Bread, being the most massive piece of food cargo with the shortest shelf life, requires strict sanitary regimes, poorly withstands mechanical stresses, especially in the first hours after baking. With this in mind, an important role should be assigned to transport and storage operations. However, compared with the level of mechanization of the main production, the mechanization of transport and storage operations with finished products is significantly behind, barely reaching 10 ... 15%.
Schemes of transport and warehouse operations. For bread bakeries and expeditions of the majority of baking enterprises, transportation of finished products on tray or shelf trolleys with manual packing of products into trays and reloading them into specialized vans is typical.
A more progressive scheme is the transportation of bread products using containers. In this case, using specialized vehicles with a lifting side, powered by an electric drive. Baked products from ovens are conveyed by belt conveyors to the sorting table, where they are viewed and stacked by hand into containers that are moved to the bread storage.
To move the containers used loaders, overhead or floor conveyors.
In accordance with the application-order, loaded containers are fed to the loading platform, installed by the driver on the lowered side of the car, raised and rolled into the van, after which the side, which is also the door, closes. Upon arrival at the point of sale, the driver unloads the containers into the utility room or the trading floor of the store, takes the empty containers and delivers them to the bakery. Sales of products produced in the store from the containers. After sanitizing containers and trays, the cycle repeats.
In fig. 3.49 presents the scheme of complex mechanization of loading and unloading and transport and warehouse operations in bread bins and expeditions, which is economically justified for introduction at high-capacity bakeries and is intended for the mechanization of all operations - from bread coming out of the oven, packing it into a container before loading it into an autobread truck. In this scheme involved aggregates 1, 4, 5 styling bread trays and the trays into containers traverse trolley 2, 3 conveyor, turntable 6, unit 7 for manual stacking of small sized articles into trays, circulation desk 8, containers with empty trays 9 , a special 10 elevator for sheets with small-piece items, 11 ... 13 mechanisms for lifting and unloading bread at chambers, 14, 15 devices for centering and joining car trucks, 16 double gates, 17 retrofitting section, 18 rail track, 19 double track, 20 double gate, extension rail 21, 22 double track, rail section 23, 24 double gate, extension rail 25, XNUMX rail track, rail track XNUMX, XNUMX double door, XUUMX retrofitting section, rail way XNUMX, XNUMX double track, XNUMX double gate, extension rail XNUMX, rail track XNUMX, XNUMX double gate, extension rail XNUMX, rail track XNUMX, XNUMX double gate, extension rail XNUMX, rail track XNUMX, XNUMX double gate, extension rail XNUMX; XNUMX truck, loading conveyors XNUMX, avtohlebovozy XNUMX, outdoor containers XNUMX drive unit XNUMX sanitizing trays, storage containers XNUMX loaded, transfer trolley XNUMX.
Fig. 3.49. Scheme of the integrated mechanization of loading and unloading and transport and warehousing operations in grain storage bins and expeditions
Handling and transport and storage work on this scheme are as follows.
From the ovens, the bread is sent to the baking machines by means of unloading mechanisms along belt conveyors. Before serving, bread passes through the mechanisms of orientation.
From the baking machines, the loaded containers are transported by a traverse trolley (see fig. 3.49) to the bread storage conveyors - drives 24. Traverse carts move along the rail tracks perpendicular to the axes of the drives. Each variety (type) of bread is stored on the corresponding conveyor-drive before being sent to the trading network. Acquisition of shipments of containers is made in an automatic cycle. According to the orders, the operator sets the program for the cart.
Completing the container with trays is carried out on the 17 section, consisting of an annular conveyor-picker, a trays overload mechanism, an 18 track and a console. Turning the container around the axis, you can bring any drive to the place of loading in the picker.
Completed containers are taken by the trolley and are transferred to the 20 loading conveyor specified in the program. All loading conveyors are designed for storage of two sets - eight containers. The loading container is docked with the 27 car, which, before arriving at the factory from the outlet, docked with the container receiving line with empty 22 trays and unloaded the containers. Empty containers were sent to the 23 unit for sanitization. Containers that have been sanitized using an 2 traverse trolley are fed according to a predetermined program to the 1,4,5,7 baking machines.
After docking the car with the loading conveyor, a mechanism is activated that loads the entire set of four containers into the body.
Accounting for finished products is a counting device. Four containers fit into the back of a car, and 32 standard trays are placed in each container.
Comparative evaluation of various methods of mechanization of bread depots and expeditions shows that container delivery using vehicles with a load-lifting board eliminates hard physical labor, mechanizes transportation processes without significant capital expenditures, and reduces downtime of loading and unloading trucks as a result of simultaneous processing of containers.
Equipment for sorting and processing baked goods. Circulation tables (fig. 3.50) are used for sorting and processing bread products before laying them in trays: round and with a flexible lamellar conveyor.
The round table (see fig. 3.50, a) has a conical-shaped 7 cover with a diameter of 2000 mm with a small board. The cover is made of sheet steel and mounted on a vertical rack 2. A worm gearbox 3 is mounted in the rack. The worm wheel shaft gearbox simultaneously serves as the axis of rotation of the table cover. The lid is driven by the 4 electric motor and rotates at a frequency of 4 minutes-1
Finished products that arrive on the table from a belt conveyor or slip are evenly distributed over its entire surface, sliding off as it stops against the side of the board.
Fig. 3.50. Circulation tables: a - round; b - with flexible plate conveyor
A table with a flexible plate conveyor (see fig. 3.50, b) is a horizontal conveyor consisting of two horizontal 2 chain blocks, a plate-roller chain 3, to the links of which are attached 4 slats. The 7 bed has a low side. When the conveyor moves, the ends of the slides slide along the sides of the table frame, made of angular steel.