Production of marmalade-Pastila products

Plants Pectin

Confectionary Marmalade-Pastila groups are characterized mainly by the fact that the raw material for them are fruits and berries.
Intended for processing into pastry fruits and berries come into production in fresh or canned form.
In the initial phase of processing of fruits and berries is converted into semi-finished product, known as the fruit and berry puree (dough).
Fruit puree used by cooking or studding it with sugar directly for the production of marmalades and pastes, as well as for fruit and berry fillings (semi-finished products for the production of caramel) and candy mass.
On the present industry and adjacent production jelly (artificial) jelly, which is based in contrast to the natural marmalade has some studneobrazuyuschee agent - agar, pectin or agaroid- instead of fruit and berry puree.
Fruit and berry marmalade and grass products contain almost all the components of fruits and berries (sugar, non-volatile acids, tannins, nitrogen and aromatic substances, mineral compounds, and others.).
Subject to appropriate precautions in the technological processes of processing of raw materials, you can save a significant portion of the natural vitamins of fruits and berries. According to the quantitative nutrient content of extractives marmalade-Pastila products are more concentrated products than the original fruit and berry raw materials. These products contain 3-5 times less water (15-30% instead 75-90% in fresh fruits and berries). They are characterized by a high content of sugars (60-75% against 5-15% in fresh fruits and berries).
Calorie-marmalade Pastila products is on the calculation of the recipe (excluding sugar content in them equal to the average 65% and bookmark fruit 70% to the weight of finished products) of about 300 100 of feces on
A leading role in the production of marmalade-Pastila products plays studneobrazovaniya process, which depends on a kind of structure, marmalade and pastilles. studneobrazovaniya process is determined primarily by the properties of pectin, a part of the processed fruit and berries. Therefore, knowledge of physical and chemical properties of pectins, their composition and structure is the key to understanding the technology of this group of plants.
Pectin is a component part of a plant tissue. last cell wall substance comprises cellulose layer facing the cytoplasm. Towards the outer layer of the cellulose goes into hemicellulose. The outer layer of the cell walls is delayed binder, partially located in the intercellular spaces, forming a medial plate plant tissue. This substance was called pectin (from the Greek word pektos - jelly, clotted), since it has the ability to form a jelly.
Thus, the fruit tissue is composed of individual cells or cell fibers interconnected coboy natural cementitious mortar.
The role of the cement in this case performs the pectin or rather, pectin, since we are dealing here with a mixture of substances.
It would be wrong, however, to think of pectin fruit only as binders, since, in addition to their presence in the cell walls and intercellular spaces, a known amount of pectin contained often dissolved in the cell sap (especially in mature fruits).
Pectin substances found in green, and in beskhlorofillovyh parts of plants: in the leaves and fruits of trees and shrubs in the tops and bulges fleshy roots. There are indications of their presence in the cambium layer of young trees.
Pectin substances play a role in the metabolism of plant tissue. They have the ability to bind water and swell. Therefore, their purpose in plants is also in the fact that they are one of the carriers of the water reserve. Binding of water with pectin substances limits the development of enzymatic and chemical processes in the fruit tissue. Pectin substances contribute to the retention of water in various organs of the plant, protecting them from drying out. These properties of pectin substances, for example, largely determine the "keeping" of fruits and berries, ie, their ability to long-term storage after harvesting.
During the processing of vegetable raw pectin play an important role: sometimes positive - in production processes withering tea leaves, tobacco fermentation; sometimes negative, for example, in the manufacture of fruit juices, in the processing of flax, sugar beet diffusion et al., which are undesirable pectin satellites or cellulose fibers act as muteobrazuyuschie patokoobrazuyuschie or agents.
Most researchers describe pectin as products of cellulose and hemicellulose decay.
Pectin substances in plants are in a state of constant change. They are continuously changing their chemical composition and physical properties during plant development, growth and fruit ripening, passing from one form to another.

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