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The technology of bread and bakery products

Comparison of the dry matter losses during fermentation dough on thick sourdough

Comparison of the dry matter losses during fermentation dough on thick sourdough flour with different contents therein.
       It was shown above that the consumption of dry matter of flour for fermentation increases with an increase in the content of flour in the dough and the duration of fermentation. In this regard, it was necessary to find out how such a significant increase in the content of flour in the dough, which is subjected to prolonged fermentation, affects the amount of fermentation losses.

This was investigated by the author together with N. I. Berzina and G. P. Tivonenko by preparing a dough according to the recipe used at the Kiev bakery No. 3 for making Ceek from I grade flour (Table 53). The brew was cooked wet
Table 53. Comparison of dry matter losses in the preparation of dough on thick sourdough fermentation with and without fermenting it before butchering,% by weight of flour in the dough

Stage
fermentation
Emphasis S02 Lose weight weight
With the fermentation test

Without fermentation test

With the fermentation test

Without fermentation
test

Opara ...

0,78

1,33

0,65

1,20

Dough ...

0,42

0,32

Proofing. . .

0,40

0,40

0,27

0,29

Total

1,60

1,73

1,24

1,49

% of 49 60% of the entire meal. The dough is kneaded 20 dezhevoy minutes in the car and without fermentation was cutting. For the control dough prepared in the usual sponge method to brew 50% of all flour and kneaded dough and fermented 5 minutes before bunching 1,5 hours.
In both cases, the doughs were fermented 5 h. The temperature of the fermentation of the dough and the 30 ° C test, and of the proofing 35 ° C. The duration of the proofing for the non-fermented test was longer by 20 minutes, as is the case at the factory. This also partially compensated for the presence in factories using this technology for some short period of fermentation of the dough before cutting.
The results obtained confirmed that the losses due to the fermentation of the dough are greater with an increased flour content in it. Losses at proofing are almost identical. The total losses in dough preparation before fermentation, judging by the amount of carbon dioxide emitted and weight loss, are greater than when working with fermentation of dough during 1,5 hours, but with a lower content of dough flour.
Thus, the saving of dry substances by reducing the duration of the fermentation of the dough before cutting does not compensate for the increase in the consumption of ferments containing large amounts of flour.
It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that in these experiments the minimum content of flour in the dough is taken - 60%, in factories it sometimes contains 70%, and this further increases fermentation losses. The duration of the fermentation of control cakes was 5 hours, while they usually roam 3 — 4 hours [174].
Consequently, in terms of the loss of solids for fermentation, the usual method of preparing dough on thick molds, and even more on liquid stockings, which has many advantages, is more economical.
    Methods of accelerated cooking test with intensive mixing, used abroad
The technology and technology of bakery production in the USSR is at a higher level than in foreign countries, where the preparation of dough in continuously operating kneading machines and liquid semi-finished products is much less common. Even at a number of new US factories, dough is prepared in machines with movable bowl. However, in recent years, abroad began to introduce continuously operating automated test preparation plants.
For the accelerated preparation of dough with a reduced fermentation period before cutting, in a number of countries, pre-fermented liquid semi-finished products are used (pre-enzyme that does not contain flour, dough or starter) and knead the dough with an intense mechanical effect on it. The introduction of this method contributed to the creation of high-speed dough mixing machines of continuous and periodic action, providing intensive processing of the test [226, 231, 256].
The symposium of the Research Institute of baking Australia noted that the high-speed kneading machine of continuous action with speed 280-310 working body in a minute allow to cook the dough in a short time (2-3 minutes), and the bread is obtained with a large volume and a better porosity, than when using a low-speed machines.
Some new ways of making dough abroad, especially in liquid semi-finished products, deserve a brief review. If they are generally unsuitable for our conditions, then the particular questions of their technology and information about the processes occurring in liquid semi-finished products may be of some interest.
In the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, a number of bakeries are in operation with a new plant for preparing dough on liquid sourdough without fermentation before cutting. Liquid sourdough (fig. 41) is kneaded from 35 — 40% of all the flour in the 9 mixer, the paddle stirrer of which makes 220 rpm. Flour is fed into it with the 4 dosing unit from the 5 hopper, which is fed from the 2 auger, and the liquid ingredients are delivered to the 3 dosing station. It is fermented with 3,5 — 4 h in the 1 apparatus, which is a cylinder, in the center of which there is a vertical rotating axis with radially arranged partitions forming the 12 sectors. There are rubber scrapers at the edges of the latter to seal the gaps between the cylinder and the rotating partitions, as well as to prevent the leaven from flowing over. Sourdough kneaded continuously and fill alternately rotating sectors. It is taken by the gear pump after a complete shaft rotation. This creates a continuity in the preparation of the leaven and eliminates the possibility of mixing fresh portions with the already fermented ones.
To increase the dosing accuracy, the starter culture passes through the 10 apparatus with a stirrer (50 rpm) before entering the dosing unit, in which carbon dioxide bubbles are removed from it, which change its consistency and volumetric weight.
41 3Fig. 41. Driving dough liquid semi-finished product in Czechoslovakia.
two gear pumps are installed under this unit. One 30-35% sourdough served in 9 mixer for the preparation of fresh yeast, and the second the rest of the leaven in the dough mixer is pumped.
A feature of this setup is also the use of a continuous 6 kneader, which processes the dough more intensively for 5 — 6 min with two screws making 32 rpm. The kneaded dough from the machine through the hole, adjustable screw valve, enters the trough belt conveyor 7, which is fed to the dividing machine 8. On the dough conveyor is 15 — 20 min. This limits the duration of its fermentation before cutting. The plant capacity is up to 1 tons of whole wheat bread per hour.
Technological schemes for the continuous preparation of dough on liquid semi-finished products using high-speed kneading machines are also used in the USA. On Chalo put this scheme proposed by Baker, which is used to prepare a liquid semi-finished product that does not contain flour, a preference consisting of 70% of all water, 2% yeast, 3% sugar, 6% milk powder, 0,4% malt extract by weight of flour, mineral salts to supply yeast and salt. After 2,5 h fermentation on this semi-finished product knead the dough with the addition of the total amount of flour, fat, oxidizing enhancers and the rest of the water. After kneading, the dough is cut, settled and baked.
Liquid cake mix prepared in fermentation tanks * equipped with stirrer and a water jacket. In the test batch it is pumped through a heat exchanger.
A distinctive feature of this scheme is the dough kneading in two successive kneading machines that intensively process it. In the first there are two augers, vigorously mixing the ingredients of the dough. From it the mass of dough is fed by the screw into the machine for the secondary processing of dough with the purpose of its plasticization, from which it enters the divider.
Lack of scheme is that the absence of liquid in fermenting flour semifinished product leads to a deterioration of flavor and taste of bread.
The technology of this method has been improved by the American Institute of Milk Powder (Amer. Dry Milk Inst. - ÂDMI). Liquid semi-finished product does not contain flour, ferments 6 h at 38 ° C. It can be maintained without deterioration for 48 hours at 12 — 15 ° C. The dough ferments 30 minutes at 30 ° C, while sponge dough under the same conditions left to ferment at 25 — 26 ° C.
The preenzyme can be prepared separately for each test or immediately in large quantities per shift or day, using it for all the products produced: bread, buns, muffins. The formulation of products changes when kneading dough. This makes the pre-enzyme universal, which greatly simplifies the work.
The advantage of this technology is the absence of frequent preparation of the dough, reducing the duration of the dough preparation, reducing the volume of equipment and the area of ​​the dough preparation department, as well as reducing production losses.
The study of this method showed that the yeast in the enzyme does not multiply, and their fermentation ability does not increases. The amount of sugar added to the preference shall not exceed 3%. The addition of 1,25% salt does not lead to a further lengthening of the duration of proofing. Of all the additions of mineral salts, only ammonium salts accelerate the fermentation of the preenzyme. Potassium bromate has no effect. To stabilize the preenzyme and maintain the pH value within 4,5 — 5,5, it is necessary to add buffer substances to it: milk, protein preparations, or chalk. Fats must be set in the dough, as they cool down when the enzyme cools.
42 3                                                                       Fig. 42. The dough circuit of the Dou-Maker prep unit.
In the preference from the very beginning of its preparation contains lactic acid bacteria. During fermentation, the lactic acid microflora decreases, which may be due to the suppressive effect of the resulting alcohol. A positive feature of this method of operation is that the pH of the bread produced is equal to an average of 5,26, while the pH of the bread obtained by the sponge method is about 5,4. A lower pH value protects the bread from mold and potato disease.
At different plants, the preference recipe and its preparation mode vary over a wide range. The sugar content varies from 1 to 4,5% by weight of the processed flour. For taste reasons, its content in the dough should be 4 — 8%. This is also necessary because the sugar contained in the preenzyme is largely fermented by yeast. It is believed that in order to obtain good results by this method, it is necessary to introduce 6% in weight by weight of skimmed milk flour, which stabilizes it. Milk also enriches bread with calcium.
This technology is used only in the production of products from varietal flour containing a large amount of sugar, milk powder and other improvers. It is impossible to produce bread from rye and wallpaper wheat flour. The disadvantage of this technology is the absence of flour in the liquid semi-finished product, which negatively affectsINDICATES in the taste and flavor of products as flour little involved in the fermentation process.
Further technological and hardware development of this scheme is to automate the installation of "Doo-Meyker" and "Emflou". The installation of "Doo-Meyker" (Fig. 42) liquid and semi-finished product does not contain flour, and after fermentation it completely consume Dough [42].
The pre-enzyme contains all the water needed to make the dough in the recipe, pressed yeast (3%), sugar, salt, and improver (a mixture of chalk, ammonium chloride, and salts for feeding the yeast). He wanders up to 4 h at 32 — 33 ° C in vats /, from which the 2 pump is pumped into the 3 collector. Through the constant level tank 4, the 5 dispenser and the 6 heat exchanger, it enters the 15 mixing dough mixer. Here, the oxidizer solution (bromate or potassium iodate), the fats from the 7 tank through the 8 dispenser, the mixture of which is prepared in the 10 mixer, and the flour from the 11 and 9 dispensers through the 12 sifter, come through the 13 dispenser through the 14 dispenser.
The pre-mixed dough is pumped by the 16 pump into the second high-speed kneading machine of intensive action 17 from which it flows directly into the 18 dividing machine. Dough pieces fit into 19 shapes.
Unit capacity 2700 kg of dough per hour. It is very compact, occupies a small area and is fully automated.
In the Emblou plant (Fig. 43), unlike in the previous schemes, a liquid sponge containing flour [225, 246] is prepared. First, yeast, the nutritional mixture, and a portion of the water intended for kneading dough are loaded into the mixing tank 1. Using a fast-rotating mixer, a uniform mixture is obtained, which is left to ferment for one hour. After the specified time, salt, milk powder and 10 — 16% of flour from the total amount of the recipe are added to the mixture.
The resulting liquid brew is pumped with a 2 pump to 5 fermentation tanks, which are equipped with water jackets to maintain a constant fermentation temperature at 30 — 32 ° C and agitators, which ensure weak uniform mixing during the entire fermentation time, which lasts 1 hours.
At that time, when in one vat the mass is fermenting, from the second one, the fermented opara is continuously pumped into the flow fermentation apparatus, where sugar syrup flows simultaneously from the tank. Opara wanders in the 1 h apparatus during which she continuously mixes with rounded vanes set at an angle on a slowly rotating shaft and moves along the trough. Constant temperature maintained by a water jacket.
49892974From here, the dough enters a constant-level pressure tank, from which it is continuously pumped through a heat exchanger to a system of kneading machines. Part of it returns to the mixing tank.
Application of trough-shaped device for fermentation is one of the "Emflou" circuit innovations. It should be noted that the Soviet Union has long been used continuously operating machines trough.
The dough is also kneaded in two steps. The kneading machine, designed for preliminary mixing, receives liquid dough, flour - from the hopper 10 through the feeder, and with the help of metering pumps from the chunks and P-melted fat, heated to 49 ° C, and a solution of oxidizers are fed. The kneading body of this machine is a variable pitch screw. The liquid dough and all other ingredients are thoroughly mixed under a pressure of 0,2-0,35 bar, after which the dough enters a second kneader for intensive final processing. The working body of the second kneading machine is curved blades that rotate towards each other at a speed of up to 200 rpm. The duration of the batch is 2-3 minutes. After processing, the dough is divided into pieces by a divider and placed in molds, which are fed for proofing.
The installation is very compact. For a plant with a capacity of up to 40 tons of bread per day, the area of ​​the dough preparatory department is only 74 м2. Serves this 2 person equipment. However, the power consumption is two to three times greater than on the XTR unit. Its peculiarity is that the movement of the dough through several containers accelerates the fermentation, and the return of a part of the finished dough to the mixing tank improves the porosity, physical properties and taste of the products, since fermentation products are formed here, which accumulate at the late stage in conventional methods. Reducing the fermentation time is achieved by activating the yeast before mixing the main ingredients of the dough.
Settings "Doo-Meyker" and "Emflou" used in the United States, Canada, England and Australia.
Abroad, a number of other similar schemes and installations for the accelerated preparation of dough. For example, the British company Baker Processe G patented in Germany and the United States a continuous method for preparing dough on a liquid pre-fermented semi-finished product containing flour, which eliminates the stage of fermentation of the dough, which is achieved by intensively mixing the dough and adding an oxidizer improver solution to the first kneading machine. actions.
The British Baking Industries Resarch Association (British Baking Industries Resarch Association) has developed an accelerated method for the production of tin and hearth bread, as well as various non-fermented bakery products before cutting [225, 261, 265].
Acceleration of ripening dough and exclusion of the fermentation stage before cutting is achieved by intensive kneading for 3 min, with specific energy consumption 40 j / g dough, increase from 1,5 to 2% consumption of pressed yeast, using 0,7% fat, 0,0075% ascorbic acid to the weight of flour and other fast-acting oxidizing agents (potassium iodate). The dough is prepared in a single-phase method with high humidity, due to which the bread yield increases by 4%, which compensates for increased consumption of yeast, oxidizers and energy. By this method, weaker flour can be used.
Due to the simplicity as well as less need for production space and efficiency by this method in the UK currently generate about 60% of all bread [232].
Thus, a number of technological schemes used abroad are distinguished by two characteristic features. The dough is prepared on a liquid semi-finished product, and when kneaded, it is subjected to intensive mechanical processing. In some installations, this is accomplished by one, and in some, by two successively switched on machines, of which the first achieves thorough mixing and contact of the ingredients of the dough, and the second actually mixes with an intense mechanical effect on it.
In previously used schemes, the semi-finished product was prepared without flour. Foreign researchers [266] have confirmed our data that with an increase in the content of flour in a liquid semi-finished product, the volume of bread increases, the crumb elasticity increases, the taste of bread improves, and its stagnation slows down.
At the same time, the possibility of reducing the consumption of yeast and reducing the specific energy consumption in the dough kneading was established. Therefore, in the United States, people are currently looking for ways to change the nature of their bread and bring it closer to its taste, aroma and structure. After a series of experiments, some enterprises brought the flour content in semi-finished products to 20, and then to 50% of the total processed quantity, bringing the technology closer to that used in the USSR [249].
Nevertheless, the described methods of dough preparation are of some interest due to the universality of the liquid semi-finished product in the development of a wide range of products and the possibility of its long-term preservation, allowing you to organize the work of production in one or two shifts, or with a break on Sunday. An interesting experience is the continuous mixing of liquid semi-finished product, which is also used in the VNIIHPA sponge machine of using heat exchangers to stabilize the temperature of liquid semi-finished products and, finally, double intensive kneading of dough to shorten the fermentation period before cutting.
However, one should not forget that the bread produced in the USA is a product of a different type than ours. It is devoid of flavor and taste of our bread. It prevails taste and aroma, due to sugar and milk powder, present in the formulation of products in large quantities. Therefore, these issues should be studied in relation to our conditions.
Naturally, when preparing dough without fast-acting oxidizing agents, with lower than in the considered schemes, the consumption of pressed yeast and without the use of flavoring substances * (sugar, fat, powdered milk) in the formulation of products, it is impossible to adopt the method of complete exclusion of the fermentation stage without a corresponding change in the technological mode dough before cutting.
Especially it is necessary to bear in mind in the processing of flour, which is the strength of gluten does not allow the use of intensity sufficient to test the processing when mixing.
The complete exclusion of the fermentation period of the dough before cutting instead of a certain shortening of it worsens the physical properties of the dough, the taste and aroma specific to our domestic bread, and speeds up the process of staling.
    New principles and methods of kneading kneading dough in a thin layer
In the USSR, work is underway to find new principles for obtaining a test. M.D. Goncharov [41] proposed the option of producing dough by combining flour and liquid ingredients in a thin layer, which can significantly increase the contact surface between them and accelerate the swelling of its constituent parts due to the hydration energy of dry flour substances. He believes that you can get a homogeneous dough only due to the hydration activity of the flour.
When kneading dough in normal conditions, a significant part of consumed energy is spent on mixing the mass in order to achieve perfect contact of flour particles with water. Obviously, when mixing in a thin layer, this part of the energy will not be spent. Therefore, it is possible that the optimum specific energy consumption for kneading dough in a thin layer will be less than when kneading dough in conventional machines.
According to the method of MD Goncharov, the liquid ingredients of the dough are dosed out by the drums rotating on the horizontal axis, which are immersed in them in the lower part. The liquid, wetting the drum, is keen on a thin layer. The amount of liquid dispensed depends mainly on its viscosity and the peripheral speed of the drum. By changing the speed of the drum, you can adjust the dosage. The dough is formed by the contact of a thin layer of a mixture of liquid ingredients with a thin layer of flour. The dough thus obtained for homogenization can, if necessary, be processed, for example: by forcing a centrifugal force through the holes from the inside of a hollow rotating drum with perforated walls or in another way.
    Rotary kneading dough
A fundamentally new way of kneading dough and the design of a kneading machine for this purpose were created by N. F. Prokopenko at the Odessa Institute “Food Processing Automation” [175]. Based on the principle of the expediency of kneading dough in a thin layer, it proceeds from the position that the dough components must be mixed under mechanical action in a continuous stream at high speed, thereby reducing the size of the machine. However, it must have a specific capacity for processing dough, in which a thin layer with a mass of previously formed dough [146] will be mixed.
The kneading is carried out in a rotary mixer, similar to a single-stage centrifugal pump with a special impeller design. Unlike existing dough kneaders of batch and continuous operation, in which the dough knead lasts 5 — 8 minutes, this machine kneads the dough for 3 — 6 seconds while rotating the kneading organ at 1400 speed rpm.
The machine (fig. 44) is a snail-shaped 2 body with a removable cover. Inside, the kneading blade 5 rotates, mounted directly on the shaft of the 1 electric motor with a 4,8 cat with 1400 rpm. Flour and liquid sponge are fed to the machine continuously through the 7 funnel. For flour, an 5 bunker is provided, from which it is fed by the 6 dispenser, and for liquid sponge - an 9 tank, from which it is dosed using an 4 pipe with varying angle.
Entering the dough ingredients machine housing by the centrifugal force are rejected to the circumferential wall. Due to the high rotational speed of the kneading blades of a thin layer of the mixture, which in-
44 3                                           Fig. 44. Dough preparatory unit with rotary machine such as NF Prokopenko system.
sively processed. The kneading blade is provided at both edges with 8 scrapers, with which the dough at the sides of the body is cut off and rejected on the blade. This achieves additional mixing of the dough and increases the mechanical effect on it.
In this machine, the dough is subjected to a specific complex of influences, since there is also observed turbulent mixing of the mixture and air absorption during the rotation of the kneading organ, which should have a positive impact on the speed of maturation of the dough. Over 3 — 6 sec of the kneading, each particle undergoes about 600 strikes.
To ensure the accuracy of the dosage of ingredients, a system of automatic control of the flow of liquid sponge depending on the change in the consistency of the dough and the corresponding change in the energy consumption per batch has been developed. To measure the power consumed in the test mix, electrical measuring instruments are installed.
Compared to the X-12 dough mixing machine used everywhere, the described machine has several advantages. The dough is kneaded in a thin layer, and the intensity of its processing is much higher, the size of the machine, its weight and cost are small, the efficiency The use of an electric motor in a car is high, since there is no intermediate gear, the dough kneading time is significantly reduced, and the machine performance is twice as long.
We, together with A.I. Skorikova, subjected this new principle of dough kneading to a comprehensive study, first in a laboratory machine, reduced in diameter by 2,5 times, and then in production.
The test bench also had an LT-900 dzhezhevaya machine. Due to this, it was possible to make dough with different mechanical effects on it, both by changing the kneading duration in the bowl, and by changing the number of revolutions of the kneading organ of the continuously operating high-speed kneading machine.
Production experiments were carried out at the Odessa Bakery No. 5, where a rotary machine and the installation of a KhTU-D with a doubled kneader were tested simultaneously under the same conditions.
Factory and laboratory tests gave the same results [187]. They showed that on a rotary machine at 1400 rpm, in a few seconds, dough can be obtained on a liquid dough, the bread from which is not inferior in terms of physico-chemical and organoleptic indicators of bread made from dough obtained on a KhTU-D unit or in a brave machine with an elongated before 15 — 20 min batch, regardless of the presence of a period of fermentation before cutting. This bread becomes slower.
In compressed yeast bread I had a larger volume and porosity than liquid, but in the latter case it contained more aromatics and callous it slowly.
The aroma of bread made with liquid yeast, regardless of how the dough is blended, is better and stronger than pressed, apparently due to the introduction of a portion of the flour in its brewed form, products of splitting the organic matter of flour and fermented products with liquid yeast.

The increase in the intensity or duration of the dough kneading gave a greater effect when preparing the dough on liquid vapors, the content of aromatic substances in the bread was also greater regardless of the duration of the fermentation of the dough before cutting. This indicates the feasibility of using liquid sponge when working with intensive dough kneading. The crumb of the bread obtained during the rotary kneading was somewhat darker than with the 20-minute kneading in a dezhevoy machine.
The intensity of the mechanical action of a rotating machine on the dough when kneading is sufficient, as is additionally batch to improve the quality of bread does not.
It has been established that when kneading dough in a high-speed rotary machine, as well as with an extended kneading in a beige one, the attackability of starch and protein substances by enzymes increases. In the dough obtained by the rotary dough, and the bread from it contains more reducing substances, which contributes to an increase in the gas-forming ability and an improvement in the quality of bread, in particular, to a slower staining.
Judging by the change in starch and protein of flour, it can be concluded that the dough kneading in a rotary machine for a few seconds provides the same dough processing as the dough using a jezhe machine for 20 min.
The physical properties of the dough and the gluten being washed out of it are influenced not only by the degree of mechanical processing during kneading, but also by the method of kneading - rotary or diez.
The dough, kneaded in a rotary machine with the same humidity, turns out to have a stronger consistency than in the dry one. Increasing the number of revolutions of the machine to 1400 per minute strengthens the dough, and a further increase in the number of revolutions dilutes it.
Regardless of the degree of processing during kneading, the dough is thinned when bleeding, but when kneaded in a rotary machine with 1400 on Shin, it remains stronger and retains form-holding capacity better than when kneaded in a dezhevoy machine, as seen in fig. 45.
dough viscosity obtained on a rotating machine, more than X-12 machine with an additional screw.
 This indicates that in the case of high-speed kneading, colloid processes proceed differently than in conventional machines.
An important factor in the preparation of dough is the hydration of flour particles. Guided by existing ideas about the process of formation of gluten, some authors [229] believe that the rate of hydration
44 145 3Figure: 45. Blurring of a ball of 100 g dough (
from a plastometer (TPL) when mixing in a rotary machine () with the number of revolutions 1000, 1400, 2000 and 2800 and dezhevoy () with a batch duration of 5, 20 and 30 minutes. limitiruyuschei may be at a very short duration of kneading dough.
Determining the quantity and quality of gluten washed from the dough under different conditions of its preparation showed the following. The amount of raw and dry gluten, obtained from yeast-free dough immediately after kneading, was almost the same in an hour and two hours. When kneaded in a rotary machine and dezhevoi for 5 min raw gluten was washed on 2 — 3% less than when kneaded in dezhevoj car for 20 and 30 min, and the amount of dry gluten was the same. However, the physical properties of the difference was significant.
Gluten, washed from dough, kneaded in a rotary machine, is stronger and retains its properties better in time than gluten from dough, kneaded in a brass machine for 20 min (fig. 45). This can be a positive factor in the processing of flour with weak gluten. This shows that the mechanism of formation of gluten in the dough, kneaded in a rotary machine for a few seconds, is different than when kneaded in low-speed kneading machines for a few minutes.
This is explained by the fact that in low-speed machines, during the dough kneading, proteins swell and produce gluten, which takes several minutes [10]. With further mixing, gluten is subjected to repeated deformation and stretching, which weakens it. In a rotary machine, the batch lasts only a few seconds, which is clearly not enough for such a process. At the same time, the rotary kneading dough has the same physical and mechanical properties as mixed with the usual method.
The data obtained indicate that a very intensive dough kneading at a large number of machine revolutions, but in a very short period of time, has a positive effect on its structural, mechanical and technological properties.
The latest experiments of Huber [240] have established the possibility of obtaining dough with intensive mixing in mixers with the number of revolutions of the stirrer 1400 — 2900 per minute. However, this required 60 — 45 sec due to the large volume of mass in the batch mixer. In the experiments, it was observed that with an intensive dough kneading for one minute the volume of the finished bread was by 10 — 13% more than with an extended kneading in a machine with a small number of revolutions to 20 — 25 minutes.
These data testify to the advantage of the method of obtaining dough in a short time by increasing the number of revolutions of the kneading organs of kneading machines and kneading dough in a thin layer.
The results of our studies have shown the possibility of using in the baking industry a method of high-speed rotational kneading of dough, which allows to get good quality bread, and the need to develop appropriate technology.
     ВImpact of the length of dough fermentation period before butchering the quality of bread
Carried out by the author in collaboration with AI Skorikova laboratory and industrial experiments showed that when 15-20-minute kneading dough machine dezhevoy
46 3Fig. 46. The impact on the quality of bread and the duration of proofing the duration of fermentation of the dough before cutting during its kneading: on the production rotation machines (), in aggregates HTU-D  () and in the X-12 car (K-control).
or in a continuously operating machine X-12 with additional processing in the auger, as well as in a rotary machine, it is possible to get bread that meets the requirements of the standard without fermentation of dough before cutting. However, the presence of a short period of fermentation of the dough before cutting leads to an improvement in its quality, which is expressed in increasing the volume and porosity of the bread, improving the properties of the crumb, flavor, taste and slowing down the stale.
Factory experiments in which the dough from the HTU-D unit had a temperature of 32 ° С, and from rotational 35 ° С, showed (fig. 46) that the quality of bread in both cases improves with an increase in the duration of fermentation of the dough before cutting to 30 min. The volume of bread V and porosity P increase. This was observed even in the presence of an X-12 machine in the HTU-D unit with a double elongated kneading trough.
Bread baked from dough mixed with an X-12 machine without further processing with a screw, but with an 1,5-hour fermentation period prior to cutting (in the Figure / C figure), was inferior in quality to previous samples, which indicates the beneficial effect of the intensive dough kneading and comtheir compensation to some extent test fermentation period before butchering.
The duration of proofing уменьшp decreased with an increase in the fermentation period of the dough. For the dough from the KhTU-D installation, less proofing was required due to the presence of a certain period of dough fermentation before cutting.
It was also established that with a decrease in the fermentation period of the dough before cutting, the content of reducing substances in bread increases and the content of aromatic substances decreases, regardless of the method and duration of kneading.
An important indicator of the quality of bread is the rate of stallion. Determining it in parallel with several objective methods showed that with an increase in the duration of fermentation of the dough before cutting the bread becomes less stale. The slowest is the stale bread with an 5-minute kneading in a brave machine and 1,5-hourly fermentation, and the fastest with an 20-minute kneading without fermentation before cutting.
Bread from the rotary kneading dough with the same fermentation duration before cutting became stale somewhat slower than from the dough with 20-minute kneading, apparently due to its higher content of carbohydrate and protein splitting products.
This indicates that when kneading dough in a KhTU-D unit, on an extra long kneading machine or in a rotary machine, the presence of a certain period of fermentation of the dough before cutting results in an improved quality of bakery products. The optimal duration of this period can be set in each individual case, depending on the working conditions - flour quality, recipes, yeast consumption, etc.
The views of different scholars on this matter and the production data from the experience of such enterprises.
The school of excellence in the preparation of dough at the Exhibition of Economic Achievements of the USSR recommended that the mixed dough be sent to a hopper located above the dividing machine, the amount of dough in which would correspond to 15 — 30-minute unit productivity [115]. VNIIHPA staff [222] also believe that the duration of fermentation before cutting should be 30 min. The data obtained by Wutzel [271], allow us to conclude that during fermentation, before cutting the dough prepared on the support with the moisture 57%, the quality of the bread improves. The reduction of this period of fermentation test leads to the need to increase the duration of proofing.
Penza [247] showed that in obtaining the flavor of bread is important to have the dough fermentation.
According to the data of various plants of the USSR, working on a new technology, the duration of the fermentation of dough before cutting is; at the Magnitogorsk Bakery [182] 20 — 30 min; at the Sverdlovsk Bakery [149] 30 — 40; at the Chisinau Bakery [142] 30 — 35; at the Moscow Bakery No. 3 [82] XNNXNN
In many factories that have introduced a new technology for preparing dough with intensive kneading, the dough enters the hoppers or dough sprouts, which ensure the duration of fermentation of at least 30 minutes. So, at the Lugansk bakery No. 2, the kneaded dough from flour of the II grade goes to the dough release, and the duration of proofing is increased by 10 — 15% [122]. At the Voronezh bakery No. 6, when making bakery products using the new technology, the dough after kneading enters the pastry, which maintains a constant level of dough.
At the Leningrad bakery № 14 [91] kneaded dough on the third floor and down two floors to the splitter installed on the first floor. Naturally, here the dough during the descent wanders at least 30 minutes (if not more).
These data allow us to conclude that the total elimination of the practice of dough fermentation period is not justified before butchering.
The dough fermentation period before cutting should be reduced (in order to save flour dry matter for fermentation) within reasonable limits that do not reduce the quality of the products produced, not only in terms of volume and porosity, but also in other indicators, the main of which are taste, aroma, speed of stallion. In the current technology used above the dividing machine, it is advisable to have a bunker that allows you to ensure that the dough stays in it for at least 30 — 40 min. This will allow, depending on the working conditions, to maintain a level of dough in the bunker that ensures the best quality of bread.
Location of the hopper is not connected on divider with any production difficulties and it is possible at any enterprise, as it does not require any increase in the area, or increasing the height of the room.
This also does not reduce the benefits of the new technology, consisting of the use of large lobes, intensive kneading of the dough and reduced fermentation time before cutting. The main one is the absence of any aggregates for fermenting the dough after kneading, thereby reducing the area and volume of the room, making it easier to switch from producing one kind of product to another, reducing labor, improving production sanitation, reducing the dry solids of flour for prolonged fermentation and There is an economic effect. However, such a small measure helps to improve the quality of products.

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