In the considered group includes confectionery obtained by knocking down fruit and berry puree with sugar.
A mixture of apple puree with sugar churning using egg whites or other blowing agents. Obtained after churning intermediate - hit by weight - is mixed with hot studneobrazuyuschim agar syrup or hot marmalade mass. As a result, gelling mixture obtained foamy semi-solid mass, which, after appropriate processing shape of individual chocolates in the form of bars, spherical and other products.
According to GOST  are two types of pastes: glues and brew. In the first case, it provided for mixing the foam whipped egg mass with adhesive syrup (agar-sugar-treacle syrup), in the second case - mixing knocked weight with apple marmalade mass.
Currently, our enterprises produce mostly glue candy.
Depending on the method of forming the mass Pastila distinguish carved candy, manufactured products in the form of a rectangular shape, and casting a pastille (marshmallow), moldable casting (jigging) in the form of products of spherical or oval. On the basis of fruit and berry puree create taste respective fruits and berries with the help of fruit supplies, essences or essential oils (apple, cranberry, mountain ash, lemon, strawberry, etc.) Are available as separate varieties Pastila products, flavored vanilla, honey, milk variety.
Enterprises of fruit and vegetable industry of the USSR produce on a small scale special type of so-called Arsenyevsky pastes, which are prepared by churning mixture of apple puree baked apples, sugar and egg white. It is formed into a rectangular multilayer bars weighing up 0,5 4 kg, in the form of rolls.
In some western countries, a product called marshmallow is produced, which differs from pastilles in that it is prepared without the participation of fruit and berry raw materials. Gelatin is used as a gel-forming agent for marshmallow. The latter is used along with egg white as a foaming agent. Besides gelatin in marshmallows recipe includes sugar, syrup and invert sugar syrup. Marshmallow molded cast in starch, or is a smearing. In the latter case it is used as a finishing material, which replaces the cream cakes, cupcakes, cakes.
Protsess fights (penoobrazovaniya) pastilы
The adhesive paste is mainly agar jelly, candy and brew - pectin jelly. However, in both cases is different from Pastila jelly marmalade. While the latter is a continuous and homogeneous mass Pastila jelly has a porous structure with cells of microscopic dimensions
(Up to 25 μ).
In Pastila jelly distributed small air bubbles, and finished Dried pasta resembles cream solid in structure. These structural features are the result of the fact that in the production process of conventional pastes studneobrazovaniya marmalade combined with the foaming process (churning) apple-sugar mixture.
Fig. 23. Curve between the sizes of air cells and the interface.
When the pastilles are brought down by prolonged shaking of the apple-sugar mixture, foaming occurs, that is, agitation of the mass with air; wherein air is captured codling-sugar mass and is grinding into fine particles. As the speed of mechanical agitation increases, the degree of air disintegration increases, the dimensions of the air bubbles decrease, and the viscosity of the mass increases. Gradually formed a thick foam, composed of small air bubbles, tightened into a thin film of the surrounding semi-liquid apple-sugar mixture.
In physical and chemical sense foam is gas liquid two-phase system. Foams can be regarded as concentrated emulsion (which can be in the dispersed phase not only gas, but also liquid) different structure and high specific resistance. In this case, the dispersed phase is a gas - air, and the dispersion medium - semiliquid solution of sugar, acid and pectin. This solution forms a shell particles dispersed gas (air) that carries the surface boundary layer separating one phase from another.
While there is a strong formation of foam development interface at the boundaries of the gaseous and liquid phases. Increased interfacial formed depends on the size of air cells. The smaller the size of the latter, the greater the surface. The increase of the interface is a certain progression, which is clearly illustrated by the curve in Fig. 23.
In view of the resistance exerted by the surface tension of the liquid (in this case the apple-sugar mixture), it is necessary to apply a certain amount of energy to create a developed interface between the two phases. This can be done in two ways: using mechanical work (knocking down, tugging the mass on (air, saturating the air with air through small porous baffles, etc.) or by expanding the air under the influence of pressure drop. The more development of the surface is required, the higher will be Energy consumption for this purpose.Some additional amount of energy is spent in this and on (overcoming the viscosity of the environment in which the foam is created.
Fig. 24. Driving occurrence of surface tension forces.
Knocking is the most common method of introducing air into the confectionery (candy, / lipstick, whipped filling fillings, creams, etc.). In / production of caramel, halva and others. Use for this purpose means "pulling" the masses.
For the formation of foam in liquids, having a strong surface tension necessary to spend a significant amount of energy. In addition, pitch obtained in this way does not have the necessary degree of resistance.
Surface tension force occurs at the liquid interface due to a difference between the attractive forces felt by molecules of the inner layer and the surface layer molecules.
Fig. 24 scheme presented occurrence of surface tension forces.
While molecules and inside fluids experience mutual attraction from all sides molecule L of the surface layer (at the liquid boundary and the gas in this case) are subjected to unilateral forces F which "draw" them into the liquid without meeting the counterbalancing action on the opposite side.
Rebinder determines the surface tension of the excess free energy from the surface of the liquid layer of molecules as compared to the inner layers of molecules. The strength of the surface tension and be measured directly and is expressed in ergs / cm2 (Amount of free energy, focusing on 1 cm2 surface layer). The quantity of the liquid depends on the polarity of its molecules.
The surface tension force always strives to reduce to a minimum the total (the surface of the partition of the entire system, to make it the smallest. In this case, it seeks to reduce to the possible limits the total amount of surfaces of individual droplets that form a foam emulsion. Under the action of this force, individual air bubbles ” merge into one mass. The film of droplets breaks through, individual droplets, gradually merging (aggregating) with each other, form new bubbles-droplets of larger sizes, the degree of dispersion decreases etsya foam "fall off". This process of spontaneous foam breaking emulsions and called coalescence.
The foams coalescence process is very intense due to the proximity of the droplets with respect to each other.
To make a stable foam, stabilize it, must enter into the film enveloping air bubbles foam any surface active agent.
Surfactants, when dissolved in the liquid, reduce surface tension of the liquid. Substances of this kind have a specific capacity to adsorb in excess amounts in the surface fluid layer, forming the layer in a significantly higher concentration than in the rest of the body of liquid. The foam-like systems (emulsions ive) dissolved surfactants accumulate mainly in the boundary interphase layer - in the film on the outer surface of the droplets.
According to the modern conception of the surface layer phenomena active substances of this layer is linked with the action of forces between polar molecules. Molecules of surface active substances are asymmetrically constructed from the polar and nonpolar parts. They are located in the surface layer in an oriented manner so that the most active polar part of each molecule is directed toward the less polar phase, and the nonpolar part towards the more polar phase. The substance is surface active and is capable of being adsorbed in the boundary layer of two phases if it by its presence in this layer will equalize the polarity difference of these phases.
Surface-active substances with respect to water are many organic substances that are soluble therein. Kolloidnorastvorennye surfactants cause greater strength foam-like systems than molekulyarnorastvorennye substance. The most common in this respect are some colloids, such as gelatine, egg protein, milk protein soluble (lactalbumin), blood protein (serum albumin). They form a semi-solid adsorption film.
Going in a surface layer of foam bubble film, the adsorbed substance (adsorbate) increases the mechanical strength of this layer, the film prevents bubbles breaking through and past aggregation.
Gibbs showed that lowering the surface tension under the action of surfactants in the liquid-liquid systems and liquid - gas is directly dependent on their ability to adsorb in the boundary layer and the concentration of the surfactant in the adsorption layer.
Action adsorbed surfactants in foams analogous to the conventional emulsifiers in emulsions.
Surfactants play a role in the processes of foam foam stabilizers, or as they are called, positive blowing agents, without whom receive a solid and stable foam is impossible.
As the foaming agent for Interrupting pastes generally used chicken egg protein. The predominant part of the egg white protein is ovalbumin (about 50% by weight of all proteins).
In addition to ovalbumin, in the general range of egg white proteins include ovomucin, konalbumin, ovomucoid, ovoglobulin. Conventionally, it is assumed that pricing generally involved the entire complex of proteins because the data on the role of each of the above foaming proteins in eggs is not currently available.
Protein is used for whipping egg pastes fresh, frozen or dry form. Fresh and frozen protein equivalent in their ability to foam.
As for the protein powder obtained by spray-drying, the data Filiukov  show that if fresh protein is dried at a temperature no higher than 40-45 °, the resulting dry product retains fully its foaming properties. To prevent spray drying the protein from its foaming capacity loss during storage it must be packed in a moisture-proof and light air- container.
Egg protein is dissolved in the apple-sugar mixture. When shaking a mixture of egg albumen coagulated from solution and is separated from it as a solid coagulate.
The coagulated protein particles are adsorbed in the surface layer, forming a solid film of air dispersed particles.
To replace the egg white as a foaming agent in Pastila production is of great interest bright blood albumin derived from "defibrinated serum and released from red blood cells of blood of slaughtered animals.
VKNII data show that blood albumin with proper cleaning has good foaming properties, not inferior in this regard, a protein of chicken eggs.
Big interest in this regard is їv lactalbumin recovered from dairy products, or to dissect properly skim milk.
An important indicator for the characteristics penoobrazovanits process is the rise of the mass and its splendor. This property is characterized by the foam in practice the value of the apparent specific gravity Pastila mass.
The role of specific factors in various components and formation of the mass structure Pastila
The quality of the foam mass obtained during the churning pastes, due to a number of physical and chemical factors -. Concentration of foaming agent, the amount of solid residue puree and a total concentration of solids in the prescription mixture, mass temperature, duration and strength of the masses shaking at churning, etc. Here is the role of individual characteristics factors churning process pastes and methods for their control according to a study of this process produced Filiukov et al. .
With increasing concentration of solids prescription mixture by solid residue with t u d e n a b r a s y o f th g of applesauce foam knocks weight usually improves. It is possible that soluble pectin applesauce adsorbed / air bubbles in the film whipped mass and increases the strength of the film. Therefore, when working with highly studneobrazuyuschim puree and mashed potatoes having a high content of solids, pastes churning process is easy and requires little egg white.
However, the positive impact studneobrazuyuschego pectin and other component parts of apple puree on churning mass Pastila valid only as long as the increase in the viscosity of the whipped mass will not exceed, in which the viscosity of the mass is already beginning to delay foaming.
The suitability of applesauce for churning pastes should therefore be assessed mainly for its gelatin-forming ability: “the higher the gelatinous ability of mashed potatoes, the less it is required to take in the sbivi mass.
As for the content of dense mash residue, it is necessary to be guided by the rule: the higher the ability studneobrazuyuschaya apple puree, the lower is the optimum solids content for him, and vice versa.
When working with weakly studneobrazuyuschim mash to improve the foam is very useful to add pectin. The amount of added pectin to be determined depending on the corrected studneobrazuyuschey ability of apple puree and pectin preparation.
The quality of apple sauce, walking in the production of pastes, can be adjusted by mixing apple puree from different parties (weakly and strongly studneobrazuyuschego) and by the addition of dry mashed potatoes to the liquid.
In the absence of a dry apple sauce can be done to increase the amount of solid residue studneobrazuyuschego apple sauce by thickening of the latter. Thus, the compressed puree containing 16-18% (instead of 10-12%) solids.
When working with a well studneobrazuyuschim applesauce churning takes place normally when moisture prescription mixture 41-42%. Such a mixture is obtained by mixing mashed potatoes and sugar in a ratio of 1: 4. Taking the dry matter content in apple puree equal to 16-48%, and sugar-sand ~ 100%, we obtain with the puree and sugar mixed in equal amounts of the mixture to a moisture content of 41-42%. This ratio of apple puree and sugar is loaded at the same time favorable for studneobrazovaniya.
Fresh egg white usually take (formulation mixture in an amount of churning up 1,0 1,5% by weight of the mixture. By increasing the amount of protein is a gradual increase in weight lifting. However, addition of excess protein 1,5% causes excessive thickening of the mass, which impairs churning.
Often together with protein (liquid or dry) to shoot down mixture get small amounts of yolk. From practice it is known that the egg yolk has a negative influence on the foam if it more 5% (by protein weight).
Foaming egg white in its aqueous solutions is somewhat dependent on the pH of the medium. The pH of whipping pastel mass depends mainly on the pH of applesauce. The results of researching the process of churning pastes showed that, under these conditions, changes in the pH of the whipped mixture in the range from 2,5 to 4,0 do not have a noticeable effect on foaming.
With increasing temperature, the quantitative increase of the foam due to the strength of the latter. The resulting foam is thus easily coalesces.
Too low a temperature of the mass in the process of churning pastes is undesirable in view of increasing the viscosity of the mass and delay its recovery.
In the process of churning pastes should distinguish between the initial temperature, which is mainly determined by the temperature of mashed potatoes and sugar at the time of loading. During churning the mixture is a gradual increase in temperature due to mechanical work shake up the machine. It was found that the most favorable temperatures churning pastes are 18-20 ° (initial temperature of the mixture) and 30-32 ° (final temperature churning).
Fig. 25. Alleged scheme of foam and alignment Studneva pastes structure.
The duration required for knocking down and lift the mass Pastila quality varies depending on the design of the machine shake up, shaft speed, blade stirrer and shape of their location, the size of the load. Optimal working conditions in this regard has not yet been studied.
During studding weight for a gradual rise in it and at the end of the initial volume of prescription churning mixture increases almost twice as aeration. Massa takes the form of a dense fine-mesh (foam capable at first slow to spread, but different high viscosity.
The resulting knocked-down mass can be molded immediately after the end of the knockdown. After some time of being at rest, a slow gelling of it occurs. Shedding occurs in the ground mass not over the entire layer (continuously), as in the marmalade mass, but only in the layer of film enveloping the air bubbles. The resulting jelly is still fragile, since it consists of air bubbles with intermediate spaces filled with air as well. The specific gravity of this mass is about 0,5 (specific volume about 2,0). From this, with a known approximation, we can conclude that the mass of the jelly is half full of air. This mass is not easily cut, it easily separates the liquid phase and adheres. Pastila from it quickly dries up and candles. In order to fix the foamy and gelatinous structure of the ground mass and give it the properties necessary for further processing, the beaten foam mass is mixed with agar adhesive or with hot marmalade mass. This way, the hardening of the paste mass is achieved.
The mechanism of combining the jelly and foam structure when mixing the knocked mass with glutinous (or marmalade) mass can be represented as follows: when mixed with cold mass, the hot mass of agar glue or marmalade fills the air spaces between the bubbles of the knocked mass, displacing air therefrom (Figure 25). In this case, the strength of the film of the structural elements of the mass increases significantly. The temperature of the whole mass rises to 50 °. The strength of the film is increased due to the fact that the adsorbed albumin gel of the film at this temperature, close to the coagulation of albumin, is fixed in it in the form of a dense coagulum. Simultaneously, as the mass cools down, a stable agar (or pectin) jelly forms in the space between the bubbles. Mixing the beaten mass with hot jelly (or marmalade) mass thus creates the necessary conditions for the formation of the structure of the pastille.
After cooling, the mass is obtained characteristic nastilnyj jelly, which differs from marmalade jelly finely porous structure, thanks to the smallest air pockets evenly distributed in its mass.
Construction of recipes Pastila products
Agar adhesive pastes used in the form of air-dry (having a water content 15-28%) or in the form 1% aqueous jelly. The amount of agar is used for the production of adhesive pastes, is from to 0,3 0,6% (based on the air-dry agar) to the weight of the finished product, depending on the ability studneobrazuyuschey agar and on the variety is prepared pastes.
Molasses is administered formulated pastes in an amount 10-15% by weight of sugar. Replacing a part of the sugar in candy, syrup helps to reduce the degree of supersaturation Pastila weight sucrose, and thus makes it possible to eliminate or slow sugarcraft pastes. Dextrins molasses promote thickening Pastila weight, but increased the addition of molasses is undesirable, since; it can worsen the consistency of marshmallow, promoting the latest tightening and complication of the drying process.
To create the taste of certain fruits and berries formulated pastes introduced organic fruit and berry puree or supplies, essential oils and the relevant fruit and berry essences. Producing varieties of pastes, flavored with honey, dairy products (honey, butter and others.) In accordance with the approved formulations.
Sometimes pastille acid added to bring its content in the final product to the rules established by the standard.