Fruit puree as a semi-finished confectionery manufacture
Fruits and berries destined for the preparation of semi-finished marmalade-Pastila production, pre-rubbed, t. E. Converted into the mash in order to free the pulp of fruits and berries from the inedible parts (stalks, seeds, seed boxes, stiffened the veins, bones) also , fruit and berry puree more transportable than whole fruits and berries. Puree is a semi-finished product, easy to mix with sugar and other components of the formulation, it is suitable for boiling, churning, and to form a jelly with sugar.
One of the most common semi-finished confectionery manufacture a puree of apples, because it has a good ability to studneobrazuyuschey.
Different varieties of apples are unequal in value for confectionery manufacture. For making apple sauce consumed mostly winter varieties of apples. The main features that determine the technical merit of apples in terms of production of mashed potatoes, are as follows:
a) The apples must be removable standard other than the dense structure of the flesh, good keeping quality (the ability to ripen slowly after the removal of the tree). These apples are usually well oppose the development of disease and pest infestation, which gives them resistance to storage and transportation;
b) must have good apples studneobrazuyuschey capacity, which depends not only on the quantity of pectin content, but also on the quality of the latter, as well as the relationship between the content of pectin, acid and a sugar;
c) the taste and aroma of the apples must be well defined;
g) large and medium-sized apples must prevail. Apples have across less than 6 cm are considered to be small. Small fruited apples disadvantageous for processing into puree due to the large percentage of waste by rubbing;
d) A weak apple is the most desirable, as in the manufacture of fruit confectionery semi-finished products valued light background puree, giving the opportunity to sum up the tone when any tinting products.
It is very valuable in this sense is sort of apples "Antonovka" growing in Ukraine.
In recent years, wild apples are widely used for production of apple sauce. With its small size, the presence of astringency in the taste and strong coloring our wild apples are highly studneobrazuyuschey ability. According VKNII  the best in this respect are wild apples from the southern regions of Ukraine.
Puree apples that meet these requirements are usually used to produce marmalade, pastilles. Puree the remaining apples are mainly for the manufacture of fillings, and podvarok jam.
Storage and transportation of apples in production
For storage 3-4-day supply of apples in the summer and autumn sheds light used to protect apples from rain and direct sunlight. Seasonal winter supply of apples should be stored (for 1-1,5 winter months) isolated from the external temperature warehouses.
Dimensions of warehouse space for apples, delivered in boxes shall be determined on the basis of norms of loading boxes to a height of 1,4-1,5 Well, that corresponds to 0,7 1 tons of apples to m2 the working area of the warehouse. When stacking boxes in stacks are portable lifts, stacks can hold slightly higher and thus increase the burden on 1 m2. For passages and for work on raskuporke boxes provides for an increase of warehouse space at 25-30%.
When folding the apples on the harvesting areas located directly in the apple growing areas permitted short storage of apples (no more than 3-6 days) bulk low piles (not more than 0,6 g), with laying in piles lattice ventilation ducts and subject to continuous monitoring of temperature shoulder. Under these conditions, the load on 1 m2 the working area of the warehouse is 0,25- 0,3 tons of apples.
In cold weather, you need to insulate the piles (straw mats and so on.) To prevent freezing apples. If apples frozen on the way, they should be stored in the cold and do not let them thaw before putting into production.
apples packed in crates is released from the container as the feed in the production of which is carried out conveyors of different types. For continuous movement of apples conventional conveyor belts used horizontally.
In practice, well-paid off for this purpose hydraulic transporters such as those used in sugar factories to transport beets from the fields to the factory Clamp .
The hydraulic conveyor is a trough made of steel, concrete, wood (osmolene), brick (covered with cement) and laid slightly below the floor level of the warehouse. The gutter must have a slope that provides a speed of water and apples in it of about 1 m / sec (slope about 10-20 mm at 1 g run length of the gutter). At corners, the gradient increases. Apples are evenly pushed into the gutter, in which they are fused with the current of water in the desired direction to the required distance. In the course of the movement of apples, traps for heavy foreign impurities (stones, etc.) are installed on individual sections of the gutter or its branches. These conveyors create additional conveniences in that they provide removal from the apples of randomly hit solids, as well as partial washing of apples from dirt. The water consumption for conveyors of this type with a three-time change during the day is 400-500% by weight of apples. Significant savings in water consumption can be achieved by using for melting apples on the conveyor of water, descended from the lock of apples.
To move the apple from the bottom-up used ordinary straight or inclined bucket elevators (Fig. 1). For the convenience of filling the bucket elevator base is mounted in a special pit.
Fig. 1. Bucket elevator for apples.
Water is poured into the pit 1, varies periodically. Apples float in the water, what facilitated their free gripping bucket elevator. For the run-off of water captured with apples, bucket elevator 2 produced perforated.
For the quantitative determination of apples coming from one production site to another, set the automatic scales.
Sort and wash apples
Sorting apples aim is to remove unsuitable for the production of fruits (rotten, moldy, strongly affected by pests), divided by the degree of maturity of the apples and coloration, presence of defects (spots, bruises and the like. P.) And by size.
Selection of apples ripeness and color is important, as the fruits of varying degrees of maturity require different processing modes (softer ripe apples become wet and proshparivayutsya faster than hard unripe fruits).
apples Sort by size is also an important condition for the uniform treatment of them in the clasp and psharke.
Fig. 2. Fan sink for fruit, berries and vegetables.
To sort apples by quality, maturity and color of used conveyors. Sorting and culling of apples are produced on an assembly line, the speed of which about 0,2 m / s.
To sort the apples, and other fruits like circular shape, the size of a special machine is used, equipped with a set of removable shakes the sieve with round holes required size.
Sorted fruits are automatically discharged from the respective sieve to separate the gutter.
Size sorting apples sometimes combine them with quality sorting conveyors above.
After sorting the apples sent to the sink. Thorough washing of apples water required to wash them from adhering to the surface of various contaminants. The slightest penetration of sand into a puree of apples is an unpleasant sensation on the teeth crunch, mash unfit for use in the confectionery industry. When washing the apples are freed from much of microorganisms present on their surface, as well as residues of toxic insecticides used for spraying trees to combat pests.
Among the various designs of washing machines used in the practice of processing of fruits, berries and vegetables, you should specify the fan sink, adopted in the canning industry (Fig. 2).
It consists of a bath 1, conveyor 2, 3 shower unit, 4 fan and air bubbler for purging and sump 5 for running waste water.
The conveyor has two horizontal and one inclined section. The lower horizontal section is under water in the bathtub, and the upper horizontal section can be used to inspect the washed apples.
The air blowing fan is supplied to the sparger pipes located under the working branch of the conveyor to cause turbulent flow of water in the tub, which promotes an intensive washing of apples without damaging them. Passing through the upper portion of the conveyor in the shower, apples are washed further.
These sinks are good for apples, and particularly for soft fruits and berries.
At small production sizes, a drum (rotary) washer is used, intended for round solid fruits (Figure 3). It is a trough with a tiny or holey drum rotating in it. The water is poured into the trough and, as it is contaminated, descends through the lower sink. Inside the drum is a pipe for spraying water. To the inner surface of the drum are attached guide blades located along the helical line. In addition, the drum is installed with a slight bias towards the movement of apples. Coming from one end of the drum, the apples are rotationally propelled and, washed in water, come out from the other end. Vigorous washing of apples in these washers is provided by alternating rotation of the drum in both directions. The food of the drum is made in such a way that the apples are filled from 7 to 7g of its volume. More contaminated apples are loaded into the drum in a minimum amount so that they are better washed. The productivity of these machines for apples is about 5 t / h, the water flow rate is up to 5000 l / h.
The disadvantage of drum-washing is that which takes place in partial damage apples.
Water consumed for washing of apples, the quality of your must meet the requirements for drinking water.
Apple locks in cold water to scalding (about 24 hours.) was used earlier fruktopererabatyvayuschih enterprises. From experience we know that after the pre-steeping apple less dark in the scalding than without locks, and in the first case, mashed get more light.
Recently padlock apples before scalding in most large enterprises are not used in connection with. the fact that its role and importance is debatable. However, studies VKNII  have shown that pre-maceration of fresh apples s cold water helps to preserve vitamin C these apples; while scalding apples after steeping loss of vitamin C decrease in 1,5-3 times against losses during scalding nezamochennyh apples. At the same time improving the color of the finished sauce.
Basically effect locks is that fresh apples in the water (or any solution) to obtain a considerably smaller external oxygen supply than fruits in the air. Under these conditions, breathing fruit develops in significant part due to oxygen contained in fruit tissue itself. As a result of intramolecular respiration decreases the amount of free oxygen and tissue are partial anaerobic conditions inside the fruit, followed by a decrease in the oxidation of vitamin C, as well as tannins.
According to some assumptions with the clasp there is a removal of the tanning agents, causing bitterness and browning sauce. This effect locks available as a result of chemical interaction between tannins apple with calcium salts of water. The result of steeping in this regard will depend on the chemical composition of water, going to the locks.
Apple locks conducted during 8-24 hours. The duration of locks must be adjusted depending on the type, size, and degree of maturity of the apples, the water temperature going to locks. Solid apples, unripe, large apples require more time for steeping. The warm water soak is faster than in cold.
Available survey data suggest that the clasp of whole intact apples in cold water is not observed significant amounts of transition apple extractives in water. This is because fresh apple peel has the ability to pass water and at the same time is impermeable or low permeability for apple extractive substances.
Pre padlock is no longer working with fumigated apples (the apples are processed into raw sulfur dioxide). Sulfur dioxide has on apples clasp similar action in the sense of softening of pulp and bleaching it.
apples in wooden locks produce iron or concrete vats. They must be fitted with devices for the supply of water for its descent and the bleed hatches to display mud sludge. For mechanical unloading of apples from the vats after the locks there are devices similar to that found in the elevator car washes.
To calculate the capacity Retting tanks bombarded with specific volume of fresh apples can be taken equal to 2,0.