Machines for the production of bread crackers.
Bread crackers are a new kind of breakfast cereal, a ready-to-eat product. They are made from rusk crumbs
Fig. 3.44. Bread crackers extruder
tattered flour) with added salt, sugar, vegetable oil, and food flavors.
In fig. 3.44 depicts a molding machine (extruder) for the production of bread crackers.
Crumb crumbs are pre-screened to separate too small a fraction that can clog the extruder head. After moistening to 12 ... 13%, the crumb is maintained with at least 4 ... 6 h. Otherwise, the moisture not absorbed by the semi-finished product, entering the heating zone, evaporates quickly and disrupts the extruder.
In the screw chamber of the extruder under the action of high temperature and pressure, the individual starch granules contained in the crumb are transferred to a gel-like bound state.
The 2 auger drive electric motor connected through the 15 coupling to the high-speed shaft of the 16 gearbox is mounted on the top plate of the welded 9 bed. The latter, in turn, is connected with the shaft of the 8 bearing housing using a coupling. The 1 control panel and the 10 and 11 switches are also located on the frame.
In a cast bearing housing there is a shaft rotating in radial rolling bearings. For the perception of the axial load from the forming auger, a thrust ball bearing is installed in the case, to the case of which the flange attaches the welded 5 cylinder with a replaceable sleeve made of a material of increased strength. On the opposite side of the cylinder is closed matrix 17. To improve the axial movement of mass in the cylinder, 14 plugs are provided.
Temperature control in the working area is carried out by thermocouple through a special plug 12.
For heating the mass in the front of the cylinder, the 4 electric heater block is fixed. At the front end of the matrix is a cutting mechanism 13 with rotating knives, which is driven from a separate electric motor.
The electric motor and the three-sheave pulley are located on the plate inside the welded frame. Range of change of rotation frequency of knives 150 ... 180,5 min-1. The speed of rotation of the knives is regulated by transferring the belt from the grooveр = 185 mm per d grooveр - 225 mm. The tension of the belts is carried out by turning the 3 flywheel of the tensioning screw, by means of which the position of the plate with the electric motor mounted on it is changed. Above the cylinder is installed 6 hopper for receiving raw materials.
The mass from the machine hopper through the adjustable flap 7 enters the receiving opening of the cylinder, where it is pressed and heated to the temperature 145 ° С. As a result of heat, moisture and pressure, it turns into a plastic mass, which is squeezed out by the screw through the holes of the matrix. When you exit the holes, the mass under the action of steam formed from superheated moisture, swells, it turns out a porous crisp vein. The cutting mechanism divides the outgoing conductors on the sticks.
After drying, the blanks acquire a vitreous structure, which, when placed in a hot environment (deep-fryer), becomes an elastic-elastic state, and the moisture, which turns into vapor inside the semifinished product, forms many tiny pores. Swelling occurs, the formation of a foamy structure of crackers with a simultaneous transition to a dehydrated fragile state.
Machines for the production of breadsticks.
Breadsticks, by their organoleptic characteristics, are fragile, dry, oblong products of round cross-section. They produce several items - simple, sweet, salty, with cumin. Kneaded and fermented dough before molding is subjected to rubbing to compact and increase ductility,
When forming dough pieces of breadsticks use the methods of rolling and cutting. The technological process includes the following operations: rolling the dough into a strip of a size set in width; sprinkling dough with poppy seeds, salt, cumin and other products; cutting dough tape in length with
Fig. 3.45. Unit for molding and finishing of bread sticks
simultaneous molding of test braids; wiring test harnesses; cutting harness for a given length; transfer of the formed blanks to the furnace.
The unit for the molding and finishing of bread sticks (Fig. 3.45) consists of a forming mechanism with several pairs of rolls; chain spring fan-shaped conveyor; belt transfer conveyor; a mechanism for sprinkling dough pieces with poppy seeds, salt or cumin; equalizer step blanks.
The forming mechanism is used for continuous formation of dough tape to the thickness of breadsticks. It consists of a frame and two sidewalls, in which one pair of 2 trowels, two pairs of 5 and 8 rolling rollers, one pair of 11 cutting rolls and an 6 conveyor are installed on slide bearings.
The polishing rolls are made in the form of two paired rolls with longitudinal grooves on the surface. These rolls are used for additional processing of the dough. The degree of rubbing test regulate screw fixture 3.
Smooth rolling rolls have restrictive rims for calibrating the dough tape in width. The rolls roll out the dough tape to the thickness of the bread sticks.
11 cutting rolls are used for cutting dough tape along the length and simultaneous formation of dough harnesses. On the surface, the cutting rolls have 48 profiling grooves. Cutting rolls are installed in the bearing cage. During installation it is necessary to ensure that the profiling grooves of one roll are not offset relative to the grooves of the other.
After the first 5 rolls, the 6 belt conveyor is installed to transfer the dough tape to the second 8 rolls. Belt width 400 mm. For the tension of the tape is mounted roller, which is moved with two screws,
For fixing the test tape in the transverse direction, the side stops 4, 7, 9 are installed.
The chain spring fan-shaped conveyor 13 consists of two endless stub-roller chains interconnected by springs. The width of the inlet conveyor is 510, and the output is 900 mm. The spring conveyor is mounted on the frame of the 15 belt conveyor belt.
The drive drum of the belt transfer conveyor is rubberized and mounted on rolling bearings. On the frame of the conveyor mounted rotating knife 16, which cuts the workpiece to a predetermined length. Under the knife there is a 17 retaining rubber roller. Rotating knife closes reclining
The mechanism for sprinkling 10 dough pieces with poppy seeds, salt or cumin is an elongated hopper with three rows of holes for product exit. The bunker is installed in two pivot pins in which it is fixed with locking screws. Inside the tank is the impeller, which is driven by a chain transmission from the cutting rolls. In the area of the holes there are two movable slats, allowing you to adjust the amount of spilled product.
Between the cutting rollers 11 and the chain spring fan-shaped conveyor 13 is installed for removing the 12 comb, a inclined stainless steel sheet. One side of the sheet is fitted to the profiling grooves of the cutting rolls 11, and the second is equipped with guide dies.
After the 13 chain spring fan-shaped conveyor, an 15 step equalizer is installed in front of the 14 transfer conveyor - a roller, on which cylindrical shaped depressions are used to orient the dough pieces according to the wiring interval of the formed cords.
The molding unit operates as follows. The dough is placed in portions on the receiving tray 7 and is directed under the rubbing rolls. Passing between the rollers, it forms a continuous ribbon of a given width, which passes successively through two pairs of rolling rollers. The thickness of the tape is adjusted by means of a gap adjustment between the rollers.
After the second rolling rolls, the dough tape sprinkled with poppy seeds, salt or other products, depending on the type of products produced, goes to the cutting rolls, which cut the dough tape along and simultaneously form the dough. 16 pitch mm and sent to the step equalizer, which spreads them across the width of the transfer conveyor belt. Here the rotating knife cuts dough pieces transplanted into the oven. To prevent the dough tape from sticking to the guide trays, they are lightly dusted with flour.
If between the 11 cutting rolls and the second 8 rolls, the doughs are assembled or strongly tensioned, it is necessary to reduce or increase the rotational speed of the rolling rolls by turning the drive of the variator of the drive, respectively.
Machines for the production of salted and sweet straws.
For the production of this product, an aggregate is used to mold and burn test ropes (Fig. 3.46). After molding, the dough harnesses are sent to bake in a belt-fired tunnel ovens.
Duration of baking straw is 8 ... 9 min at a baking chamber temperature: 235 ... 240 ° С for sweet and 245 ... 250 ° С
The unit consists of two machines coupled with each other: a three-screw test press and a cooking apparatus.
The test press (see fig. 3.46, a) is a three-chamber capacity 7. Forcing augers are located in each chamber.
A steel matrix 2 with 46 holes arranged horizontally in one row is attached to the front tapering part of the test chambers. Replaceable mouthpieces with internal holes are screwed into the die hole (to calibrate the dough, the test press is connected to the cooker with an 2 transfer conveyor driven by a press drive. In normal operation, test harnesses of the same thickness are arranged on the conveyor in rows parallel to each other. Duration of welding of test harnesses in the same thickness alkaline solution on average is 28 ... 30 C. Speed adjustment is made with the help of variators mounted in the drives
The cooker (see fig. 3.46, b, c) consists of an 5 bath with a heating device, a 4 mesh conveyor, and an 6 mesh conveyor for pressing the pop-up test into place.
Fig. 3.46. The unit for molding and obvarki dough pieces straw:
a - test press; b - cooking apparatus; в - scheme of interaction of machines of the unit
8 wire harness and mesh conveyor for transferring the scalded test harness to the furnace. Conveyors are driven from a common drive installed inside the frame.
Bath is made of stainless steel sheet thickness 4 mm. The heating device is a tubular radiator installed with a slight slope to the front of the bath.
The speed of the feeding mesh conveyor (see fig. 3.46, b) using the 12 variator can be adjusted within 0,005 ... 0,031 m / s.
The clamping mesh conveyor is mounted in an independent frame. The lift level of the mesh conveyor can be adjusted with the 7 knob.
The movement of the test press mechanisms is carried out from the 13 electric motor located in the press frame, and the conveyors of the cooking apparatus are driven from the 11 electric motor.
For the production of salted straw at the end of the transfer conveyor, an 9 sprinkler is provided, driven by an 10 chain drive from the brewer drive and equipped with an adjusting device.
The dough is put in uniform portions into the test chambers so that when the unit is started up, all three chambers are filled to the top with dough, and during further work - not less than half the capacity of the chambers.
The diagram (see fig. 3.46, c) shows the interaction of the machines that make up the unit. The dough, pressed out by the screws, through the calibration holes of the 2 matrix in the form of test harness goes to the 3 conveyor, which transfers them to the 4 mesh conveyor of the welding machine. Having passed through an alkaline solution heated to 95 ° C, the scalded test harnesses arrive at the 8 discharge conveyor, which directs them to a moving belt under the conveyor oven.
Machines for the production of gingerbread.
The gingerbread molding machine (fig. 3.47) consists of an 7 bed, an 2 feed hopper, inside which is a pair of corrugated 3 rolls periodically rotating towards each other, which are used to force dough into the 5 forming matrix, and 4 knives for cleaning the rolls from dough. Under the matrix is a mechanism for cutting dough pieces, consisting of two 10 sliders moving along the 11 guide rods. A roller with 9 fingers is fastened to the sliders, between which a thin steel wire-string 6 is stretched. The number of fingers is one unit larger than the holes in the matrix. The movement of the cutting mechanism is reciprocating: when cutting the dough, the fingers press the string to the matrix, and when returning, they go down to 5 mm down. Cut dough pieces fall in rows on sheets 8, periodically moved by a chain conveyor.
Before starting the machine, check the operation of the cutting mechanism: it is necessary that the 7 ribs of the forming holes of the matrix are from the side of the cutting mechanism, the string lightly touches the matrix, and the fingers freely pass between the forming holes of the matrix. To do this, throw away the thrust, which sets the cutting mechanism in motion, put on the handle of the manual drive, manually rotate the drive of the machine, monitor the operation of the cutting mechanism and, if necessary, eliminate certain shortcomings. After adjusting the cutting mechanism, the handle is removed, set in place of the thrust, let the machine idly, and then load the funnel with dough.
The drive of the machine is carried out from the electric motor through a worm gearbox, a chain drive and a connecting rod-crank gear system to the pressure rolls connected by a gear train, and to the conveyor, which, in turn, is connected by levers with a cutting mechanism.
After baking, some varieties of gingerbread are exposed to the external finish - glazing, i.e. applied to the surface of a thin sugar layer. At small enterprises, batching or coating machines of periodic action are used for glazing gingerbread. At the mechanized enterprises
Fig. 3.47. Machine for molding gingerbread: a - general view; b - molding unit; in - the mechanism of cutting blanks
With the continuous production of gingerbread, continuous-action drawing drums are used.
Continuous draw drum (fig. 3.48) is a metal cylinder 1, horizontally rotating on four 8 rollers mounted on an 7 bed. A 4 tape helix with a 150 pitch mm is welded inside the cylinder. To feed the heated syrup to the drum, an 3 tank with a coil and a drain tube is provided.
The drum is driven by the 6 electric motor through a 9 worm gear and a belt drive that encloses the drum body.
Fig. 3.48. Draw drum
Under the drum, an 5 chain conveyor is mounted inside the frame to move the mesh cassettes, which are wooden frames with 1000x600X60 mm dimensions, covered on one side with metal grids with 2 × 2 cell sizes.
Gingerbread on a conveyor belt through the tray 2 continuously loaded into a rotating drum, poured hot syrup and using an internal ribbon helix are moved to the discharge hole, unloaded on the cassette, where manually laid out in one row for further drying in a tunnel dryer.
The conveyor of the draw drum is combined with the horizontal conveyor of the tunnel dryer, which is a metal chamber with insulated fences, heated by tubular electric heaters located above and below the conveyor. To remove excess moisture in the overlap of the chamber, branch pipes are provided that are connected by pipelines with factory ventilation. The temperature inside 60 ... 75 ° С is maintained inside the chamber. Duration of gingerbread drying 10 ... 15 min.