To improve the quality of confectionery products, spices, wine and seasonings are used. They are used in very small quantities, because otherwise you can spoil the taste of the products and distort their characteristic smell.
Spices. Spices are dried fruits. flowers, berries, roots, seeds and bark of various fragrant plants.
Before use, dry spices are dried at 50 - 60 °, and then ground in a mortar, grated or crushed in micromills and sieved through a sieve with holes of 1,5 mm cells.
They store aromatic substances in a dry room, in a tightly closed container, each species separately, as they easily transfer their aroma.
Anise - spice are the seeds of a plant. Anise has a sweet taste and a peculiar aroma, which is explained by the presence of essential oils in its seeds (up to 3%). Anise comes to production in grains, in small packaging.
Anise is used to sprinkle some products - pretzels, rolls, cookies with anise. Anise infusion is introduced into some types of dough.
Star anise (star anise) - the fruit of an evergreen tropical tree. Ripe fruit seeds are used, 'which contain up to 1,8% of essential oils. The taste and smell of star anise reminds anise. Used star anise in crushed form mainly in the preparation of gingerbread.
Vanilla is the unripened, dried, or sunken fruit of a tropical plant. A vanilla box is usually called a pod, the length of the pods is from 12 to 25 cm. Inside the pod there is a very large number of small black seeds that are more aromatic than the pod itself. The strong aroma of vanilla is explained by the presence of vanillin and other aromatic substances in it. Of primary importance is vanillin, the amount of which in the fruits of vanilla ranges from 1,6 to 2,9%.
In catering, vanilla comes pre-packaged in tightly closed glass tubes or metal boxes.
Before use, vanilla is dried at a temperature not higher than 50 — 60 °, triturated with sugar and sifted through a sieve with 0,5 mm holes. So that black seeds or small crushed particles do not spoil the appearance of light products, the pods, without cutting, are boiled together with syrup, custard or a lezon. After this, the pods can be used again, for which they are cut lengthwise, dried, triturated and used in the manufacture of dark products. You can fill the unused pods with sugar, which acquires the aroma of vanilla.
Vanillin is a synthetic product. It is a white crystalline powder with a very strong aroma. The aroma of vanillin is so strong that it must be put into the product very little. Therefore, in order to ensure dosage, a solution of vanillin or "vanilla powder" should be used.
A solution of vanillin is prepared by dissolving 10 g vanillin in 200 g hot water (80 °).
To prepare vanilla powder, vanillin (40 g) is mixed with ethanol (40 g); the mixture is heated until vanillin dissolves. After this, the solution is mixed with 1 kg of powdered sugar. The prepared mixture is dried and sieved. The amount of vanillin in confectionery should not exceed 0,5%.
The nail is a non-bloomed dried flower bud of a clove tree, which is cultivated in tropical countries.
Cloves come to the confectionery shops in whole and ground form in small cardboard, paper or glass packaging. Cloves are used in the manufacture of gingerbread, fruit fillings.
Ginger is the rhizome of a special tropical plant. Depending on the processing method, ginger can be of two types: white, peeled from the surface layers and dried in the sun, and black - previously boiled in water and then also dried. Ginger has a pleasant specific aroma and a burning taste, which are due to the presence of essential oils in it (1,5 — 3,5%).
In catering, ginger comes in pieces in glass tubes or in the form of a powder (mainly black ginger comes in).
In the confectionery industry, ginger is used in the manufacture of gingerbread.
Cardamom is the fruit of a tropical evergreen. Cardamom seeds are of primary importance, as they contain from 3 to 4% of essential oils.
Cardamom comes into production in whole or in crushed form, packaged in glass tubes. Cardamom is used to flavor various products - rolls, biscuits, gingerbread cookies, etc.
Cinnamon - The dried bark of a cinnamon tree. Cinnamon has a pleasant aroma and sweet taste, which are explained by the presence of essential oils in it (2 — 3,5%).
Cinnamon comes mainly in the form of a brown powder, in small paper packaging (25 g). It is used in the manufacture of gingerbread, fruit fillings and in some toppings. Slices of bark tied in cheesecloth are sometimes used when cooking jam, especially from low-aromatic fruits. At the end of cooking, cinnamon is removed.
Nutmeg is the fruit of a tropical plant. It has a pleasant specific aroma and a burning taste (contains 3,1% of essential oils).
Nutmeg is used in the manufacture of yeast and gingerbread dough, which is introduced during kneading.
Caraway seeds are seeds of a two-year-old plant. They are brown in color and contain from 3 to 6,5% essential oils. Cumin is used for sprinkling various products - rolls, pretzels, etc.
Saffron - used as a spice and as a dye (see page 40). It is a dried stigma of crocus flowers and is appreciated due to the presence of essential oils.
Saffron is introduced into the dough when kneading in the amount of 0,1 g per 1 kg of baked goods. Saffron is dried, triturated, poured with boiled water or alcohol and insisted for 24 hour. After this, the infusion is filtered and used in the manufacture of products from yeast dough and some types of muffins. The precipitate remaining after filtration is used to flavor gingerbread and cake.
Wines and liquors. Wines, liquors, cognacs are used for flavoring confectionery products (cakes, cakes). Strong dessert wines have a different color, taste and aroma. Therefore, for example, light cream should not be aromatized with dark wine, as this worsens the color of the cream. Too much strong wine gives the product a bitter aftertaste. In this regard, when dosing, it is necessary to take into account not only the quantity, but also the strength of the wine.
Essences. Citrus, fruit and berry, rum, vanilla, creme brulee and other essences are used for aromatization of dough, creams, syrups, etc.
If a certain essence is indicated in the recipe, then it cannot be replaced with another. In the formulations, the rate of consumption of the essence of a single concentration is given. If you use the essence of two or four times the concentration, then the rate is accordingly reduced by 2 or 4 times.
Essences should only be added to chilled products, as they usually lose their aroma when heated.
Taste products. These include table salt, edible acids and other products used to improve the taste of confectionery. Food acids are used not only to improve the taste of products, but also to protect syrups from sugaring.
Salt in a small amount improves the taste of confectionery. Fine salt is sieved through a frequent sieve. Salt in large crystals is pre-dissolved and then filtered through a sieve with 0,5 mm cells.
Citric acid (CbHcbC) and tartaric acid (C ^ O) are produced in the form of transparent crystals or in powder; they should be stored in closed banks.
Crystalline acids must be sieved through a sieve with a mesh size of not more than 2 mm, and liquid acids must be sieved through a cloth. gauze or sieve with a mesh size of not more than 0,5 mm.
Citric acid should be dissolved in water at a ratio of 1: 1, i.e., for 100 g of acid, 100 g of hot water (70-80 °) should be taken. In the manufacture of confectionery products, the dosage of dissolved acid indicated in the layouts of the Recipe Book is doubled, that is, instead of 2 g of acid, 4 g of solution must be taken. Citric acid can be replaced with tartaric in the ratio 1: 1 or malic acid in the ratio 1: 1,2.
Tartaric acid is prepared for production in the same way as citric acid.
Malic acid (С4Н60б) has transparent crystals of slightly acidic taste, it dissolves in water and is prepared for production in the same way as citric and tartaric acid.
In the manufacture of confectionery products, lactic and acetic acids are also sometimes used.
Lactic acid (C3H603) is available in dissolved form 40 and 70% concentration or as a paste. In taste, this acid is worse than citric and tartaric. 1 grade lactic acid is usually colorless or slightly yellow, 2 grade is yellow or light brown, 3 grade is yellow or dark brown. The lactic acid solution should be free of turbidity and sediment.
Acetic acid (С2Н4О2) is available in 3, 6 and 8% concentration. When dosing in the formulations, the strength of the acetic acid solution should be considered and diluted with water before use.
Gelling agents. For the manufacture of jelly gelatin and agar are used. Gelatin is an animal product. It is made from animal bones or bubbles and fish scales. Agar is a plant product and is made from sea water
Fig. 13. Agar agar
growing up. Gelatin comes in the form of plates or small grains (granules), and agar - in fine fibers (Fig. 13).
Before use, they are soaked in cold water and the excess water is drained. Soaked and highly swollen gelatin is diluted in hot water and brought to a boil. Sufficiently dense jellies are obtained with gelatin or agar content of only 4 — 5%. Gelatin jellies are elastic, and agar with pressure is easily pricked.
For the design of confectionery food colors are used, the use of which is allowed by the USSR Ministry of Health. They color creams, lipsticks, jellies, glazes, fruit fillings and marmalades. '
1 The paint standards in the formulations are approximate, you need to dose the paint carefully, in small portions, since too bright products look ugly. If the cream or dough is repainted, it is necessary to prepare a new portion of the dough or cream and add to it a partially repainted dough or cream, /
In the confectionery industry, dyes of plant and animal origin, as well as synthetic, are used.
Dyes of plant origin include saffron, indigo, safflower; animal dye - carmine; synthetic dyes are indigo carmine and tartrazine, amaranth.
Paints are usually applied in a dissolved state. To do this, they are pre-crushed in a porcelain mortar or using a rolling pin on the marble table top. The paints are dissolved in hot boiled water and, if necessary, the solution is boiled. Then the paint is filtered through gauze, folded in the 2 — 3 layer.
Under the influence of light, air and moisture, paints quickly deteriorate, so they should be diluted in a small amount and stored in a dark dish, in a cool dry place until use.
Safflower, tartrazine and saffron - yellow paints. They are dissolved in hot water; saffron can also be dissolved in ethanol. Carmine and amaranth are red inks. Carmine is a powder that dissolves well in ammonia. Amaranth is easily soluble in water. To dissolve carmine, 10 g of paint is combined with 20 g of ammonia, after an hour 200 g of water is added and boiled until the smell of ammonia disappears, and then it is filtered. Carmine gives a beautiful red or pink color. In contact with metal, the paint turns purple.
Indigo carmine is a blue color. Before use, it is dissolved in boiled water.
Orange paint is obtained by mixing safflower, tartrazine with carmine or amaranth, i.e., yellow paint with red.
Green paint is obtained by combining safflower, tartrazine with indigo carmine, i.e., yellow paint with blue.
In addition to food colors, for tinting confectionery products, they also use burnt sugar (zhenka), cocoa, coffee, fruit and berry juices, orange or tangerine zest.
Brown paint is prepared from the infusion of strong coffee and from burnt sugar (burnt), as well as by mixing burnt sugar with red paint. Zhenka (20 recipe) is mainly used for painting surfaces. Products, creams, lipsticks.
When chocolate or cocoa powder is added, the confectionery becomes the appropriate color,
Paint of red and pink colors is obtained from fruit and berry juices (raspberries, strawberries, cherries, currants, cranberries, dogwood, etc.).
The following dye solutions are recommended for coloring creams: 5% solution of amaranth, 10% solution of tartrazine and 5% solution of indigo carmine. Below is a table of paint consumption on 10 kg of cream (table. 5).
Type and quantity of dyes, ml
Pink Intense Yellow
Yellow Intense Green
Amaranth 2,4 Amaranth 3,2 Amaranth 4,8 Tartrazine 12 Targrazine 20 Tartrazine 8 Tartrazine 10
Indigo Carmine 8 Indigo Carmine 10