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The technology of bread and bakery products

Quality of raw materials. flour 1

Quality of raw materials. flour 1Raw materials used in the baking industry is divided into primary and secondary. The core material belongs wheat and rye flour, baking yeast, salt and water; to further - raw materials, used in accordance with the recipe for the provision of their respective organoleptic and physico-chemical properties: sugar, oil, milk and so on.
All raw materials must meet standards and provide high quality finished products.
Quality control of raw materials for the organoleptic (color, smell, taste, texture) and physicochemical (moisture, ash, acidity, etc.) parameters.
In some cases, defining quality parameters specific for this type of material.
1.1. meal
Quality requirements of different varieties of wheat and flour zhytnoho shown in Table. 1: for wheat flour - GOST 26574-85, for rye - GOST 7045-90, for rye-wheat and wheat-rye - GOST 12183-66.
For all varieties of wheat and rye flour smell should be exposed to normal flour, no smell of mold, mustiness and other odors; good-quality flour taste slightly sweet, not sour, bitter or other flavors. When chewing crunch should not be felt. Not allowed content of mineral impurities or contamination traces of contamination by pests of grain stocks. In the 1 kg flour no more than 3 mg metallomagnetic impurities, the size of individual particles that do not exceed 0,3 mm and weight of grains of ore or slag should not exceed 0,4 mg. Humidity baking flour should not exceed 15%, for areas north and remote areas should not exceed 14,5%.
In the baking industry, there are certain requirements for the quantity and quality of gluten that washed from wheat flour.
 Table 1 Vimoga to the quality of boroshn

meal

Color

Size of flour *

Ash (in PE

cheese

Кислот

residue on the sieve,%, not more

pass through a sieve,

rerahunku on SR),%, not more

клейковина,%,

ness, ** hail, not

 

no less

більше

Wheat: krupchatka

White or creamy yellowish

23/2

35/10 (no more)

0,6

AOR

 

the highest grade

White or white with a cream shade

43/5

no

0,55

28

3

first grade

White or white with a yellowish tint.

35/2

43/80

0,75

30

3,5

second grade

White yellowish or grayish

27/2

38/65

1,25

25

4,5

wholemeal

White with yellowish or grayish

067/2

38/35

Not less than 0,07 lower ash grain for cleaning, but no more than 2,0

20

5

 

shade covers with visible particles of grain

 

 

 

 

 

 The end of the table 1

meal

Color

Size of flour *

Ash content (in terms of SR),%, not more

Crude gluten,%, not less

Acidity ** deg, not over

balance of the

pass through a sieve,

sieve,%, not more

%

Rye: ***

 

 

 

 

 

 

Xian

White

27/2

38/90

0,75

4

obdirne

Grayish-white

045/2

38/60

1,45

5

wholemeal

Grayish-white with visible particles of shells

067/2

38/30

Not less than 0,07 lower ash grain for cleaning, but no more than 2,0

5,5

Rye-wheat and wheat-rye oboyne.

Grayish-white with visible particles of shells

067/2

38/40

 

The quality of gluten is characterized by color, stretchability, flexibility, ability to resist deformation compressive load (tab. 2).
Depending on the flexibility and extensibility of the quality of gluten divided into three groups. Gluten first group of resilient nonsticky, elastic, white or white with a yellow tint. Gluten second group of light or gray tint. Gluten third group in the baking industry should not be used. Quality of gluten in Table. 2.
Table 2
Quality of gluten

Group

Color

Elasticity

Extensibility

The ability to resist deformation compression load (gear IIR-I) units. instrument scale

And - good gluten

Light or yellow tinge

 good

Average or long

45 - 75

II - gluten satisfactory strong

Light or gray tint 

Good or Satisfactory  

Short

20 - 40

satisfactory or weak

The same

 Satisfactory

Average or long

80-100

III - poor gluten strong

Dark

Neelastycha or fragile

Short

0- 15

weak or unsatisfactory

The same

Inelastic, provisão in roztâguvanní

Greatly extends

105-120

Baking properties of flour characterized by indicators such as the ability to form dough with specific structural and mechanical properties and a certain degree of change during fermentation (strength flour); vodopohlynalna capacity, ie the amount of water (in percentage), which is absorbed by the formation of a flour dough of optimal consistency; gas-forming ability, ie the ability to form dough fermentation particular amount of carbon dioxide; avtolitychna activity, ie the ability to accumulate soluble substances under the action of enzymes flour; color and ability darkle flour in the production process; particle size flour.
Indicators for the baking properties of wheat-roshna given in tabl.Z. For the main indicator characterizing the baking properties of rye flour, adopted avtolitychna activity (tabl.4).
Given that the baking properties of flour to a large extent depend on the duration of its exposure after the meal, it should vidlezhuvatys at seller following terms: wheat varietal - at least 5 days, rye High quality - at least three days and oboyne - at least two days after the meal. In cities where there is a high-quality grinding mills, High quality flour sold softened with at least three days.
Table XNUMX Indicators of the baking power of wheat boros

Indicator

                    The rules for the type of flour

higher

first

another

of wallpaper

Vodopohlynalna ability%

50

52

56

60

Gas-forming ability, cm3 SO2 / 100 g flour

 

 

 

low, less

                 1300

normal

           1300-1600

high over

                 1600

Tsukroutvoryuyucha ability, maltose mg / 10h flour

 

 

 

normal

              275-300

reduced less

                     180-200

 

“The Power is Good” for the pouring of the bag of Tista Pislya 3 years vilyezhuvannya, mm

 

 

 

strong, not more

                                83

 

 

the mean

                             83-97

 

 

weak, more

                               97

 

 

Avtolitychna activity on Wed,%, no more:

 

 

 

 

- With normal content kleykovy

 

 

 

 

us good or satisfactory quality

29

30

30

 

- By reducing the contents and satisfying

 

 

 

 

gluten free money

20

20

25

 

Color dark flour and ability

 

 

 

 

garments per hour vylezhuvannya 6% to

 

 

 

 

bilosti original, not more

10

20

30

 

 The end of the table 3

Indicator

The rules for the type of flour

 

higher

first

another

 of wallpaper

Yakіst hliba for the results of the trial vipichki (GOST 27669 - 88) The total volume of hliba 100 g is bright, cm3

400

400

350

 

And the class, at least

 

Class II less

400

400

350

 

Shape stability (ratio of height to diameter hearth bread):

0,4

0,4

0,35

 

And a group of at least

 

Group II less

0,4

0,4

0,35

 

Table 4 Characteristics of the bakery authorities of the life boros

Indicator

Value

Characteristics balls of bread obtained by baking Express

Avtolitychna activity in avtolitychnoyu breakdown flour, by weight, water-soluble substances on Wed,%, no more:

 

 

of wallpaper

55

 

obdirnogo

50

 

seeded

50

 

Rye-wheat oboynoho

50

 

Autolithic activity for express-vipchkoy, masova, a part of the water springs at m'yakushtsі

 

CP,%:

 

normal

23-28

The form is correct, without pіdrivіv, skinkinka іvnomіrno sіra, m'yakushka is quite dry

increased more

28

The lower skorynka is flat, and the upper one is zarum'yanen, m'yakushka is sticky, dark

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