Columns
Production of marmalade-Pastila products

Production of fruit and berry marmalade izdeliy1

General characteristics of fruit jelly products

Products manufactured in Ukraine under the name of marmalade, differ in the type of raw materials used, the method of preparation and decoration.

The main feature of these products is their gelatinous structure.

The main raw material for fruit and berry marmalade is apple sauce. Puree of other fruits and berries is used for marmalade mostly as a flavoring agent in the form of appropriate fruit and berry supplies.

Fruit and berry marmalade is produced by our confectionery factories in a variety of external design in the form of piece goods; individual candies weighing up to 20 g are molded into hard forms or into sugar or cut into cubes. This product is produced in the form of lump (layer) marmalade. Piece marmalade is usually placed in cardboard boxes or plywood containers, and plastic marmalade is poured into boxes in whole blocks in the shape of a box or packed in tin and cardboard cans.

In addition to apple marmalade with an apple base, apricot, plum, cornel and other marmalade are produced, which are based on gelatinous mashed potatoes of the corresponding fruits. These varieties of marmalade, called patas, occupy a small proportion in the overall balance of marmalade products of confectioneries.

Fruit marmalades in other countries are produced in the form of jelly, in which fruit slices are distributed. Along with fruit and berry puree, fruit juice is used to make marmalade. In case the latter does not possess sufficient jelly-forming ability, ready-made citrus or apple pectin preparations are used as a jelly-forming agent. American-style marmalades are made from the juice of sweet oranges, lemons and grapefruits; English and Scottish marmalades - from the juice of bitter oranges. These marmalades have a significantly weaker consistency compared to our marmalade products. They represent a semi-liquid product that is bottled. To improve the appearance of this product, they are trying to make it transparent. These products in their consistency are very close to the jam.

The formation of pectin-sugar-acid jelly

The role of the individual components in pectin studneobrazovanii

A distinctive feature of marmalade is the state of jelly, achieved by boiling the gelatinous mash with sugar in strictly defined conditions.

The hot marmalade mass obtained after boiling takes the form of the vessel into which it is poured. After solidification, it forms a jelly, devoid of fluidity, characteristic of the liquid.

Marmalade jelly is a semi-solid body that simultaneously exhibits the properties of a solid body (it has rigidity, obeying the Hooke's law) and a liquid body (the jelly is capable of crystallization and diffusion with the environment). When cutting with a knife, it forms smooth, non-adherent cutting surfaces and sharp edges; during storage it should not be separated liquid from the inside of the jelly; it should also not be soaked due to the absorption of moisture from the ambient air and should be resistant against saccharification.

Jelly marmalade is obtained as a result of the transfer of the pectin sol to the gel. This transition is considered as a process of coagulation of pectin. However, in contrast to the usual coagulation process, in this case, both the dispersion medium and the dispersed phase of the colloidal solution harden into one solid mass without visible separation of the two phases.

Pectic substances have the ability to coagulate in the form of jelly as a result of natural enzymatic hydrolysis, as well as thermal, acid or alkaline hydrolysis. In this case, the loss of the gel is caused by the formation of insoluble degradation products of pectin and their compounds, in particular pectic acid and its salts.

Pectin jelly also falls under the action of alcohol, acetone and other dehydrating substances. The action of these precipitants is that they remove the hydrate shell from the pectin particles, preventing the particles from connecting to each other.

Gel formation is also observed during the interaction of pectin and in particular pectic acids with ions of polyvalent metals. In this case, the coagulation of pectin occurs as a result of mutual balancing of the negative charge of pectin particles with a positive charge of electrolyte cations.

Depending on the conditions of pectin gelation, the properties of the resulting jelly change.

Jelly jelly with the necessary physicomechanical and taste properties is obtained from aqueous solutions of pectin in the presence of certain amounts of a gelling agent-pectin, sugar and acid under conditions of certain pH values. In the production of fruit and berry marmalade, an infinite number of ratios of these components of marmalade jelly and certain factors of its formation are possible. Knowledge of the mechanism of formation of marmalade jelly and the role of each of these factors is necessary for the proper conduct of this production.

The current state of the issue does not provide an accurate explanation of the process of education of jelly in general and marmalade jelly in particular.

The Swedes (1889 g.) Gave the first presentation on. nature of jellies (gels). The gel consists of two phases. The colloid micelles or macromolecules (sol) are interconnected in the form of filaments, forming net-like ramifications (gel framework). In the space between the threads is the associated solvent. Under known conditions, aggregates of colloidal particles are oriented in crystallographic directions and form filamentary crystals (crystallites).

Recent studies performed with an electron microscope have confirmed with great certainty the micelle structure of the jellies and the presence of a structural framework in them.

Patterns of the process of formation of jellies have been studied in a number of studies. The available results of these works make it possible to present the accepted hypothesis regarding the mechanism of formation of pectin-sugar-acid jelly as follows.

Marmalade jelly arises from hot liquid marmalade mass (from pectin sol). The structural particles of pectin with the molecules of the dispersion medium adsorbed mainly on their surface are distributed in a strongly dispersed form in the dispersion medium, being in it in a state of irregular thermal motion. The molecules of the adsorbed liquid phase (an aqueous solution of sugar, acid and other extractive substances of fruit and berry puree) form a solvate (hydration) shell around the elongated pectin particles. The latter, filling the volume of the dispersion liquid, do not initially touch each other and do not form structures.

Due to the presence of dissociated carboxyl groups in the pectin solution, the pectin particles in it have a negative charge of high density. Because of this, they mutually repel each other.

In order to form a gelatinous framework consisting of associated pectin particles, it is necessary first of all to eliminate or weaken the forces of electrostatic repulsion of pectin particles.

The presence in the solution of an acid that is more dissociated than pectin, or the addition of acid to the reaction mixture reduces the degree of dissociation of pectin, i.e., reduces the electrical charge of its particles.

At the same time, under the influence of sugar, dehydration occurs and the associated decrease in the solvation of pectin particles, which prevents their adhesion. On the latter, a number of exposed areas devoid of charge, polarity. The particles of the pectin solid phase are associated with each other through desolvated sites weakly or completely unprotected by the solvation shell. The hypothetical scheme of coupling of pectin particles is presented in fig. 12. In this diagram, the pectin particles are shown in the form of elongated rectangles, the exposed areas of these particles a, free from charges, are blackened.

Solvate their shells marked with the letter S.

Fig. 12. A hypothetical scheme of coupling of pectin particles.

The forces of attraction of particles are concentrated at their ends, which contributes to the formation of a spatial grid. If these forces were distributed evenly over the entire surface of the particles, then as a result of their connection along the longitudinal axes between them, a massive aggregate instead of a net-like frame would have to be formed, i.e. the formation of a jelly structure would not be observed.

Formed pectin mesh, as a "volume lace" permeates the entire system.

Strengthening of this grid is due to hydrogen bridges formed between the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of adjacent chains of the pectin molecule according to the scheme:

The intermicellar spaces formed by the pectin micelle plexus are filled with a dispersion liquid — a liquid sugar-acid solution, the latter being relatively weakly bound to the pectin network and can be separated from it under certain conditions.

In fact, during the centrifugation of some jellies obtained by cooling, the liquid phase was removed from the jelly, and a xerogel was obtained, which could be converted by saturation with alcohol in an alcohol alcohol instead of a hydrogel and vice versa.

The withdrawal of the liquid phase from pectin jelly under the influence of mechanical action is sometimes observed in practice in the manufacture of marmalade in the form of thick layers, when under the influence of its own gravity a layer of liquid sugar-acid syrup is extracted from it.

In order to ensure the stability of the jelly, it is necessary that the forces of attraction of pectin particles between themselves (cohesive forces) are in equilibrium with the forces of attraction of particles to the particles of the dispersion medium (adhesion forces) opposing them. If the former predominate over the latter, then this leads to the separation of the liquid phase of the jelly (syneresis); otherwise, the entire gel is relaxed.

Jellies have the property of thixotropy. The essence of the latter lies in the fact that with mechanical full or partial destruction of the links of the spatial grid (frame), the structure is gradually restored as a result of subsequent encounters of particles in thermal motion.

This property of pectin jelly is important for production, as in the case of premature gelation of the prescription apple-sugar mixture before cooking, it is possible to eliminate the formation of jelly using mechanical mixing, or destroy the resulting jelly without prejudice to the subsequent gel formation process.

The mechanical effect on the marmalade mass after cooking during its cooling period violates the aggregation of pectin particles. This explains, for example, that mixing the finished cooked marmalade mixture leads to a weakening of the jelly. Reheating under certain conditions contributes to the restoration of the structure, its thixotropic strengthening.

After the formation of the gel in it continues the process of strengthening the structure. This is the process of “ripening” of jellies (“cages” of marmalade), which is determined by the further orientation of the chain-like molecules, their gradual convergence and regular arrangement.

Thus, marmalade jelly represents a system of time-evolving structure.

Until recently, the quality of jellies tried to characterize the strength or the so-called "structural" viscosity. At present, it is considered established that viscosity (including structural viscosity) does not exist for jellies. Viscosity measurements make it impossible to control the quality of jellies.

To measure the strength of the jellies, various methods and devices are used, based on the determination of the force of gravity (or other type of force), which must be applied to break, push, displace or cut through a layer of jelly of a certain thickness. However, measuring the strength of jellies do not give a complete picture of their quality. For example, they do not characterize the ability of the jelly to bind the liquid phase. The latter is absent just in the more durable “long-lasting” marmalade. Meanwhile, the ability of the structural mesh to hold the dispersion liquid is one of the most important properties of the gel.

True physicomechanical properties of jellies are characterized by shear deformations - elastic and stable. The structural framework of pectin jelly determines the property of elastic deformation, and its liquid phase - the property of elastic deformation, delayed in time. Ukraine has developed a harmonious system that allows you to integrate the main rheological properties of jellies and express them in absolute units.

Pectin-sugar-acid jelly is characterized mainly as an elastic-elastic system.

Based on the above, we consider the role of each of the components of marmalade jelly and individual factors in the formation of pectin-sugar-acid jelly [21].

Pectin provides material for the jelly framework. The higher the concentration of pectin in jelly, the stronger the resulting jelly will be. Available data show that the strength of the jelly is in a straight line depending on the concentration of pectin in the jelly.

It is quite clear that the higher the concentration of pectin in the medium, the greater the likelihood of favorable encounters of pectin particles among themselves and the faster the formation of the gelatinous framework occurs. However, the strength of pectin jelly depends not so much on the quantity, but on the quality of the pectin contained in the jelly, on its gel-forming ability. Strong pectin from Antonov apples is supposed to form longer and more powerful micelles in marmalade jelly, which give a more elastic jelly, while weakly gelatinous pectin (from overripe or summer apples) forms shorter strings. .

According to other assumptions, the quality of the jelly does not depend on the size of the micelles, but on the structure of the pectin network and that well-jelly-forming pectin gives a thinner plexus of filaments and forms a thicker grid than weakly gel-forming pectin. The amount of pectin required for the formation of marmalade jelly also varies depending on the amount of water that it is desirable to have in the jelly, on the sugar and acid content in it. With the constancy of these latter conditions, the required amount of pectin will depend only on its quality.

For apple pectin average studneobrazuyuschey forces can take the approximate rate of its content from the 0,6 0,8% to jelly by weight.

It is known that the presence of sugar is necessary to obtain marmalade jelly. Fully solvated (hydrated) particles of pectin do not adhere to each other, their dehydration is a necessary prerequisite for the formation of a structural network.

According to the common view, the value of sugar for the pectin's jelly formation consists mainly in its water-removing effect. Evidence of such an action of sugar is that sugar can be replaced during the formation of pectin jelly with any other substance that has the ability to absorb water. In fact, it has been experimentally established that pectin jelly can also be obtained in the absence of sugar by replacing the latter with glycerol, various alcohols, acetone, organic acids, esters. In the practice of production, the technological function of sugar coincides with its taste and nutritional value for marmalade-pastila.

The amount of sugar needed for gelatinization varies depending on the quality and quantity of pectin involved in this gelatin. The higher the pectin content and the higher the quality, the greater will be the amount of sugar that goes for gelatinization.

The “sugar capacity” of pectin, i.e., the highest amount of sugar that can be taken to form a normal marmalade jelly, is a measure of the gelatinous ability of a given pectin. The weight amount of sugar, which falls on the weight unit of pectin, determines its “number of degrees”.

If the amount of sugar taken is too large relative to the pectin present in the jelly, the jelly is too weak and soft (the pectin is overloaded with sugar). If, on the contrary, sugar is taken less than what is required by the content and quality of pectin, then marmalade jelly turns out to be too strong and hard (puffy). In general, it should be noted that sugar is a plasticizer for pectin jelly. By changing the amount of sugar, you can adjust the plastic-viscous properties of the gel, its consistency.

As a rule, when working with normal (methoxylated) pectin of an average gel-forming force and at a concentration of this pectin within 0,6 — 1,0%, the sugar content and gelatine should be close to the saturation concentration of sugar of this solution at a given temperature. Thus, 65% can be taken as the minimum sugar content (in the form of sucrose) in marmalade jelly. which roughly coincides with the solubility of sucrose in water at room temperature.

As you know, pectins with a low content of methoxyl groups are capable of forming jellies with low sugar concentrations. However, the available data show that when the sugar concentration is lower than 30%, the pectin coagulates from the sugar of the acid solution, i.e. the formation of hydrogen-bonded jelly, does not occur.

The stronger the solution is saturated with sugar, the faster the process of gelation takes place. In the presence of supersaturation, sugar intensively absorbs water from the solvate shells of pectin particles, the degree of their dehydration increases.

In solutions that are supersaturated with sugar, it is possible to gel the mixture even in the cold, that is, without pre-heating and boiling the gelatinous mixture. This is due to the strong dehydration of pectin with an excess of sugar.

For the production of marmalade is usually used sucrose (in the form of commercial sugar). In the production processes, a part of sucrose is subjected to inversion, as a result of which invert marmalade along with sucrose contains invert sugar in the approximate 2: 1 ratio.

According to some reports, the replacement of part of sucrose with glucose increases the strength of marmalade jelly and speeds up the process of gelatinization of marmalade. The effect of glucose increases with the size of its supplement. However, due to the low solubility of glucose, its addition should be limited only to 25% by weight of marmalade.

Acid. The presence of acid is one of the decisive factors in the process of gelatinization of marmalade. It is known that the addition of acid in certain quantities speeds up the process, but to date the question of the mechanism of action of the acid remains controversial.

The interpretation of the role of acid proposed by Glickman and his colleagues, is reduced mainly to the next.

Pectic acids present in the composition of the pectin complex of fruit and berry raw materials (puree or juice) contain, along with the methoxylated carboxyl groups, a known amount of the latter in which hydrogen is replaced by metal ions from the ashes of this product. These salts of pectic acids are not involved in the process of gelation. The role of the acid introduced into the gelling solution is the displacement of pectic acids from their salts. The resulting pectinate decomposition free pectinic acids are capable of gelation.

To enhance the jelly-forming ability of pectin, it is not the amount of acid added that is important, but the concentration of hydrogen ions that is reached.

pH value. The higher the concentration of H +, i.e., the lower the pH value, the higher the jelly-forming ability of the pectin-sugar-acid solution. However, the jelly-forming ability rises only until the moment of complete replacement of cations of salts with a hydrogen ion. After that, increasing the concentration of hydrogen ions has no effect. The amount of acid. which is necessary to achieve this critical point, depends in each case on the buffer properties of the medium. The latter, in turn, are determined by the nature and composition of the ash of the fruit and berry puree (or pectin preparation).

The action of the acid in the process of gelatinization of the marmalade mass depends on the nature of the acid, on the degree of its dissociation. Of food organic acids, tartaric acid is the most active in the nominal relation, acetic acid is the least active.

Based on the data of a number of other pectin researchers (Hinton, Shaper, etc.), the following hypothesis was adopted: due to the introduction of strongly dissociated acid into the pectin-sugar solution, free hydrogen ions appear in it, carrying a positive charge. The latter acts in the direction of reducing the negative charge of pectin particles, contributing to their aggregation, which is necessary for the precipitation of the pectin gel, the formation of a gelatinous framework.

According to this assumption, the meaning of the phenomenon consists in reducing the degree of dissociation of pectin particles under the action of a more strongly dissociated acid. At the same time in the reaction mixture should appear some excess of free H +.

The sugar content in the jelly Minimum required amount of citric acid
56,5 0,55
53,5 1,05
52,0 1.55
50,0 2,05

The amount of acid required for gelation changes not only depending on the nature of the acid, but also on the quality and quantity of pectin and on the sugar content of the marmalade mass. With the weakness of the pectin ingredient (insufficient jelly-forming ability of pectin or its insufficient content) it is useful to have a higher concentration of acid, but only within certain limits. The required acid and sugar concentrations are inversely related to each other: the more the solution is saturated (or oversaturated) with sugar, the less acid is required for gelation (with the same pectin content), and vice versa.

The following are the approximate percentages between Contents of sugar and the amount of citric acid necessary for studneobrazovaniya pectin in the production of apple jelly.

The amount of pectin required for gelling is also inversely related to the acid concentration.

For the marmalado-pastille production, the practical standard of acid content at the concentration of gelatinous pectin 0,8 — 1,2% and the sugar rate in the jelly 65 — 70% can be considered 0,8 — 1,0% (in terms of malic acid).

It is established that the lower the pH of the gelling solution, the less pectin is required for the formation of jelly. It is shown, for example, that at pH 3,4 the concentration of pectin in marmalade jelly should not be lower than 0,9%, at pH 3,2 - around 0,8%, at pH 3,1 the content of pectin 0,7% is required.

The amount of sugar depends on the pH of the medium, which occurs during the gelation on the 1 weight unit of pectin (i.e. “number of degrees” of pectin). The higher within certain limits the concentration of hydrogen ions of pectin solutions, the greater will be the amount of sugar, which falls to the share of each pectin weight unit. Accordingly, the yield of marmalade jelly will increase, which is determined by the basic amount of sugar introduced for gelatinization.

The pH depends on the boundaries in which the jelly formation of a given pectin passes with the most favorable result (maximum point) or completely stops (minimum point).

There are various indications regarding the optimum pH limits for gelling.

Large amounts of data shows that the best conditions for studneobrazovaniya pectin are at pH 3,0-3,2.

At pH above 3,5, the strength of the jelly decreases markedly, increasing the concentration of hydrogen ions to pH 2,0 increases the strength of the jelly. However, at a pH below 2,8, the liquid phase begins to separate from the jelly, which leads to a deterioration in the quality of the marmalade. At pH below 2,0 and above 3,6, the pectin's gelation drops sharply.

Thus, there is a close relationship between the individual factors of gelation (pectin, sugar, acidity and pH of the medium), which are collectively subordinated to the gel-forming ability of a given pectin.

The process of gelation is developing in the aquatic environment. Excluding the total amount of sugar (about 65%), acid (about 1%) and pectin (about 1%), the rest of the jelly substance consists mainly of water. The normal water content in marmalade jelly ranges from 32 to 33%. With an increased amount of water, too little jelly is obtained, with a reduced water content, the following undesirable phenomena are observed: too fast gelation, too thick consistency of the mass of gel, poorly amenable to further processing (casting, molding, sampling from the forms).

Taking an average water content of marmalade jelly equal to 33%, we get the approximate optimal quantitative ratio of the components marmalade jelly: sugar 65%,

pectin 0,5 — 1%; acids 0,5 — 4% and total solids content 67%.

Justification marmalade recipe

In accordance with the above-described role of the individual components of marmalade jelly and with the established ratios between pectin, sugar and acid, it is possible to outline the principles for preparing the production recipe for marmalade [16].

The apple puree, which constitutes the main raw material of the marmalade-pastille production, contains about 1—> 1,2% pectin, 0,6 — 1% acid, 6 — 10,% sugar, and 85 to 90% water. Thus, apple puree contains enough pectin and acid for gelation, the amount of sugar in it is not enough for our purpose, and there is water in large excess.

As a rule, gelatinous applesauce and sugar in the form of granulated sugar are taken in equal weight quantities, the principle of constructing the marmalade formulation (1 by weight of mashed potatoes on 1 is the weight part of sugar), adopted in practice, fully corresponds to the ratios of marmalades established above. This recipe makes it possible to add the required amount of pectin, acid and sugar to the marmalade mass. If, say, 100 kg of applesauce and the same amount of sugar is taken, then the total weight of the formula for marmalade will be 200 kg. Since apple puree also contains about 1% pectin, the pectin in that mixture will be about 0,5%. The same will be the position with acid. Sugar will be contained in a mixture of about 55% (the granulated sugar added to the mixture will make 50% of the entire prescription mass + the remaining amount of sugar; about 3 — 5% falls on its own apple puree). Thus, the content of pectin, acid and sugar will be slightly lower than that required for the formation of marmalade jelly, the water content will be slightly higher. Taking the content of iodine in puree equal to 90%, we obtain in the apple-sugar mixture about 45% of water, i.e., 12 — 13% is more than necessary. Therefore, it is necessary to remove about 13% of water from this mixture, which is achieved by evaporation in the process of cooking marmalade mass. At the same time, the concentration of the mass is associated, which is associated with an increase in the concentration of pectin, acid and sugar approximately to the extent that it is necessary to bring these three components back to normal (the sugar content increases to approximately 65%, the acid and pectin content — up to 0,6— 0,7% with respect to the weight of the - welded marmalade mass).

In production practice, the above ratio of applesauce and sugar vary within small limits. So, for example, instead of the ratio of mashed potatoes to sugar 1: 1 take the ratio 1,05: 1; 1,10: 1, etc., or vice versa. The ratio of applesauce and sugar in the recipe of marmalade is regulated within the specified limits depending on the quality of applesauce - from its ability to gelatinization.

These relations should be established on the basis of pre-lab cook mashed with sugar.

Errors in determining the correct ratio of mashed potatoes and sugar in the recipe of marmalade can lead to undesirable changes in the structure of marmalade. So, in the case of a lack of pectin, marmalade will turn out too weak, or, as the production workers say, “sugary”. This means that marmalade has a surplus of sugar against the amount of jelly-forming pectin present in it. In the case of an excess of pectin, the marmalade will be too strong, “testy”.

With the introduction of the recipe marmalade excessive amount of apple sauce is obtained as the excess acid.

When using too weak in the jelly-forming ability of low-pectin and low-acid apples puree, there is a need to increase the share of purees in the recipe. This is unprofitable, as it entails an increase in the cost of raw materials and lengthening the duration of cooking the prescription mixture. In such cases, additional quantities of pectin or acid, necessary for gelation, are introduced artificially. Knowing the ratio of pectin, acid and sugar, which is necessary for normal gelation, it is possible by appropriate calculation, based on laboratory data, to determine the amount of pectin or the amount of acid that should be added to the prescription mix.

To increase the stability of marmalade against crystallization, a part of sugar (5 — 10%) is replaced by molasses.

When adding molasses, you must also consider the quality of mashed potatoes. For example, in the case of working with a highly gelatinous puree, adding molasses is not advisable, since pectin itself is a strong thickener and contributes to the compaction of the marmalade consistency.

The amount of fruit and berry supplies, which goes to the marmalade recipe to flavor the corresponding fruits or berries, ranges from 2 to 8% by weight of mashed potatoes, depending on the type of supplies.

When using supplies, especially with a high content of pectin, such as blackcurrant, the addition of molasses should also be excluded for the reasons given above. Instead of supplies, natural essential oils of the fruit are sometimes introduced into the marmalade recipe. Natural fruit and berry supplies and essential oils are often replaced with artificial essences, which are introduced into the formulation in small quantities (0,01 — 0,05% by weight of the formula), depending on their concentration and flavor intensity.

Preparation prescription apple-sugar mixture

Of the various batches of applesauce, available in the enterprise, make up the standard blending mixture. Particular attention should be paid to adjusting the pH of applesauce in the optimum for gelatinization interval 3,0 — 3,2. This is achieved by mixing a highly gelatinous puree with a slightly gelling, more acidic puree with a less acidic one, a light one with a less light one. The composition of the mixture of mashed potatoes for cooking is outlined on the basis of laboratory data.

A mixture of apple puree for cooking is prepared in the amount required by at least 1 shift.

Components of the blend mixture are loaded into special mixers, which are metal or wooden collectors equipped with mechanical agitators.

The blend apple puree mixture is subjected to a secondary (control) wipe to completely separate the puree from the peel particles remaining after the rough first rubbing, as well as freeing the puree (before entering it in production) from possible impurities that accidentally fell into it. For this purpose, it is passed through a conventional wiper with a sieve having openings from 0,5 to 1 mm.

After secondary wipe applesauce is sent to a collection for prescription apple-sugar mixture.

Fruit purees (cranberry, rowan, etc.) added to the prescription mixture (as well as natural supplies added to the marmalade mass) are also subjected to control rubbing.

Sugar for the prescription mixture is sifted and passed through a magnetic trap to remove iron impurities, then the granulated sugar is weighed in the quantity required by the recipe.

If adding molasses formulation provides, after warming it is subject straining through a sieve with a hole diameter of not more than. 1,5 mm and it is also sent to the same mixer.

The mixture was thoroughly mixed and fed to the brew.

When working with sulfitated or high-acid applesauce, in which demetoxylation of pectin has occurred under the influence of long-term storage, as a result of the interaction of the latter with Ca cations (from the same fruit-berry puree), the gel may partly fall out of the apple-sugar mixture. The latter is accompanied by the appearance of individual clots of weak gelatin (half-gel) in this mixture. With a long delay of the prescription mixture in the mixer and in the presence of long pipelines through which the apple-sugar mixture is transported, this phenomenon is extremely undesirable. To eliminate it, you need a mixture in collections (mix all the time, communications (pumps and pipelines) for the prescription mixture to be subjected to periodic steaming.

Positive role in the sense of eliminating loss gel from apple-sugar mixture add it plays alkali and buffer salts.

Add a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to combat spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.