Production of fruit and berry marmalade izdeliy1

General characteristics of fruit jelly products

The products produced in Ukraine under the name marmalade differ by type of raw material used, according to the method of preparation and execution.

The main feature of these products - it is their jelly like structure.

The main raw material for the fruit and berry marmalade is applesauce. Puree from other fruits and berries used for marmalade mostly as a flavoring agent in the form of fruit corresponding ammunition.

Fruit and berry marmalade produced by our confectionery factories in different external design in the form of piece goods; some candy up to 20 Mr. cast in rigid form or sugar or cut into cubes. This product is produced in the form of a lump (reservoir) marmalade. Piece jellies usually are placed in cartons or containers in plywood, and the marmalade bedded poured into boxes whole blocks shaped box or packed in tin cans and cardboard.

In addition to apple marmalade base, produced apricot, plum, cornel and other marmalades, having basically studneobrazuyuschee purée of the respective fruits. These kinds of marmalade, bearing the name Patov occupy in the overall balance marmalade production of confectioneries small share.

Fruit and berry marmalades are produced in other countries in the form of jelly, in which slices of fruit are distributed. Along with fruit and berry puree for fruit marmalade use fruit and berry juice. In the event that the latter does not have a sufficient nucleus-forming ability, ready-made preparations of citrus or apple pectin are used as a gel-forming agent. American type marmalades are made from juice of sweet oranges, lemons and grapefruits; English and Scottish marmalade - from the juice of bitter oranges. These marmalades have a much weaker consistency compared to our marmalade products. They represent a semi-liquid product that is poured into cans. To improve the look of this product, he is trying to impart transparency. These products are very similar in their consistency to jam.

The formation of pectin-sugar-acid jelly

The role of the individual components in pectin studneobrazovanii

A distinctive feature of jelly - jelly state, achieved by boiling studneobrazuyuschego mashed with sugar in strictly defined conditions.

Obtained after boiling hot jelly mass takes the shape of the vessel in which it is poured. After solidification it forms a jelly, lacking fluidity characteristic of the fluid.

Jelly jelly is a semi-solid body, at the same time exhibiting the properties of a solid body (he has a stiffness, obeying Hooke's law), and the body of liquid (jelly capable of crystallization and to the diffusion exchange with the environment). When cutting with a knife, it forms a smooth neskleivayuschiesya cut surface and sharp edges; during storage it must not be separating the liquid from the inside jelly; it should also not soak through absorption of moisture from the air and must be resistant against saccharification.

Jelly marmalade obtained by sol transition pectin gel. This move is seen as a process of coagulation of pectin. However, unlike the conventional process in this case, the coagulation occurs as the solidification of the dispersion medium, and the dispersed phase in a colloidal solution of a solid mass with no visible separation of the two phases.

Pectic substances have the ability to coagulate in the form of jelly by natural enzymatic hydrolysis as well as heat, acid or base hydrolysis. In this case, the loss caused by the formation of gel insoluble pectin decomposition products and their compounds, in particular pectic acid and its salts.

Pectin jelly falls also under the influence of alcohol, acetone and other dehydrating substances. The action of these precipitators is that they remove particles with pectin gidratkuyu sheath prevents connection of these particles between themselves.

Gel formation is also observed in the interaction of pectin and pectic acids, especially with polyvalent metal ions. In this case, the pectin coagulation occurs as a result of mutual balancing the negative charge of positively charged particles pectin electrolyte cations.

Depending on the conditions studneobrazovaniya pectin jelly properties of the resulting changes.

Jelly marmalade with the necessary physical and mechanical properties and taste derived from pectin aqueous solutions in the presence of certain amounts of pectin gelling agents, sugar and acids under certain pH values. In the production of fruit and berry marmalade perhaps an infinite number of ratios of these components marmalade jelly and individual factors of its formation. Knowledge of the mechanism of marmalade jelly and the role of each of these factors is necessary for the proper conduct of this production.

The current state of the issue does not yet provide an accurate explanation of the process of the formation of jelly in general and marmalade jelly in particular.

Swedes (1889) gave the first impression of. The nature of jelly (gels). The gel consists of two phases. Micelles or macromolecules of the colloid (sol) are joined together in the form of filaments forming a grid-like branch (jelly skeleton). In the space between the filaments there is a solvent bound to them. Under certain conditions, aggregates of colloidal particles are oriented along crystallographic directions and form filamentary crystals (crystallites).

Research recently carried out by an electron microscope, confirmed with great certainty micellar structure gels and the presence of the structural frame.

Laws of process of structure formation of gels were investigated in several studies. Available results of these studies provide an opportunity to present the hypothesis adopted in respect of the formation mechanism of pectin-sugar-acid jelly as follows.

Fruit jelly emerges from hot liquid marmalade mass (from pectin sol). Structural particles of pectin with adsorbed mainly on their surface by molecules of the dispersion medium are distributed in a highly dispersed form in the dispersion medium, being in it in a state of random thermal motion. Molecules of the adsorbed liquid phase (aqueous solution of sugar, acid and other extractives of fruit and berry puree) form a solvate (hydrated) shell around the elongated particles of pectin. The latter, filling the volume of the dispersion liquid, do not first contact each other and do not form a structure.

Due to the presence of pectin in the solution of the dissociated carboxyl groups of pectic particles therein have a high negative charge density. Thus, they mutually repel each other.

To form Studneva frame consisting of associated particles of pectin, it is first necessary to eliminate or weaken the forces of electrostatic repulsion of particles of pectin.

The presence in the acid solution, more dissociated than pectin, or adding an acid to the reaction mixture reduces the degree of dissociation of pectin, t. E. It reduces the electrical charge of the particles.

Simultaneously, under the influence of sugar, dehydration occurs and the associated decrease in the solvation of pectin particles, which prevents their adhesion. On the latter, there are a number of bare areas, devoid of charge, polarity. The particles of the pectin solid phase are associated with each other through desolvated sections weakly or completely unprotected by a solvation shell. The hypothetical scheme for the coupling of pectic particles is shown in Fig. 12. In this scheme, the pectin particles are shown as elongated rectangles, the exposed portions of these particles a, free of charges, are blackened.

Solvate their shells marked with the letter S.Hypothetical scheme for the coupling of pectic particles.

Fig. 12. Hypothetical scheme for the coupling of pectic particles.

The forces of attraction of the particles are concentrated at the ends, which contributes to the formation of the spatial grid. If these forces are evenly distributed across the surface of the particles, the resulting compound of each other along the longitudinal axes would be formed instead of the solid unit setkopodobnogo frame t. E. To the formation of jelly structure was observed.

The formed pectin net, as "volumetric lace" permeates the entire system.

Strengthening of this grid is due to hydrogen bonds formed between the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of adjacent chains pectin molecule scheme:9.1

The intermicellar spaces formed by the interlacing of pectin micelles are filled with a dispersion liquid-a liquid sugar-acid solution, the latter relatively weakly bound to the pectin network and can be separated from it under certain conditions.

In fact, during the centrifugation of some jellies obtained by cooling, the liquid phase was removed from the jelly, and a xerogel was obtained, which could be converted by saturation with alcohol in an alcohol alcohol instead of a hydrogel and vice versa.

The withdrawal of the liquid phase from the pectin jelly under the influence of mechanical action is sometimes observed in practice in the production of marmalade in the form of thick layers, when under the influence of the gravity of the layer, liquid sugar-acid syrup is squeezed out of it.

In order to ensure the stability of jelly, it is necessary that the force of attraction between the particles of pectin (cohesion forces) are in equilibrium with their opposing forces of attraction of particles to the particles of the dispersion medium (adhesion strength). If the first prevail over the latter, it leads to the liquid phase separation of jelly (syneresis), otherwise there is a relaxation of all jelly.

Students have the property of thixotropy. The essence of the latter lies in the fact that with mechanical complete or partial destruction of the bonds of the spatial grid (frame), the structure is gradually restored as a result of subsequent encounters of particles in thermal motion.

This property pectin jelly is essential for the production, as in the case of premature gelling prescription apple-sugar mixture to a boil it is possible by means of mechanical agitation to remove or destroy the formation of jelly jelly formed without prejudice to the follow-up process after studneobrazovaniya mass cooking.

Mechanical same effect on weight after cooking marmalade during its cooling violates aggregation pectin particles. This explains, for example, that the ready welded marmalade stirring mixture leads to a weakening of jelly. Re-heating under certain conditions, the recovery of the structure, its thixotropic consolidation.

After the formation of the jelly, the process of strengthening the structure continues in it. This is the process of "ripening" of jelly ("jam" marmalade), which is determined by the further orientation of chain-shaped molecules, their gradual convergence and regular location.

Thus, marmalade jelly represents a system of time-evolving structure.

Until recently, the quality of jellies was attempted to characterize by strength or by so-called "structural" viscosity. At present it is considered established that there are no viscosities (including structural) in jelly. Measurements of viscosities do not provide an opportunity to control the quality of jellies.

To measure the strength of jellies, various methods and instruments are used, based on the determination of the force of gravity (or other kind of force) that must be applied to tearing, punching, displacement or cutting a layer of jelly of a certain thickness. However, measuring the strength of jellies does not give a complete idea of ​​their quality. For example, they do not characterize the ability of the jelly to bind the liquid phase. The latter is absent just in the more durable "tight" marmalade. Meanwhile, the ability of a structural mesh to retain the dispersion liquid is one of the most important properties of jelly.

The true physical and mechanical properties of jellies are characterized by shearing strains-elastic and stable. The structural framework of the pectin jelly determines the property of elastic deformation, and its liquid phase is a property of elastic deformation, delayed in time. Ukraine has developed a harmonious system that allows integrating the main rheological properties of jelly and expressing them in absolute units.

Pectin-sugar-acid jelly is characterized primarily as an elastic-flexible system.

On the basis of the above, consider the role of each of the components of marmalade jelly and individual factors in the formation of pectin-sugar-acid jelly [21].

Pectin provides material for the frame jelly. The higher the concentration of pectin in the jelly, the stronger will be the resulting jelly. Available data show that the jelly strength is in linear dependence on the concentration of pectin in the jelly.

It is understandable that the higher the concentration of pectin in the medium, the greater the probability of favorable encounters of pectin particles with each other and the faster the formation of the gelatinous framework. At the same time, however, the strength of pectin jelly depends not so much on quantity as on the quality of pectin contained in the jelly, on its gel-forming ability. It is assumed that a strong pectin from antonian apples forms in the jujube jelly more long and powerful micelles that give a more elastic jelly, while a weakly pelleting pectin (from overripe or from summer apples) forms shorter strands in the jelly and the latter turns out to be weaker .

According to other assumptions, the quality of the jelly depends not on the size of the micelles, but on the structure of the pectin mesh, and that a well-pelleting pectin gives a finer plexus of threads and forms a denser mesh than a weakly pelleting pectin. The amount of pectin necessary for the formation of marmalade jelly also varies depending on the amount of water that it is desirable to have in the jelly, on the content of sugar and acid in it. If these last conditions are constant, the required amount of pectin will depend only on its quality.

For apple pectin average studneobrazuyuschey forces can take the approximate rate of its content from the 0,6 0,8% to jelly by weight.

It is known that the presence of sugar is necessary to obtain a jelly-like jelly. Completely solvated (hydrated) pectin particles do not adhere to one another, their dehydration is a necessary prerequisite for the formation of a structural network.

According to the commonly held view, the importance of sugar for pectin formation is mainly in its dehydrating action. The proof of this sugar action is that the sugar can be replaced by the formation of pectin jelly by any other substance that has the ability to absorb water. In fact, it has been established experimentally that pectin jelly can be obtained in the absence of sugar when replacing the latter with glycerin, various alcohols, acetone, organic acids, esters. In the production practice, the technological function of sugar coincides with its taste and nutritional value for marmalade-pastille products.

The amount of sugar needed for the formation of the eggs changes depending on the quality and quantity of pectin involved in this jelly. The higher the content of pectin and the higher the quality, the greater the amount of sugar that goes for the formation of the gel.

The "sugacity" of pectin, i.e., the greatest amount of sugar that can be taken to form a normal marmalade jelly, is the measure of the gel-forming ability of this pectin. The weight of sugar, which accounts for the weight unit of pectin, determines its "number of degrees".

If you take the amount of sugar is too high in relation to cash in pectin jelly, the jelly is too weak and soft (pectin is overloaded with sugar). If, on the contrary, the sugar is taken less than that required on the content and quality of pectin, the marmalade jelly get too strong and solid (zatyazhistym). In general, it should be noted that the plasticizer is a sugar pectin jelly. By varying the amount of sugar can be controlled plasticity viscous properties of the gel and its consistency.

As a rule, when working with the normal (methoxylated) pectin of the average nucleus-forming force and at the concentration of this pectin within 0,6-1,0%, the sugar and jelly content should be close to the concentration of sugar saturation of this solution at a given temperature. Thus, for the minimum sugar content (in the form of sucrose) in jujube jelly, you can take 65%. Which approximately coincides with the solubility of sucrose in water at room temperature.

As is known, pectins with a low content of methoxyl groups are able to form jellies with reduced concentrations of sugar. However, the available data show that at a sugar concentration below 30%, the pectin does not coagulate from the sugar of the acid solution, i.e., the formation of hydrogen-bound jelly does not occur.

The more saturated sugar solution, the process proceeds faster studneobrazovaniya. In the presence of sugar supersaturation strongly absorbs water from the solvation shells pectin particles, the degree of dehydration increases.

In solutions, supersaturated sugar, gelling mixture possibly cold, t. E. Without heating and boiling the mixture Studneva. This is due to the strong dehydrating excess pectin with sugar.

Sucrose is generally used for the production of jelly (in the form of a commercial granulated sugar). In the production process of the sucrose is inverted, which resulted in the marmalade, along with sucrose invert sugar present in the approximate ratio of 2: 1.

According to some reports, replacing part of sucrose with glucose increases the strength of marmalade jelly and accelerates the process of jelly formation of marmalade. The effect of glucose increases with the increase in the size of its additive. However, in view of the weak solubility of glucose, its addition should be limited to only 25% to the weight of the marmalade.

Acid. The presence of acid is one of the decisive factors in the process of marmalade forming. It is known that the addition of acid in certain amounts speeds up the process, but until now the question of the mechanism of action of the acid remains controversial.

The interpretation of the role of acid proposed by Glickman and his colleagues, is reduced mainly to the next.

Pectic acids present in the pectin complex of fruit and berry raw materials (mashed potatoes or juice) contain, in addition to methoxylated carboxyl groups, a known amount of the latter, in which hydrogen is replaced by metal ions from the ash of this product. These salts of pectic acids are not involved in the process of gel formation. The role of acid, introduced into the gel-forming solution, is the displacement of pectic acids from their salts. The free pectic acids obtained as a result of the decomposition of pectates are capable of nucleation.

To enhance the nucleus-forming ability of pectin, it is not the amount of acid added that matters, but the concentration of hydrogen ions achieved, characterized by

The pH value. The higher the H + concentration, i.e., the lower the pH, the higher the gel-forming ability of the pectin-sugar-acid solution. However, the nucleus-forming ability increases only until the complete replacement of cations of salts with a hydrogen ion. After this, an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions has no effect. The amount of acid. Which is necessary to achieve this critical point, hangs in each individual case from the buffer properties of the medium. The latter in turn are determined by the nature and composition of the ash of the fruit and berry puree (or pectin preparation).

The effect of acid in the process of formation of the marmalade mass depends on the nature of the acid, on the degree of its dissociation. Of dietary organic acids, the most active in this regard is the wine, the least active - acetic acid.

Based on the data of a number of other researchers of pectin (Hinton, Speezer and others), the following hypothesis is accepted: by introducing a highly dissociated acid into the pectin-sugar solution, free hydrogen ions appearing in it, bearing a positive charge, appear. The latter acts in the direction of reducing the negative charge of pectic particles, facilitating their aggregation, necessary for the precipitation of the pectin gel, the formation of the jelly frame.

According to this assumption, the meaning of the phenomenon is a decrease in the degree of dissociation of pectic particles under the action of a more strongly dissociated acid. At the same time, an excess of free H + should appear in the reaction mixture.

The sugar content in the jellyThe minimum required amount of citric acid

The amount of acid needed for the formation of the gel changes not only depending on the nature of the acid, but also on the quality and quantity of pectin and on the sugar content of the marmalade mass. If the pectic ingredient is weak (insufficient pelleting capacity of the pectin or insufficient content of it), it is useful to have a higher concentration of acid, but only within certain limits. The required concentrations of acid and sugar are inversely related: the more the solution is saturated (or supersaturated) with sugar, the less acid is required for the formation of the gel (with the same content of pectin), and vice versa.

The following are the approximate percentages between Contents of sugar and the amount of citric acid necessary for studneobrazovaniya pectin in the production of apple jelly.

The need for studneobrazovaniya amount of pectin is also inversely related to the concentration of the acid.

For marmalade-Pastila practical production rate at a concentration of acid content of pectin studneobrazuyuschego 0,8-1,2% and the rate of sugar in 65-70% jelly can be considered 0,8-1,0% (in terms of malic acid).

It is found that the lower the pH studneobrazuyuschego solution, the less is required for the formation of pectin jelly. It is shown, for example, that at pH 3,4 the concentration of pectin jelly jelly should not be less than 0,9%, at pH 3,2 - 0,8% approximately, with 3,1 pH required 0,7% pectin content.

From the pH of the medium depends on the amount of sugar that goes on at studneobrazovanii 1 weight unit of pectin (t. E., "The number of degrees" of pectin). The higher a certain extent the concentration of hydrogen ions pectin solution, the greater the amount of sugar, which is accounted for by each weight unit of pectin. Accordingly, it will increase the output marmalade jelly, which is defined by s mostly sugar entered for studneobrazovaniya.

From the pH dependent limits within which studneobrazovanie of pectin passes with the most favorable outcome (the maximum point), or completely stops (lowest point).

On the question of the optimal pH range for studneobrazovaniya there are various indications.

Large amounts of data shows that the best conditions for studneobrazovaniya pectin are at pH 3,0-3,2.

At pH above 3,5 jelly strength is markedly reduced, increasing the concentration of hydrogen ions to the pH increases 2,0 jelly strength. However, at pH below 2,8 jelly begins to separate from the liquid phase, which leads to deterioration marmalade. At a pH below or above 2,0 3,6 studneobrazovanie pectin decreases sharply.

Thus, there is a close relationship between the individual factors studneobrazovaniya (pectin, sugar, acidity of the medium and pH), which together studneobrazuyuschey ability of the subject pectin.

The process of gel formation develops in the aquatic environment. After subtracting the total amount of sugar (about 65%), acids (about 1%) and pectin (about 1%), the rest of the jelly material consists mainly of water. The normal water content in jellyfish jelly varies from 32 to 33%. With an increased amount of water, too little jelly is obtained, with a lower water content, undesirable phenomena are observed: too rapid gelling, too thick consistency of the mass of the jelly, which is difficult to further process (casting, molding, sampling from molds).

Taking an average water content of marmalade jelly equal to 33%, we get the approximate optimal quantitative ratio of the components marmalade jelly: sugar 65%,

pectin 0,5-1%, acid 0,5-4% and total solids 67%.

Justification marmalade recipe

In accordance with the above-characterized role of the individual components marmalade jelly and defined relations between pectin, sugar and acid can outline principles for establishing the production of marmalade recipe [16].

Applesauce, constitutes the main raw material production marmelado- Pastila contains approximately about 1-> 1,2% pectin, 0,6-1% acid, 6-10,% sugar and from the 85 90% to water. Thus, applesauce contains an amount sufficient to studneobrazovaniya pectin and an acid number of sugars therein is enough for our purposes, and there is water in large excess.

As a rule, gel-forming apple puree and sugar in the form of granulated sugar are taken in the same weight quantities, the principle of constructing a marmalade recipe (1 masseur portion of puree per 1 part by weight of sugar), accepted in practice, fully corresponds to the ratios of the main constituents of marmalade established above. Such a formula makes it possible to add to the jelly mass the necessary amounts of pectin, acid and sugar. If, for example, 100 kg of apple puree and the same amount of sugar are taken, the total weight of the formula for marmalade will be 200 kg. Since the apple puree contains about 1% pectin, the pectin in that mixture will be about 0,5%. The same is with the acid. Sugars will be contained in a mixture of about 55% (added to the sugar granule-will make up 50% of the total formulation mass + the rest is the amount of sugar, about 3-5% falls on your own sugar of apple puree). Thus, the content of pectin, acid and sugar will be somewhat lower than that required for the formation of jelly, the water content will be slightly higher. Taking the content of iodine in puree equal to 90%, we get about an apple-sugar mixture about 45% of water, that is, 12-13% is more than necessary. Therefore, it is necessary to remove about 13% of water from this mixture, which is achieved by evaporating it in the process of cooking marmalade mass. At the same time, there is a thickening of the mass, which is associated with an increase in the concentration of pectin, acid and sugar to approximately the extent necessary to bring these three components back to normal (the sugar content will then rise to about 65%, the acid and pectin content will be up to 0,6- 0,7% in relation to the weight of the marmalade mass cooked).

In industrial practice the above-mentioned ratio of apple sauce and sugar vary within a small range. For example, instead of the ratio of sugar to the mashed 1: 1 charge ratio 1,05: 1; 1,10: 1, etc., or vice versa... Ratio applesauce and sugar jelly formulation is adjusted within these ranges depending on the quality of apple sauce - on its ability to studneobrazovaniyu.

These relations should be established on the basis of pre-lab cook mashed with sugar.

Errors in determining the correct ratio of sauce and sugar in the recipe marmalade can lead to undesirable changes in the structure of marmalade. So, in case of lack of pectin jellies will be too weak, or as they say industrials, "sugary". This means that there is a surplus of sugar marmalade against cash in it studneobrazuyuschego amount of pectin. In the case of excess pectin jellies will be too strong, "testistym".

With the introduction of the recipe marmalade excessive amount of apple sauce is obtained as the excess acid.

When using a mashed potatoes from low-protein and low-acid apples that are too weak according to the nucleus-forming ability, it becomes necessary to increase the percentage of puree in the recipe. This is unprofitable, since it entails an increase in the cost of raw materials and an increase in the duration of cooking of the formula mixture. In such cases, additional quantities of pectin or acid necessary for the formation of the gland are introduced artificially. Knowing the ratio of pectin, acid and sugar, which is necessary for normal gelation, it is possible by appropriate calculation, based on laboratory data, to determine the amount of pectin or the amount of acid that should be added to the formula mixture.

To increase the resistance against the marmalade crystallization of the sugar (5-10%) replace the molasses.

By adding molasses must take into account the quality of puree. For example, if you are working with a highly studneobrazuyuschim puree adding molasses is impractical because the pectin in itself is a strong thickener and helps seal the consistency of marmalade.

Number of fruit supplies, which is the recipe for marmalade flavor respective fruit or berries, ranges from 2 8% to a puree weight, depending on the type of ammunition.

At the use of supplies, especially with a high content of pectin, such con- as black currant, add molasses should also be excluded for the reasons given above. Instead, the formulation supplies marmalade sometimes enter the natural essential oil of the fruit. Natural fruit and berry supplies and essential oils are often replaced by artificial essences, which are incorporated into the formulation in small quantities (0,01-0,05% for prescription weight of the mixture), depending on the concentration and strength of flavor.

Preparation prescription apple-sugar mixture

Because different batches of apple sauce, available at the enterprise, constitute a standard blended mixture. Particular attention should be paid at the same Alignment Operation pH applesauce in the optimal range for studneobrazovaniya 3,0-3,2. This is achieved by mixing strongly studneobrazuyuschego mashed studneobrazuyuschim with slightly more sour mash with less acidic, light with less light. The composition of the mixture of mashed potatoes for cooking is planned on the basis of laboratory data.

A mixture of apple puree are prepared for cooking in an amount not less than needs to 1 shift.

Components of the blended mixture was charged in special mixers, which are metal or wooden collectors equipped with a mechanical stirrer.

Blended mixture of apple puree subjected to a second (control) for wiping the complete separation of the remaining sauce after a rough first rubbing particles peel, seed and purée release (before entering it into production) from possible accidentally caught in it of impurities. For this purpose it is passed through a conventional wiper machine with a sieve having an opening of up to 0,5 1 mm.

After secondary wipe applesauce is sent to a collection for prescription apple-sugar mixture.

Fruit puree (cranberry, Rowan et al.), Added to the formula mixture (as well as natural supplies, added to the mass of jelly), and subjected to rubbing test.

Sugar for prescription and sieved mixture is passed through a magnetic separator to remove iron impurities, then weighed sugar in an amount necessary for formulation.

If adding molasses formulation provides, after warming it is subject straining through a sieve with a hole diameter of not more than. 1,5 mm and it is also sent to the same mixer.

The mixture was thoroughly mixed and fed to the brew.

When working with sulphated or with a high-acid apple sauce, in which, under the influence of long-term storage, demethoxylation of pectin took place, as a result of interaction of the latter with cations of Ca (from the same fruit and berry puree), a partial loss of gel from the apple sugary mixture is possible. The latter is accompanied by the appearance of separate bunches of weak jelly (half-gel) in this mixture. With a long delay in the prescription mixture in the mixer and in the presence of long pipelines, along which the apple-sugar mixture is transported, this phenomenon is highly undesirable. To eliminate it, it is necessary to mix the mixture in collectors (stir all the time, communications (pumps and pipelines) for the recipe mixture to subject to periodic steaming.

Positive role in the sense of eliminating loss gel from apple-sugar mixture add it plays alkali and buffer salts.

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