Triticale - is artificially created crops, which were crossing wheat (Triticum) and rye (Secale). This wheat-rye amfidyployid. This amfidyployid has a high yield, high protein content, resistance to low temperatures and disease. This triticale able to significantly improve the entire structure of the grain mass Ukraine, especially areas of steppes and Polesie.
The content of protein domestic varieties of triticale wheat richer in 1-1,5% (according to some - on 9,5), rye - on 3-4%. Grain triticale contains 14-16% protein, while its parent form - 10-12%.
Prolaminy and triticale hlyuteliny form of gluten than wheat pro¬laminy and hlyuteliny, but it is weaker than wheat gluten (IIR - 103-108 units.), Has a higher ability hidratatsiynu.
Starch triticale kleysteryzuyetsya at 56,5 ° C. Flour has high avtolitychnu activity. With triticale grain flours are produced: the first, second and oboyne.
According to regulatory documents, gluten content should be,% in first grade flour least 18, second and oboynoho - 16. The ash content of flour per¬shoho grade should not exceed 0,75; second - 1,50; oboynoho - 2,0%.
For baking properties of wheat yield to it.
In recent years, thanks to developments Myronivka wheat institute, Institute of Plant (Kharkiv.), Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute (c. Odessa) and others, there are many new varieties of triticale, whose biological properties are divided into two groups of varieties mostly rye phenotype (ADM-8, ADM-11, 52 Amfidyployid et al.) and most varieties of wheat phenotype (Mironovskiy amfidyployid 1, ADM-4, 5-ADM, etc.). For baking properties of flour from grain triticale first group close to the rye, the second group - to wheat.
Corn flour used in the manufacture of certain domestic products, food concentrates, as well as an application in the production of bread pshe-nychnoho or rye flour. Corn flour is made from exit 70 and 85% dvosortovym single and grinding.
In milling corn germ isolated. Fine flour derived from the endosperm, large - from endosperm and a small amount of peripheral particles. Fine cornmeal has ash content of not more than 0,9%, balance on silk sieve number no more than 23 2%, pass through a sieve № 32 - not less than thirty%. Meal, corn meal has a large ash content not exceeding 1,3%, balance on a metal sieve number 56 should be no more 2%.
In cornmeal standardized fat content. In fine flour content allowed 2,5% fat, and large - 3%.
The main component of this flour is starch (76-84%), which has high atakuyemist amylase enzymes. So hazoutvoryuvalna ability cornmeal higher than the same wheat output, but lower amylase activity. Proteins make up 8-11% by weight of flour. In most corn flour protein content are prolaminy (zeyin) - 42% to SR proteins hlyuteliny - 21,3%. They have weak capacity vodopohlynalnu not form gluten, ie baking properties of flour are low.
The most deficient amino acids (lysine, tryptophan, methionine) proteins corn yield wheat proteins.
In the bakery oatmeal often used for the production of cookies. To enrich bread dietary fiber, essential amino acids used grain oats. In oat protein lysine contains twice the protein in wheat.
With oats produce oat flour diet. In its composition of proteins - 13; fat - 6,8; Starch - 67,6; Ash - 1,8%. Flour compared with wheat and rye contains almost twice as much potassium, magnesium and phosphorus. In oat proteins prevail hlyuteliny (Avenyn).
Barley flour used to make bread, perepichok onah in paradise, where other cereals are not cultivated. This northern or alpine areas. Barley contains on average 16% protein, of which 60% - prolaminy (hordeyin) and hlyuteliny. With barley flour in warm water can wash gluten, the quality of it - korotkorvana, inelastic, its ability hidratatsiyna low (90-160%), is gray. Bread with barley flour of poor quality, he quickly stale. Adding 10% of wheat flour to the second grade significantly affects the quality of bread.
With the amount of essential amino acids protein high-grade barley than wheat protein. It contains more lysine and threonine at 47 to 31%.
In barley flour contains,% protein - 10,0; fat - 1,6; Starch - 55,1; Ash - 1,4.
Produce deodorized soy flour full-fat, and skim napivznezhyrene. Deodorization (steaming) is carried out to remove odorous substances, and substances that provide soybean bitter taste. Depending on the size of flour, fiber, color of each type of soy flour manufactured or higher and variety.
Full-fat soy flour produced from soy beans with light over-coloring. Prepared flour cream color. This flour protein content is 38,5, fat - 20,2; sugars - 9; fiber - 2,6; Starch - 16; Ash - 4,7%.
Napivznezhyrene flour produced from oil cake after the selection by pressing. This meal yellow or light brown color, contains,%: 6,3 - fat, 45,6 - proteins, 20,7 - starch, 5,2 - ash.
Skim flour made of cake (after removing oil from soybean seeds extractive method). Color it yellow or light gray. Content,% fat - 1, protein - 48,9, starch - 21, ash - 5,3.
Soy flour used in the baking industry as an additive that improves the nutritional value of products. Soybean seeds is characterized by a high content of lysine - to 6% by weight of protein.