Packaging equipment for bread, pasta and confectionery.
Wrapping, packing and packing of bread, pasta and confectionery products are made in order to protect them from the influence of moisture, extraneous smells, mechanical damage, to ensure sanitary and hygienic requirements for products and longer storage, as well as to give the products an attractive appearance. Products are packed and packed in packs and boxes for the convenience of selling these products in the retail chain.
At the majority of modern enterprises, the processes of wrapping and packing are mechanized and implemented with the help of various wrapping and filling equipment.
The wrapping materials can be rolled or fluted, pre-cut into individual colored labels, which are usually fed to the winding mechanism by vacuum suction cups from the stack.
As wrapping packaging materials, paraffined paper of different density is used for roll-up labels and tacks, writing paper for flak labels, aluminum foil, cellophane, heat-sealing cellophane, polyethylene films, cardboard, parchment and sub-parchment used for inner packages or tacks for packing or packing fat-containing products such as cocoa powder, cookies, and the like.
Equipment for wrapping
Most of the bread and confectionery products are wrapped individually on specialized machines designed for only certain types of products.
The machine for the individual wrapping of caramel in a heat-sealable film (Figure 6.1) is designed for individual wrapping of caramel in a heat-sealable film with a colorful pattern applied on it. Thanks to the linear packaging scheme, this type of machine has a high productivity and almost no complicated cam mechanisms.
The machine consists (see fig. 6.1, a) of three 2 ... 4 feeders connected in series with each other; 7 feeder for packaging material; 9 devices for forming hollow tube packaging material from tape; two pairs of 77 rollers for welding a longitudinal seam and two 10 rotors for welding a transverse seam.
The feeder 2 vibrating type is equipped with a receiving bin 1 and an electromagnet 75.
The 3 disk feeder has openings-cells in which products are laid. The 14 engine rotates the 75 brush through the angular gearbox, discarding items that are not in the cells.
Fig. 6.1. Machine for wrapping caramel in heat-sealable film: a - general view; b - scheme of the technological process
The 4 feeder is a belt conveyor with fixed dividing rails on it, with a constant pitch, between which there is one piece.
The feeder 7 for the packaging material has 6 bars, on which 5 rolls are attached. Unwinding rollers, photocells and test probes provide a predetermined oriented arrangement of the pattern on the product and automatically feed the tape from a new roll. All machine mechanisms are located on the 12 bed. The machine is controlled from the 8.
The technological process of packaging is proceeding (see figure 6.1,b) as follows. The items packed into the 6 bin are distributed in several streams on the grooved surface of 5 and one stream on the 4 vibrating plate. The bottom of the vibrating plate has openings through which caramel chips are poured into the receiving bin 3.
From the vibrating plate, the products are fed to a continuous 2 disc with peripheral holes-7 cells. The inner surface of the disk is conical, so the products roll into the cells. When the products pass over the 1 tape conveyor, tangent to the disc, they fall on it and go to the 15 wrapping unit (forming head)
The packaging material from the 8 roll is unwound using 77 drive wheels and 9-supporting rollers. For an oriented position of the pattern on the tape, there are black strips that cross the beam of the photocell 10 at regular intervals. The signals received from it are processed by the information block and the unwinding speed is somewhat increased or decreased
With the help of the molding head 75, the packaging material tape is converted into a pipe, inside which the products come from the conveyor 7. The heated rotating rollers 14 weld the longitudinal seam of the packaging material, and the rotors 12 - the transverse seam. 12 rotors are equipped with blades that cut the packaging at the cross-welding site. The wrapped product leaves the machine through the 13 tray
The ZKZAZ machine with a vertical rotor (Figure 6.2) is designed for wrapping soft glazed and unglazed sweets into a twist into three wrappers: a roll label, a foil and a swivel. The machine is installed in production lines.
Advantage of the machine is a short way of supplying products to the turning mechanism due to the vertical arrangement of the working rotor and the presence of a number of devices in the feeder and mechanism
The machine consists of the 7 bed, the 10 belt conveyor feeder, the 9 brush, the unwinding mechanism of the wrapper with the 3 roll holders, the feed and cut mechanism of the 75 wrapper, the mechanism
Fig. 6.2. ZAKCA machine with vertical rotor for wrapping sweets
14 wrapping mechanism, 5 wrapper blocking mechanism, 13 probe, 12 photo resistance latch, 8 latch, 6 tray, 1 tray, 16 sweets count counter, 2 brake, 11 control panel, 4 control panel, 17 for manual machine rotation.
The drive of all mechanisms is carried out from the electric motor. Shafts and cam mechanisms, connected by a system of levers with the working parts of the machine, are set in motion through a system of belt and gear drives.
In Fig. 6.3 shows the schematic diagram and the sequence of operations of wrapping products (before wrapping the ends of the wrapper) on the machine ZKCA.
The basic wrapping operations (see fig. 6.3, a) proceed in three working positions (Ɩ ... ƖƖƖ) of the six-position vertical wrapping rotor 2 fixed on the horizontal shaft 1.
The 1 shaft rotates periodically to 60 °. When the 2 rotor is in position Ɩ, the pusher ƖƖ feeds the 9 product onto the lower lip 13 of the rotor. Between the product and the rotor is the 12 wrapper, which, when the product enters the rotor, fits it on three sides (see figure 6.3, b, c). Then, the movable sponge 6 of the rotor clamps the article with the wrapper, and the 14 folder folds the lower edge of the wrapper,
Fig. 6.3. Technological scheme of the machine: a - working positions of the rotor; b - cutting the label, c - pushing into the clamping jaws, d - bending the bottom edge of the label, d - bending the upper edge of the label - the wrapping sequence in the first position of the rotor
exact material (see figure 6.3, d). When turning the rotor, the upper edge of the wrapping material bends, bumping into the fixed 3 flap (see figure 6.3, d).
In position // the ends of the wrapper are grasped by the continuously rotating legs 19, which, as they twist, converge to avoid breaking the ends of the label. In position ///, the wrapped product 16 is pushed to the inclined tray 77, from which it slides onto the selection conveyor 18. The 11 pusher 10 pushes the cut piece into the rotor, the plait rests against the continuously rotating 7 knife. Then the pusher returns to the starting position, bypassing from below the stationary table 8, along which the product moved.
In Fig. 6.3, b shows the working elements facilitating the insertion of products with a wrapper in the rotor: the 15 guide frame and the 20 wrapping clamp frame (the latter is shown only in Figure 6.3, b, c, d, d). The guide frame 15 periodically exits the rotor and reaches the 12 wrapper. To it, the pusher 11 presses the wrapper and the product, which are then inserted by the pusher and frame into the rotor
The edges of the wrapping material protruding for the product are pressed against the guide frame 15 by the 20 clamp frame. The wrapping materials are continuously fed by rotating rollers 4, and the wrapper is cut using a continuous 7 knife and a stationary 5 knife. The cutting edge of the stationary knife is inclined, which improves the cutting process of the packaging material.
The machine discussed above can be used in a line for the production of sweets with a feed from a group feeder, which is a system of streaming conveyors (by the number of machines in a line), or from individual feeders (manual and mechanical). In the group feeder sweets come from the coating machine, the individual feeders are supplied by the operator.
The individual manual feeder is a fixed table adjoining directly to the conveyor
The individual mechanical feeder A2-SHPSH consists of two successively feeding conveyors: a narrow transverse conveyor and a vertical conveyor mounted above it (overall dimensions of the feeder 795x770x910 mm, weight 240 kg, productivity - by a wrapping machine).
In Fig. 6.4 provides schemes for feeding sweets from different feeders
When feeding sweets from a group feeder (see Figure 6.4, a), sweets A from the 1 streamer conveyor, to which the machine is installed at an angle of 90 ° or another angle, with a rotary 2 disk guarded by the movable guide 3, are fed between the fixed 4 guides conveyor 5 machine feeder. Candy on the feeder conveyor should act already oriented along the long side. When the machine feeder overflows, the movable guide 3 is lowered by the electromagnet controlled by the photoelectric sensor of the machine feeder and the candies are discarded.
When submitting sweets from an individual hand feeder (see figure 6.4, b), the operator shifts the oriented candies A from the table 7 directly to the conveyor 5 of the feeder of the machine.
Fig. 6.4. Schemes for the supply of sweets to wrapping machines: a - from the group feeder in the line, b - from the individual manual feeder, в - from the individual mechanical feeder
When feeding sweets from the individual mechanical feeder A2-SHPSH (see figure 6.4, c), the first feeding conveyor 8 delivers candy A to the second feeding conveyor 9. Since the speed of the second pipeline is much higher than the speed of the first one, intervals are created between the candies. Sweets, approaching the transverse conveyor 10, under the influence of friction on its surface and the movement of the vertical conveyor 11 are rotated long side in the direction of travel. Orientated along the way, sweets are fed to the conveyor of 5 machine feeder. Candy, delivered to the feeder conveyor in position on the rib, is laid flat with 6 brush or dropped from the conveyor through the lowered sections of the rails.
When the machine feeder overflows, the A2-SHSH sweets feeder drive is turned off by the signal from the photoelectric sensor mounted on the feeder of the machine.
The 12 lever controls the presence of candy. If there is no candy, the lever rotates and blocks the feed of the wrapper through the limit switch.
The conveyor 5 of the machine feeder guides the candy to the fixed stop 14 located between the pusher 15 and the frame 13. The candy is pushed by the pusher 15 from the conveyor 5 to the rotor of the wrapping machine. Before moving the pusher, the movable 13 frame releases the path of the candy.
For packaging bread products, equipment similar to confectionery equipment can be used. The problem is solved by changing the formatted parts adapted to the dimensions of bread products. The main type of packaging used in this case is flaupak (brewing of packaging
Equipment for dosing.
Confectionery and pasta are packed in bags.
Packing machines are manufactured almost all the countries of Europe. But for example, we take the packaging machine of the company "Signal-Pak" is designed for accurate and rapid dosing and packaging of small-piece products, including sweets, caramel, pasta
The machine consists of a weight combination dispenser ("multihead") model MC-14-1, which has 14 weighing heads and a packing machine.
In this case, its functions for packaging the dose of products can you pick up other vertical packaging machines
Fig. 6.5. Scheme of the dispenser of the Signal-Pak machine
The combination dispenser is controlled by an electronic multi-system of weighing products, provides high productivity and accuracy of the dose mass for virtually any food product, including the selection and dosing of two, four different types of products and more.
In Fig. 6.5 presents a typical scheme of the dispenser of the Signal-Pak machine with the multihead MC-14-1. The operation of the metering device is carried out in several cycles as follows.
The product is fed through the 4 feeder onto a conical shaped 3 plate, which is evenly distributed in all directions over freely fixed guides, radial vibrating strips and discharged into the 2 primary loading containers, where the product is pre-prepared during vibration and gradual compaction. From the upper containers, after opening the shutter, the product is poured into 1 containers for weighing, in each of which the weight of the dose is set using the electronic weighing system; then three or four optimal doses are automatically selected, which together give the dose mass closest to the given program. As soon as the best combination scheme of these doses with the minimum mass deviation is found, the product from these conveyors is emptied at the same time as the lower dampers, driven by stepper motors, are opened through the outlet funnel into the food collection. The first cycle ends.