks to their efforts in 1875, was established by the Council for Health and the Law on public health.
Along with poor living conditions, society had to tolerate low-quality food, and this situation could not be corrected until science was able to provide satisfactory control and analysis. The Food and Drug Law, published in the UK in 1875, has the responsibility for ensuring that food is of high quality, entrusted to the local authorities, and eventually certain standards were introduced. Special attention was paid to milk and dairy products, as it was shown that the main reason for the spread of infections was they.
The application of the law by local courts, supported by effective work of analytical chemists, has made a huge contribution to improving the quality of food, and the law on public health (Public Health Act) Gave the right to destroy unsafe products.
Over time and with changes in production methods in the food industry and cooking methods, it became clear that the original version of the law is not sufficient, however, before the advent of stricter legislation passed 60 years.
The law on public health in the UK 1936 of the laws of the Food and Drugs 1938, 1944 and 1950 years. great attention was paid to the hygienic conditions in the premises used for the storage and preparation of food, conditions of transport, and, most importantly, issues of personal hygiene of staff.
In the United States to protect the public from the dangers that threaten the health, adopted federal laws and state laws and local laws.
Here you can quote the Federal Law on Food, Drugs and Cosmetics 1938 g., Section 402. It states that a food product must be considered spoiled if “... it consists in whole or in part of any contaminated, rotten or spoiled substance, or is otherwise unsuitable as food; if it was cooked, packed, or kept in unsanitary conditions, so could be contaminated, or considered harmful to health; if it is obtained from a sick animal; if it is in a container contaminated with a substance hazardous to health ... ", etc.
Another aspect which arose after food hygiene (if you can call hygiene) refers to food additives, introduced deliberately or caught in a food product by accident. To increase the shelf life of the food product or to prevent the development of bad odor and taste to it can be added preservatives, some of the components were previously used are hazardous to health.
Most cases of food poisoning in recent years due to bacterial factors, although marked and cases of food contamination by chemicals. Food products currently produced and prepared in large quantities. Widespread public catering system, which means an increase in the likelihood that contaminated products will have an impact on a larger number of people.
Food poisoning is usually caused by one or two types of bacteria - salmonella and staphylococcus. Both of these microorganisms can cause severe inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea, pain in the stomach area and severe weakness.
The extent of poisoning may be different - from mild to severe ailments of the disease until death. There is also the possibility of chronic diseases due to prolonged consumption even slightly contaminated food.
It should also be mentioned microorganisms which, although not directly related to confectionery, can sometimes cause cross-contamination.
botulism (CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM)
From time to time there have been serious outbreaks of botulism, sometimes leading to death. The cause is invariably poorly cooked food that was stored for some time, and then consumed cold. Particularly vulnerable in this sense home-cooked vegetables, if insufficient heat treatment carried out (requires their sterilization in an autoclave). Precaution fruit is the use of low pH.
WAND gas gangrene (CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS, BACILLUS CEREUS)
These organisms are present in the feces of animals, insects and humans. Contamination of food is the result of inadequate sanitary measures in poor preparation and storage.
ВИБРИОН VIBRIO parahaEMOLYTICUS
This microorganism, once common only in the Far East, are now spread throughout the world. As a rule, it is associated with infection with the consumption of raw fish.
In earlier times, failure to comply with sanitary and hygiene measures when working with food led to the emergence of serious infectious diseases - typhoid, cholera and tuberculosis, but the improvement of production methods, the use of clean water and more modern equipment of toilets at the food enterprises virtually eliminate this problem. An important factor in the prevention of contamination of food remains the fight against insects and rodents.
In plants treated confectionery product usually has a low moisture content, which does not promote bacterial growth. So here the requirements for sanitary-hygienic measures may be somewhat lower than in the enterprise where they work with milk, eggs, or meat products (where poor hygienic conditions are the major cause of loss of product, and to the rapid growth of any microorganisms present in the products).
At the confectionery enterprise, however, there are intermediate products and ingredients in which harmful microorganisms can be present or which can promote the growth of microorganisms causing food poisoning. First of all, these are dairy products, egg white, gelatin, nuts and some dried fruits. Eggs, milk and gelatin before being introduced into the confectionery mass are usually transferred to solutions, which are sometimes left in warm places, where microorganisms can quickly and intensively multiply. Fortunately, these solutions are usually added at temperatures high enough to kill microorganisms, but they can get into the hands of the personnel. In addition, sometimes equipment for working with bulk products before being fed to the forming and cutting equipment is used without proper washing and cleaning.
During certain processes microorganisms are not destroyed. If you have used an ingredient contaminated with microorganisms or the confectionery mass is transferred via contaminated supplies, the paste, marzipan and chocolate after manufacturing can remain infected. Because of the low moisture content in these products, they do not contribute to proliferation of microorganisms, but when consumed by the rapid multiplication of microorganisms in the digestive tract, they can cause disease.
In favorable conditions micro-organisms that cause food poisoning multiply with great speed - for example, in humid conditions at 38 12 ° C per hour the number of bacteria can increase in 100 000 times.