Technological equipment: bakery and pasta

Pasta Cutting and Laying Equipment

After molding, pasta comes to cutting. This section of the process includes cutting and layout operations. The way the raw products are cut and laid out depends on their shape, quality and duration of the drying process. Sliced ​​pasta in accordance with the standard should be the same in length, have a straight shape, the cut should be smooth, without bends and burrs.

Cutting equipment. Equipment for cutting short pasta can be divided into two types: mechanisms for cutting pasta on a disk of the matrix and mechanisms for cutting short pasta on a knife grid (in hanging state).

Mechanisms for cutting short pasta on the disk of the matrix set directly under the matrix and attached to the frame of the press. The cutting device of the mechanism has one or more knives pressed to the matrix, which, rotating, cut the molded product. The frequency of rotation of the knife (knives) is changed using a speed variator depending on the speed of molding products. Such mechanisms are used for cutting various figured (horns, shells) and small items (soup fillings).

Mechanisms for cutting short pasta on a knife grate are installed under the matrix on the floor, between the supports of the press. The cutting process is carried out in suspension after the molded products pass the vertical section (500 ... 600 mm) under the matrix.

This method is mainly used for cutting "feathers", noodles, vermicelli, since in this case the products after cutting have a straight line shape, which ensures their better packaging.

Universal cutting mechanism URM (Fig. 4.10) refers to the first type of mechanisms for cutting and is installed on auger pasta presses with round dies with a diameter of 298 mm. The mechanism consists of a knife head and a drive. The drive is mounted on a common 77 welded frame and includes an 10 electric motor with a 8 variator and a 5 gearbox. The rotation of the motor shaft is transmitted via a variator and V-belt to the gearbox, which has a movable block of gears, which, when switching the 6 handle, receive three different rotational speeds that are transmitted through a conical pair to the vertical shaft of the gearbox.

The cutter head is a 2 pulley with four knitting needles, to which 7 knives fasten on special hinges. The design of the hinges ensures uniform pressing of the knife blade to the lower plane of the matrix. The pulley with knives rotates about the vertical axis of the head on two ball bearings. Using the same axis, the knife head is screwed intoFig. 4.11. Universal cutting machine PSL

Fig. 4.11. Universal cutting machine LPS

center of the press matrix or into the center of the grid of the grate, for which a hole with the left-hand thread М20 is drilled in the center of the plate or the matrix.

The blade head is driven by the V-belt drive from the 4 drive pulley located on the vertical shaft of the gearbox. To regulate the tension of the V-belt transmission, the 72 roller is used, which is mounted on a swivel bracket mounted on the drive frame.

The 3 enclosure covering the cutterhead is also intended to direct raw products to the press blower.

The required number of slices of products per minute is set using the gearbox, variator and knives mounted on the cutter head. In this case, the final adjustment of the variator using the 7 steering wheel and 9 nuts can be easily made on the go. The minimum number of product slices per minute is with one 18 knife, with two with 36 and with four with 72. The maximum number of slices with four 2100 knives.

The universal cutting machine LPS (fig. 4.11) is related to the second type of cutting mechanism, it is installed with the LPL-2М press and is intended for cutting all types of short pasta both on the die disk and in the hanging state. The machine consists of a movable 4 case and three interchangeable cutting heads: I - for cutting according to a disk of a matrix of figured and small pasta; II - for cutting vermicelli and noodles

in a suspended state; III - for cutting "feathers" in a suspended state. All heads are attached to the 4 movable housing with 77 and 16 brackets mounted on the respective heads. On top of the installation is attached an 5 (14) blowing ring with air inlets that blow the strands of pasta after they exit the matrix.

Inside the mobile case there is a drive mechanism comprising an 7 electric motor with a speed 2 variator, a single-stage cylindrical 3 and a V-belt 12 transmission. Changing the frequency of rotation of the output shaft of the drive is carried out using a speed variator, the 13 steering wheel of which is brought out

The cutting head, mounted on the matrix disk, is screwed with the 7 screw (left thread) into the center of the matrix with the upper part so that the 8 knife cantilevered with the 6 bracket slides freely along the lower plane of the matrix. The rotational speed of the knife is adjustable within 18 ... 675 min-1. If necessary, the head can be additionally set up to four knives. The lower part of the head is connected to the drive mechanism using the 9 universal joint drive and the bevel gearbox 10.

To replace the head when cutting vermicelli and noodles in a suspended state, the previous cutting head, together with the drive shaft, is separated from the output shaft of the bracket. At the upper end of the bracket, a split cone 15 is installed, and a head for cutting pasta and noodles is attached to the bottom of the bracket with bolts. A bracket with a single 18 knife is mounted on the vertical shaft of the head, which slides along the edges of the 17 cutting edges while rotating, cutting off tufts of vermicelli and noodles of a certain length. After molding, the strands of the molded pasta are blown with air flow distributed by means of an 14 blow ring, which is installed instead of the previous one.

For cutting pasta such as "feathers", the head is placed in an appropriate replacement grill. A bracket with one 20 knife is mounted on the vertical shaft, which is also mounted to the cantilever, sliding along the lower edges of the opposite faces of 19 and cutting off bundles of strands of tubes of a certain length. The cut of the ends of the tubes thus obtained oblique (at an angle 45 °). Short pasta is then served for layouts.

Equipment for the layout of short pasta. For the layout of short pasta on the conveyor belt dryer use of pendulum or belt spreaders.

Pendulum spreaders are a cylindrical tube or conveyor belt mounted above the topFig. 4.12. Pendulum spreader

Fig. 4.12. Pendulum spreader

her tape dryer. When distributing the product, the handlers make swing movements relative to the drying belt. Depending on the technological scheme adopted at the enterprise, pendulum spreaders of various designs are used.

The pendulum spreader shown in fig. 4.12, is a hopper with a pipe 2, mounted on the axes in the bearing assemblies. Roller spreading about the horizontal axis is carried out from the electric motor, V-belt transmission through the worm gearbox 5 and the crank-shaft mechanism 4. The 3 actuator lever is slotted. By changing the lever arm with a permutation, it is possible to adjust the amplitude of the swing of the spreading lever. The frequency of swinging the pick-up is selected with the help of interchangeable pulleys. The actuator and the sneakers installed on the welded frame /, which is mounted above the upper tape of the dryer.

Tape distributors serve for uniform distribution of products across the entire width of the tape. The ribbon mapper (fig. 4.13) has, in addition to the loading funnel, the 8 belt conveyor with an individual drive device mounted on a common 12 frame.

The 8 belt conveyor with a width of 500 mm has a drive 10 and tension 14 shafts. The belt is tensioned using an 9 screw device. The conveyor drive provides both belt movement at a speed of 0,6 m / s and rocking motion with an amplitude of 53 ... 59 ° in the horizontal plane. The conveyor drive drum rotates from the electric motor through the V-belt drive 11 to the 10 shaft. WithRis.4.13

Figure 4.13. Tape maker.

the shaft end of the drive drum through a chain drive with a tensioning device 5 and a bevel gear, the rotation is transmitted to the vertical shaft 7. From it, with the help of two successively installed chain drives and the carrier 1, the movement is transmitted to the bracket. The reciprocating motion of the carrier is carried out with the help of a chain, on one of the links of which the 2 roller is fixed, moving along the 3 guide. Rigid mounting bracket drove to the frame of the conveyor ensures its swing in the horizontal plane.

The swing amplitude of the conveyor can be changed by interchanging the interchangeable sprocket, which should have 12 teeth when drying short-cut products, and when drying stamped - 25; The chain tension is adjusted using the tensioner 4.

When installing an asterisk with a large number of teeth, the belt conveyor performs about half as many double strokes and, accordingly, the forged products enter the dryer approximately two times less per unit of time than short-cut ones.

The tape spreader design allows you to adjust the width of the product distribution on the 13 dryer tape by moving the OO axis together.1, approaching it increases the distribution sector of the product entering the tape, and removal decreases it.

The performance of the ribbon spreader Pl (kg / s) is determined by the formula:6d

where F is the cross-sectional area of ​​the product on the tape, m2; pH - bulk density of the product, kg / m3 (pH = 581 ... 637 kg / m3); V - tape speed m / s.

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