If fried foods are heated with fat without adding liquid. Fat protects the product from sticking, provides uniform heating and improves the taste of food and increase its calorie content. From a technological point of view, great importance is the temperature of the fat smoke as it characterizes the beginning of the destruction of deep fat.
The temperature of the smoke is lowest for vegetable fats, especially for olive oil (170 ° C), and the highest for kitchen fats (230 ° C), so when fried, vegetable fats should not be overheated. At home, it is best to use cooking oil, or, as it is sometimes called, cooking margarine. In addition to the high smoke temperature, it has a number of advantages from the culinary point of view: low melting point (28-39 ° C) and low water content (0,3-0,5%). Low melting point facilitates digestion. Due to the small content of water, the cooking oil does not splash when heated and gives small losses.
You should also use poultry fat, since it is well absorbed and has a pleasant taste and smell.
Fried foods the main way, ie in a pan or other container with a small amount of fat (5-10% of the weight of the product), -.. The most common technique in the home kitchen.
Fry foods in fat (fried), t. E. Fully submerged in the hot oil, on an open fire (on a spit, grille), in a confined space in the oven t. F. Hot air.
Products or semi-finished products intended for roasting should be salted just before the beginning of heat treatment. An exception is allowed for fish, which must be salted in advance (for 5-10 min). Always fry in well-heated oil. At the same time, proteins located on the surface of the product or semifinished product quickly coagulate and prevent the juice from flowing out of it. If this rule is not observed, the fried product becomes dry. The transition of proteins from the juice products to fat also has another undesirable consequence - the proteins quickly burn, stick to the surface of the product and worsen its appearance. If products, for example zucchini, fry in insufficiently heated fat, they become soaked in it, acquire an unpleasant aftertaste and are more difficult to digest by the body. Vegetables, fish and meat cutlets when fried in slightly heated fat often fall apart. In practice, to make sure that enough fat has heated up, a small piece of the prepared product is lowered into it. If a piece starts to fry instantly (a layer of bubbles is formed around it), then the fat is ready for roasting.
But fat should not be allowed to overheat, as it loses its taste and nutritional value. In addition, if the heating temperature is too high, the product remains moist inside. Overcooked dishes have a bad appearance and taste, they are more difficult to digest by the body. Fry should be in shallow dishes - frying pans or saucepans with a smooth bottom. When deep-frying deep-frying dishes should be used, since the fat is heated to a temperature of 180 ° C. In this case, the moisture of the products quickly evaporates and contributes to the boiling away of fat. During roasting, turn the food with a spatula or fork, trying not to pierce them.
To bring to the readiness of fried foods put on 3-4 minutes in the oven or pan, cover with a lid and fry on low heat.
The best fat for frying vegetables and the young of meat - lamb, goat, veal - is a vegetable oil. To this you can add a little melted butter and strained. Beef should fry in cooking oil, pork - by lard.
For chips and a variety of breaded products use vegetable oil or melted and strained fat (beef, veal) that best withstand the heat (160-180 ° C). For this purpose and may be prepared from a special blend of vegetable oil, lard with a small amount of butter to improve the taste. Foods fried in deep fat, should be placed on a sieve and let drain fat. Serve hot they need watering warmed butter.
Properly fried product coated with a uniform golden brown, has a pleasant taste and aroma. Inside, it is juicy and well-frizzled.
When roasting on an open fire, the products are placed on a metal grate located above burning charcoal from hardwood (birch, linden, etc.), or fried, put on a spit or skewer, over burning coals. Coals should burn without the formation of smoke. With this method of roasting, the product not only reaches its readiness, but also acquires a specific smell. This method fry meat and fish (shish kebabs, lyulya-kebabs, sweets, fish on a spit, etc.) When roasting, baking or baking in an enclosed space (in an oven or oven), the product heats on all sides. When roasting meat, poultry and fish, the temperature of the oven should be high enough (for meat - 250-270 ° C), so that the surface of the product can be crusted for a short time (about 20 min).
After roasting the product is brought to readiness under moderate heating (150- 1-75 ° C temperature) for a long period (1-2 h) time. It should not be added or broth, or water.