Categories
Production of marmalade-Pastila products

Production of jam

Jelly and candy are a group of fruit confectionery.
In addition to marmalade and candy, the group of fruit and berry confectionery includes jam, jam, jam and candied fruit.

The main raw materials for making marmalade and marshmallows are applesauce or sulfitated fruits and sugar. Marmalade and marshmallows have a pleasant taste and are well preserved due to the lower moisture content and a large amount of sugar (at least 65%) compared with fresh fruits, which contain an average of 5 to 15% sugar. The moisture content in marmalade is no more than 24% (the reservoir has a moisture content of up to 33%), and in pastil, the moisture content does not exceed 20%.
Thus, marmalade-pastille products are fruit and berry concentrates obtained by appropriate processing.
    Production of jam
Jelly confectionery is a jelly-shaped confectionery made from gelling mashed potatoes (fruit and berry marmalade) and sugar or an aqueous solution of agar or pectin boiled with sugar and molasses (jelly marmalade). The main type of fruit and berry marmalade is apple marmalade made from mashed winter apples. As flavor additives, other types of fruit and berry puree, supplies, as well as flavoring, aromatic and coloring substances are used.
Another type of fruit and berry marmalade is marmalade with a base of apricot or plum puree, called pata. This type of product is produced in smaller quantities than apple marmalade.
Jelly marmalade is prepared from agar boiled with sugar and molasses, with the addition of flavoring and aromatic substances. In addition to agar, pectin can be used as a gel-forming substance.
                 Production of apple jelly
Shaped marmalade. The process for the production of shaped apple marmalade consists of the following stages:
 preparation of raw materials;
 mixing apple puree with the sugar;
 cooking marmalade mass;
 casting into molds, gelation (SADC) and the sample of the forms;
 Susak and vystojka jam;
 laying in boxes or trays;
 packaging.
Preparation of raw materials. Sugar used for the production of marmalade is sifted through sieves with a hole diameter of not more than 3 mm. Flat screening sieves, as well as Pioneer type screeners, can be used for screening. To remove metal impurities, sugar must be passed through magnetic devices.
The molasses used to make marmalade is filtered through a sieve with a hole diameter of not more than 2 mm.
Applesauce coming into production has a different content of pectin and acid. The correct mode of cooking marmalade is created with a constant composition of applesauce, giving a normal marmalade jelly. This is achieved by preparing for cooking mixtures of mashed potatoes of various batches - mixing (blending) mashed potatoes with a large gelling ability, with mashed potatoes, slightly gelling, as well as sour mashed potatoes with less sour. The recipe of mixtures is compiled on the basis of chemical laboratory analyzes. A mixture of applesauce is prepared for at least one shift. Mixing of mashed potatoes is carried out in special mixers, which are stainless steel tanks with mixers.
The finished mixture is fed to a secondary wipe. Secondary wiping is necessary to remove accidental impurities, as well as to obtain finer mashed potatoes, as a result of which the mashed potato mixes easily with sugar and gives marmalade jelly a delicate structure.
Wiping performed on the cleaning machine with grid holes with a diameter of not more than 1 mm. Pureed mash is pumped by a gear pump in the brewhouse. Measuring tank, located near the vacuum pans. In small shops puree is brought up to the vacuum devices in special stainless steel tanks.
Drawing up a prescription mixture. Jelly marmalade is a semi-solid body, showing both the properties of a solid and a liquid body. When cut with a knife, it forms smooth non-sticky surfaces.
Jelly marmalade formed by the transition of pectin in the sol gel.
Jelly marmalade is obtained from aqueous solutions of pectin, provided that the solution contains a certain amount of pectin, sugar and acid at a pH of 2,8-3, -2. In marmalade production, various ratios of sugar, pectin and acid are possible. For the formation of jelly, 0,8-1,2% pectin, 0,8-1% acid (in terms of malic acid) and 65-70% sugar are needed. Gelling apple puree contains about 1,1-1,2% pectin, 0,6-1,0% acid (in terms of malic acid), 6-10% sugar and about 85-90% water. The content of pectin and acid in the puree is quite sufficient for the formation of marmalade jelly, while sugar is not enough, and there is excess water. Therefore, in the practice of marmalade production, sugar is added to applesauce in the ratio: 1 part sugar to 1 part puree.
Sugar is a dehydrating substance that helps to create the necessary concentration of pectin to convert it from sol to gel. Sugar destroys the solvate shells of pectin molecules, which helps to bring together hydrophobic sections of pectin molecules unprotected by these shells and the formation of jelly gel - jelly.
With the indicated ratios of mashed potatoes and sugar, i.e. when loading 100 parts of mashed potatoes and 100 parts of sugar and 1% pectin and acid in the puree, the pectin content in the recipe mixture will be 0,5%, the acid content - 0,5%. These amounts of pectin and acid are insufficient, but when the mixture is boiled to a moisture content of 30% instead of the existing 45%, the content of pectin in marmalade jelly increases to 0,8% and acid to 0,8%, which is quite sufficient for the formation of jelly.
Depending on the content of pectin in the mashed potatoes and its quality, the ratio of mashed potatoes and sugar can vary within small limits. 1-0,8 parts of sugar are added to 1,2 part of the puree. The specified ratio depends not only on the content of pectin in the puree, but also on the amount of acid. The tanning substance, ash and other substances in the puree have some effect on the recipe. Usually, along with the determination of the pectin content in mashed potatoes, a marmalade test is made in the laboratory and, on the basis of this, a formulation is established.
Under the new scheme marmalade production, developed on the confectionery factories, puree before adding the sugar is injected with sodium lactate NaS3Н5О3 or sodium citrate3С6Н5О7. These salts are obtained by neutralizing lactic or citric acid with bicarbonate soda NaHCOXNUMX or soda ash Na2С03. To prepare sodium lactate, pure lactic acid SzN is taken6Oz is not lower than grade II and the concentration is not lower than 40%. If the acid has a precipitate consisting mainly of gypsum, then it must be filtered. Bicarbonate soda is added to the solution. The reaction proceeds according to the following equation:
С3Н603 + NaNS03 NaS =3Н503 + N20 + С02.
Instead of bicarbonate soda, you can add soda ash or caustic soda in the form of a 50% solution.
The use of sodium lactate or sodium citrate makes it possible to shift the beginning of gelation towards lower residual moisture, as well as reduce the buildup of invert sugar during cooking. Without the use of sodium lactate, the mass had to be boiled to a moisture content of 38-40%.
The amount of sodium lactate added depends on the acidity of the applesauce, as well as on the desired duration of gelation. The higher the acidity of the puree, the more sodium lactate should be administered, and the longer the gelation of the marmalade mass should take place, the more lactate should be administered.
When boiling apple-sugar mixture to a residual moisture 30% and duration studneobrazovaniya about 30 minutes add the following amount of sodium lactate (Table. 16).
Table 16 amount of sodium lactate administered in formula mixture, depending on the acidity of the mashed
The acidity of applesauce with a content of 10% solids (in terms of malic acid)

The amount of sodium lactate added to the mixture prescription (based on the 100% solution of sodium lactate)

0,5-0,6

0,15-0,20

0,6-0,7

0,2-0,25

0,7-0,8

0,25-0,3

0,8-0,9

0,3-0,35

Since sodium lactate and other buffer salts shift the pH of the medium, adding them delays the inversion of sucrose during the cooking process, therefore, marmalade mass is often sugared from a lack of invert sugar; pre-prepared invert sugar must be introduced into the recipe mixture.
The introduction of buffer salts shifts the pH to the alkaline side by 0,3-0,8, as a result of which the physiological sensation of acidity is weakened and acid has to be added to the finished marmalade mass.
The recipe is prepared in mixers with a mechanical stirrer. Faucets are made of stainless steel and have a capacity for 3-4 hours of consumption of the prescription mixture.
With a large stock of the prescription mixture, premature gelation of the mixture in the mixer is possible.
The blended mashed potatoes are pumped to the mixer, and granulated sugar is added thereto. A 40% sodium lactate solution is also added to the mixer in an amount of 0,4 to 1,2% by weight of the mixture. If necessary, invert sugar is also added. The recipe mixture is mixed in a mixer and pumped to the collectors located at the digesters. 5-10% molasses to the weight of sugar is added to the prescription mixture. Molasses contributes to the formation of a shiny crust on the surface of marmalade and prevents sugaring of marmalade with insufficient acidity of the puree.
Cooking marmalade mass. Marmalade mass is currently brewed in coil machines. You can also cook the mass in a batch vacuum apparatus (spherical apparatus), as well as in universal cooking apparatus.
The coil cooking apparatus consists of a steel case (cooking column), inside of which there is a copper coil. Inside the cylinder, steam is supplied with a pressure of 2-2,5 ati. The recipe mixture with a moisture content of 43–45% is pumped continuously by a plunger pump into the coil of the cooking column, where boiling takes place. The welded mass with a temperature of 106-107 ° C from the coil enters the steam separator, where the juice vapor is separated.
The finished mass with a moisture content of 30–33% flows by gravity into the mixer tank, where flavoring and aromatic substances are added: acid, supplies, essence and dyes. Then the mass is fed to the casting.
Spherical apparatus for cooking marmalade mass are used with a stirrer and without a stirrer. Their useful capacity should not exceed 150 liters.
95% of the sugar provided by the recipe is introduced into the recipe mixture intended for cooking in a spherical apparatus, the rest of it is added at the end of the cooking or after its completion.
The recipe mixture is charged through the hose due to the vacuum created in the apparatus by the condensing unit. After the mixture is loaded, open the steam valve, drain the condensate and turn on the stirrer, which does 10 rpm. Cooking is carried out at a heating steam pressure of 3-4 atm and a vacuum of 400-500 mm Hg. Art. At the end of boiling, the vacuum is reduced to 250 mm RT. Art. Reducing the vacuum at the end of boiling makes it possible to increase the temperature of the marmalade mass and thereby reduce its viscosity. Cooking is monitored through a sight glass, periodically taking mass samples. The preparedness of the cooked mass is determined by the humidity of the refractometer, as well as the breakdown on the "charge" (determination of the quality of jelly). To do this, a small amount of mass is poured into several cells of marmalade shape and determine the rate of jelly formation and its strength.
The duration of boiling depends on the size of the load mass and humidity of the prescription mixture and averages 15-20 minutes. The cooked mass is discharged from the vacuum apparatus into mixers or copper boilers, where flavor and aromatic substances are added, as well as 5-10% granulated sugar, which was excluded during the formulation of the recipe (the so-called “second sugar”).
This method makes it possible to control the process of jelly education, as this eliminates the loss of pectin jelly from the marmalade mass. Premature formation of pectin jelly is possible with a favorable ratio of sugar, pectin and acid in the marmalade mass. The exclusion of a certain amount of sugar from the recipe before cooking prevents the premature formation of jelly, makes it possible to adjust its rate of formation and strength.
Due to the introduction of the “second sugar” at the end or after cooking, the boiling temperature of the mass decreases and thereby the growth of invert sugar decreases. In the case of premature jelly formation at the end or immediately after cooking, such jelly is unsuitable for further processing and can be used for cooking jelly or jam.
With continuous cooking of marmalade mass in a coil apparatus using sodium lactate, the process proceeds quickly, so there is no premature pectin gelation and invert sugar builds up slowly. In this regard, with continuous cooking, there is no need to add sugar after the end of the process.
Marmalade mass can also be boiled in a universal cooking apparatus. The universal cooking apparatus consists of two boilers located one above the other. The upper boiler has a stirrer and a steam jacket. In the lower part of the boiler there is an opening connecting the upper boiler with the lower one and closing with a valve.
The lower boiler does not have steam heating and is connected to a condensing unit.
The recipe mixture is loaded into the upper boiler and boiled for 6-8 minutes at a vapor pressure of 4-5 ati and continuous stirring to a moisture content of 31-33%, and then open the valve
and bypass a lot of the lower pot. When a sparse array is further concentrated. This also added spices and flavors and, if required, sugar.
Ready jelly mass contains 30-32% moisture and 14- 16% of reducing substances.
Livka jam in shape, gelation and selection of forms. For marmalade pouring, a marmalade-filling machine is used, which produces marmalade casting into molds and selecting it from molds after gelation.6
The machine shown in Fig. 6 consists of a casting head 7, a molding conveyor 2, a selective mechanism 3, and a chain conveyor 4 for sieves.
The filling head is a bunker with a heating jacket. At the bottom of the hopper there is a casting mechanism consisting of 17 plunger batchers with a spool bar.
A vacuum collector 5 for marmalade mass is installed above the casting head.
To seal the molded marmalade mass and level its surface, a shaker 6 is installed, consisting of a roller with washers eccentrically mounted on it.
Molding conveyor 2 is a set of stainless steel metal molds attached to a two-chain conveyor. The upper part of the molding conveyor moves inside the cooling chamber 7, and the lower (reverse) part of the conveyor moves inside the drying chamber of the surface layer 8.
For periodic washing of forms under the lower branch of the conveyor, a mechanical sink 9 is installed, consisting of a shaft with rubber brushes and bubbler tubes for hot water.
Selection of marmalade from the molds is made pneumatically. In each mold, holes with a diameter of 2 mm are drilled. At the moment the chain conveyor stops, the nozzles into which the air is pumped are pressed tightly to the metal mold, which consists of two rows of molds. Air enters through the holes in the molds and pushes the marmalade onto the sieves.
To facilitate the selection of marmalade from the molds, a heating plate 10 is installed under the lower branch of the molding conveyor, which slightly melts the marmalade before sampling.
Pouring marmalade on a machine is as follows. The finished marmalade mass is pumped through the pipe into the funnel of the casting mechanism via a rotary pump and is poured into metal molds using dispensers. The molds pass through a mechanical shaker and enter the cooling chamber, where gelling of the marmalade takes place. After that, the marmalade molds are transferred to the lower branch of the conveyor and heated to facilitate the selection of marmalade. The heated forms enter the selective mechanism, where the marmalade is pneumatically pushed out of the forms onto the sieve.
At a number of enterprises, manual casting is also used. Marmalade is poured from funnels into molds, which are tiles made of white clay coated with glaze. Metal molds are also used.
After pouring the marmalade in the molds stands for gelling - cages. The formation of marmalade jelly occurs at a temperature of 70 ° C. When using sodium lactate, the temperature of gelation decreases to 65 ° C. The duration of gelation varies between 15-30 minutes and depends on the amount of added sodium lactate and ambient temperature.
The air temperature of the room, as practice has shown, should be in the range of 15-20 ° C, and the air circulation contributes to better cooling of the mass and accelerates gelation. With improperly prepared recipes and prolonged cooking, gelation may not occur. After jamming, marmalade is selected from the molds and laid on a sieve.
Marmalade packing sieves are made of sheet aluminum with holes about 15 mm in diameter. In addition to aluminum, sieves are sometimes used from a wire mesh stretched over wooden frames. These sieves are less durable and less hygienic, as they are more difficult to wash.
Drying marmalade. The chosen form of marmalade has a moisture content 29-30%, loose texture and moist sticky surface.
To obtain piece marmalade in finished ready-to-use form, i.e. in the form of a stable, transportable and good-looking product, it is necessary to dry the raw cake selected from the forms. The humidity of the marmalade is brought up to 22-24%. As a result of drying, a fine-crystalline crust consisting of sugar crystals forms on the surface of the marmalade. The crust gives the marmalade a good look and is a protective coating that prevents marmalade from getting wet.
Thus, during drying jellies excess moisture must be removed and get to the surface of the crust. Marmalade is a hard-drying product, since a significant amount of moisture contained in the marmalade is in bound form.
Moisture in jelly jelly is in two forms:
colloidally bound water and 2) capillary moisture.
Colloidal moisture is composed of adsorption moisture and osmotically retained moisture.
Adsorption-bound moisture is water held by a force field on the inner and outer surfaces of pectin micelles. This type of moisture is most difficult to dry.
Osmotically retained moisture, or swelling moisture, is moisture weakly bound to pectin micelles, so it is relatively easily removed by drying.
Capillary moisture is located in the capillaries between the pectin micelles. It is easily removed by drying, obeying the laws of evaporation from the free surface of the water.
Before using sodium lactate, the marmalade selected from the forms had a moisture content of 34 to 38%, so 12-14% of the moisture had to be removed during the drying process.
When working with sodium lactate and other buffer salts, the humidity of the marmalade is about 29-30% and in the drying process only 4-8% of the moisture has to be removed, which makes the drying time significantly reduced.
Hot air is used as a heat carrier for drying marmalade. Marmalade is dried in chamber or cupboard dryers. The chamber dryer is a chamber with an area of ​​approximately 10–20 m2 and a height of about 4 m. There are racks along the walls of the chamber on which sieves with marmalade are installed. Steam racks are installed under the shelves. Humid air is vented by a fan. Fresh air is supplied through the ducts.
When drying marmalade without sodium lactate, which entered the dryer with a moisture content of 34–38%, it was necessary to gradually increase the temperature in the dryer from 40 to 65 ° C. Otherwise, a crust formed on the surface of the marmalade, which made it difficult to remove moisture.
When working with sodium lactate, marmalade entering the dryer has lower initial humidity, as a result of which there is no need for a stepwise increase in temperature and acceleration of the drying process. The temperature in the drying chamber is maintained at 55–65 ° C. The drying time varies between 10-12 hours. The initial humidity of the marmalade, the content of reducing substances in the marmalade and the structure of the jelly affect the duration of the drying.
With an increased pectin content in the marmalade mass — with stronger jelly — the process of removing moisture is more difficult. If the mass is more sugar, the drying process is accelerated. With a large number of reducing substances, the formation of a crystalline crust on the surface of marmalade is difficult.
The process of drying marmalade in chamber dryers is uneven, since marmalade on sieves located closer to the heating batteries and on the upper tiers of the shelves dries faster, while marmalade located in areas of weak air circulation, slows down moisture. Dried marmalade should contain from 20 to 24% moisture and 20-25% of reducing substances.
Since chamber dryers have a number of significant drawbacks, other types of dryers are also used.
Significant widespread Cabinet dryer, capacity of which is equal to the one cooking. This makes it possible to more closely monitor the drying process marmalade and create modes of drying according to the physico-chemical parameters of raw marmalade.
A continuously operating ShSM dryer for drying apple marmalade is installed at the confectionery factory. The dryer is a three-zone chamber with different temperature conditions for three-stage drying. A conveyor with suspensions is mounted in the chamber, on which containers with marmalade are installed.
Loading and unloading of containers is carried out using trolleys. When containers with marmalade pass through the tunnels of the chamber, warm air coming from the louvre boxes passes between the grates, as a result of which the marmalade is dried.
To supply hot air, louvered boxes are installed on one side of the chamber, which supply air in a horizontal direction perpendicular to the movement of containers with marmalade. On the opposite side of the chamber there are also louvres for humid air suction.
Air in the louvre boxes is sucked in from the workshop by a fan. Passing through the air heater, it heats up to the required temperature and through the louvre boxes it enters the drying chamber. There are three such air-conditioning units in accordance with the number of temperature zones in the dryer.
Molded apple marmalade with a moisture content of 29,5% on stamped aluminum sieves is manually loaded into the container. The container capacity is 34 sieves of 2,5 kg of marmalade, which is on average about 80 kg.
The container loaded with marmalade is transported on a lift trolley to the dryer, where it is suspended on the fingers of the carriage of a moving chain conveyor. Conveyor speed 0,128 m] min. Dryer is loaded and unloaded every 10 minutes.
The air temperature in the first zone of the drying chamber is 65–70 ° C, in the second 68–72 ° C, in the third 75–80 ° C. The temperature and relative humidity are automatically controlled. The duration of marmalade in the first zone is 2,5 hours, in the second 1,5 hours and in the third 7 hours. The total drying time in the dryer is 23 hours. The moisture content of the dried marmalade ranges from 25-500%. The productivity of the dryer is XNUMX kg / h of dried marmalade.
The ShSM dryer has a number of advantages over chamber dryers:         
The continuity of the process, Significant saving of time for loading and unloading, reducing the time for drying marmalade by 2,5 times and increasing the removal of products from 1 m2 dryer area on 18%.
You are the rack, stacking, packaging and storage of shaped apple marmalade. The dried marmalade has a temperature in the range of 55-60 ° C. If warm marmalade is put in boxes or trays, then moisture will condense as a result of continued evaporation of moisture on the surface of the paper, which ceases marmalade, which can then partially dissolve the crust formed. Therefore, upon leaving the dryer, the marmalade stands in the workshop at a temperature of 20–25 ° C and a relative humidity of 50–75%. Since marmalade has poor thermal conductivity, cooling lasts 4 hours. After maturing, the marmalade is placed in cardboard boxes weighing from 100 to 500 g in no more than two rows and in plywood or board trays weighing no more than 3 kg, as well as in boxes corrugated cardboard trays weighing up to 5 kg - no more than in three rows.
To protect the marmalade from moisture, the bottom of the boxes, wooden trays and boxes are lined with waxed paper or parchment. The rows of marmalade are covered with the same paper and cover its upper row.
Cardboard boxes are packed in plywood or drawer boxes. Packed marmalade is sent to the factory expedition.
Keep jellies must be at a temperature no higher than 20 ° C and a relative humidity of 75-80%.
Properly prepared marmalade can last at least 2 months. In the event of a violation of the technological regime of production and with an incorrectly formulated recipe, marmalade can become wet or sugared during storage. Wet marmalade can occur due to the loss of pectin jelly's ability to retain moisture. As a result of this, the liquid phase (saturated sugar solution) is released. This phenomenon is called syneresis. The weak ability of pectin to retain the liquid phase may be due to the poor quality of applesauce, as well as weakening of pectin during cooking or drying due to the high acidity of the puree. It should be noted that as a result of the use of sodium lactate, the phenomenon of syneresis in marmalade is almost not observed.
Plast marmalade. Applesauce and granulated sugar are used to prepare the reservoir marmalade. Cranberry, mountain ash or other berry puree is added to give mashed potatoes an appropriate taste. Raw materials are prepared in the same way as for shaped apple marmalade. Cooking is done in batch-type vacuum apparatuses.
The ratio of mashed potatoes and sugar is the same as when cooking molded marmalade. To reduce the buildup of reducing substances and improve the quality of jelly, sodium lactate is added.
The mass is boiled to a moisture content of 30–32%, it is not tinted or aromatized, then the mass is poured into plywood or board trays with a capacity of 3–7 kg, lined with parchment or waxed paper, or in drawer trays with a capacity of up to 5 kg.
Casting is done on the filling machine shown in Fig. 7. The machine consists of a filling mechanism, which is a plunger pump, a loading funnel and a conveyor belt. Trays lined with paper are installed on the conveyor and fed under the filling mechanism.
Trays filled to half with marmalade mass go to the rack, during which the mass is cooled and gelled. Then the trays again go to the filling machine, are filled to the brim with marmalade mass and transferred to the rack.
The curing is carried out in a dry, well-ventilated room for 16-24 hours. During curing, the second layer hardens and a crystalline crust forms on the surface as a result of moisture evaporation.7
                   Ris. 7. Machine for Livka plastovogo jam.
Crust protects marmalade from the development of mold, the possibility of formation of which is greater than that of molded marmalade, since the humidity of the piece marmalade is much higher. After the formation of a crust, the marmalade is closed with paper, a lid and transferred to the packaging.
Ready-made reservoir marmalade has a moisture content of 29–33%, contains at least 69% of total sugar and 30–35% of reducing substances.
Carved marmalade. Carved marmalade is a type of apple marmalade. The mass for carved marmalade is prepared in the same way as for shaped marmalade. The cooked marmalade mass is poured into wooden trays with a height of 1,5-2 cm, where the mass is stuck in the form of a layer. After this, the layer is cut into squared bars weighing 14-16 g, laid out on a sieve and placed in a dryer, where it is dried to a moisture content of 18-22%. Sometimes carved marmalade is sprinkled with granulated sugar or immersed in hot supersaturated sugar syrup (circulation), and then removed from the circulation and dried. The fine-crystalline crust formed after drying gives the marmalade a good appearance and protects it from moisture.
     production paths
This type of marmalade is prepared mainly from apricot and less often from plum puree. Typically, pat is prepared in workshops that produce dessert varieties of sweets. Jelly from these types of mashed potatoes differs from jelly from apple puree in a more viscous (protracted) consistency, does not break, is poorly cut with a knife and poorly selected from hard forms. The ratio of mashed potatoes and sugar in the formulation of the paste is taken at the rate of 1 part mashed potatoes for 1,2-1,5 parts of sugar, depending on the content of pectin.
Cooking masses for stew is carried out in an open digester with a capacity of 50 liters. The process should go quickly, so the vapor pressure should be at least 4-5 ati. The final boiling point is 112–115 ° С, which corresponds to a moisture content of 15–18%. In the process of boiling the mass, invert sugar grows, the content of which can reach up to 50% by the end of cooking, so no molasses is added. Sodium lactate is added to reduce the buildup of invert sugar, just like when cooking apple marmalade.
The readiness of the mass is determined by the refractometer and the breakdown at US Pat. The test for stalemate consists in pouring a portion of the mass onto a marble board or glass. The finished mass should quickly gel in the form of circles and separate well from the surface of the glass or marble board.
The cooked mass is molded in the form of cakes (apricot stalemate) by molding on a smooth surface, as well as in the form of hemispheres by molding in cells made in granulated sugar or corn starch. After casting, the pat is left to stand for 30-40 minutes to form jelly. Paste is cast into granulated sugar on a casting machine designed and implemented at the Samoilova confectionery factory. Such a machine (Fig. 8) consists of a bed, a chain conveyor, a stamping mechanism for stamping cells in sugar sand and a casting mechanism. The welded mass is pumped into the funnel 1 of the casting machine using a pump. Trays filled with sugar are placed on the chain conveyor 2 of the casting machine and fed under the stamping mechanism 5, which stamps the cells in the sugar. Then the trays come under the filling mechanism 4, which is cast 30 rows per minute, after which the surface of the cake is sprinkled with sugar and it goes to mat. After gelation, the excess sugar is sifted out and the stalemate is put into packaging.
Paste casting into starch can also be carried out on candy machines.
Pat, cast into corn starch, after the jelly is formed, is selected from starch, starch residues are blown off with compressed air or brushed off, after which marmalade on special sieves is immersed in a saturated sugar solution (circulation) with a solids content of 70% and a temperature of 30 ° C. Then marmalade is placed on sieves for drying and8
     Fig. 8. Machine casting stalemate.
it is dried in hot chambers at a temperature of 40-50 ° C for 4-6 hours; after drying, a crystalline crust of sucrose forms on the surface, protecting the marmalade from getting wet and giving it a good appearance.
The finished stalemate has a moisture content of 10-15% and a content of reducing substances up to 25%.
    Production želejnogo jam
Jelly is called marmalade, prepared with the addition of gelling substances - agar or pectin.
In the practice of the confectionery industry, jelly marmalade is made on agar. In addition to gelling substances, for the preparation of jelly marmalade are used: sugar, pa-
power, food acids, fruit and berry supplies, fragrances and dyes.
Unlike apple marmalade jelly marmalade is prepared largely without the addition of fruit purees and so sometimes called artificial marmalade.
Jelly marmalade can be shaped - in the form of various curly products sprinkled with sugar on the surface or having a thin crystalline crust on the surface without sprinkling with sugar, and carved - in the form of orange and lemon slices or in the form of elongated rectangular products with a smooth or corrugated surface sprinkled with sugar the sand.
Unlike apple jelly, marmalade is transparent, but when fruit and berry supplies or mashed potatoes are added to the recipe, transparency is lost. The taste and aroma of jelly marmalade is achieved by introducing acids and fruit and berry essences into the formulation.
Shaped jelly marmalade it turns out as follows: air-dry agar is pre-soaked in stainless steel baths. Agar in the form of grains is poured into gauze bags and lowered into bathtubs with running water. The lock is kept for 3 hours or more, depending on the quality of the agar. In the process of locking, the agar swells and dyes and odorous substances are extracted. In addition to dry agar, purified agar jelly with 1% agar can be used.
Soaked agar or jelly agar is loaded into a coil boiler with coil heating, dissolved in water and then sugar and molasses are added. Raw materials are taken in the following proportions: sugar 100 parts, molasses 50 parts, agar 2 parts. About 40% by weight of sugar is added to the water.
Steam is introduced into the bubbler and sugar is dissolved. When the sugar has dissolved, close the steam valve of the bubbler, let the steam into the deaf coil and boil the syrup to a moisture content of 30–33%.
You can also prepare agar-sugar solution in open digesters of any capacity. The finished agar syrup is filtered through a sieve with a hole diameter of 0,5 mm. Filtered agar syrup is sucked through a hose into a 150 liter batch vacuum apparatus.
Boiling mass produced at a pressure of heating steam ati 3-4 and 400-500 vacuum mmHg. Art. The mass is boiled to 26-27% humidity. The mass can be cooked in a versatile cooker and cooker coils.
The welded mass is poured into the receiving tank, and from there it is pumped into the tempering machine. The tempering machine is a double-walled cylinder, between which cold water is passed. There is a mechanical stirrer inside the cylinder. The mass, with continuous stirring, is cooled to a temperature of 55-60 ° C. At the end of cooling, the following are added according to the recipe: diluted dyes, citric acid and essences. After thoroughly mixing all the additives, the mass is discharged into copper basins and fed to the casting.
The mass is poured on a filling machine used for apple marmalade. Spilled marmalade forms jelly at a temperature of 40–45 ° C for 40–90 minutes.
Jelly marmalade tin is poured manually into the ceramic mold.
After the formation of jelly, the marmalade is removed from the molds, placed on a sieve and stood in the workshop for 45-60 minutes for drying. Then the marmalade is poured onto tables with sides for sugar sprinkling, placed on sieves and sent to dryers. Freshly selected marmalade can not be sprinkled with sugar, since the surface of the marmalade is moist and granulated sugar will dissolve.
Marmalade is dried in chamber or cupboard dryers at a temperature of 40 ° C for 6-8 hours. At higher temperatures, agar jelly can be melted in the dryers.
The dried marmalade is unloaded from the dryers and left to stand in the workshop for cooling for 4-6 hours, after which it is placed in boxes of 200-500 g, 3 kg trays or 5 kg corrugated cardboard boxes.
In the manufacture of jelly marmalade on an agaroid, there are some features in the process that are associated with the properties of the agaroid. In the manufacture of agaroid syrup, you must first dissolve the sugar, and then add the soaked agaroid to the solution.
To protect from digestion agaroid mass by acidification buffer salts must be administered, and in particular disodium (Nа2NR04), in an amount of 0,1% by weight of agaroid syrup. The stick should be introduced at the end of boiling the syrup, as otherwise the jelly strength decreases as a result of the prolonged action of the molasses acid.
In addition to molasses, it is recommended to introduce a neutral invert syrup in an amount of 6-8% by weight of sugar. It is introduced into agaroid-sugar-syrup syrup, cooled to 80 ° С. The boiled agaroid syrup is cooled to a temperature of 70 ° С, after which acid and aromatic substances are added, since the gelation temperature of the mass is 60 ° С, and not 40–45 ° С like agar. Duration of gelation is about 10 minutes, so less mold is required for casting than with agar.
Ready jelly jujube has a moisture content 17-20% and the content of reducing substances is less than 25%.
Three-layer marmalade. Three-layer marmalade is a rectangular product with a corrugated surface, consisting of three layers. The last two layers are jelly, painted in different colors, the middle layer is pastel (white). The mass for the outer layers is prepared in the same way as for the formulated jelly marmalade, but with the addition of lactic acid instead9
                      Fig. 9. Driving machines for cutting three-layer jelly.
lemon. The middle layer is obtained by kneading applesauce with sugar and egg white, followed by the addition of agar syrup to the beaten mass, as well as acid and vanillin. The finished mass is poured into wooden trays with a plywood bottom covered with bakelite varnish, or with a stainless steel bottom.
First, the first layer is poured with a thickness of about 8 mm (for example, green). After the first layer is gelled, pour the second layer (pastil). After gelation of the second layer, the third layer (pink) is poured. After the last layer forms jelly, the layers are cut. Cutting is carried out on a marmalade cutting machine, a diagram of which is shown in Fig. 9.
The layers of marmalade are removed from the trays, placed on a pulsating conveyor 1 and through the supporting bridge 3 fall under the guillotine knife 2 with a corrugated surface that cuts the layer in width and length. The rotating puller 4 removes the products adhered to the knife and transfers them to the tray 5 with a radially curved surface. From here, the products with the help of a rotating comb 6 and a stationary comb 8 fall on an inclined plane 9, from which they fall onto the gratings moving along the conveyor.
During the cutting process, marmalade is sprinkled with granulated sugar, which comes from the hopper to the shaky, and then to the products. Excess granulated sugar is removed using a screw 7. Chopped marmalade enters the driers, where it is dried at 40 ° C for 4 hours to a moisture content of 18%, cooled and placed in trays.
Orange and lemon slices. Products are made in the form of slices of orange or lemon. Slices are prepared with a crust, like natural fruits, with an imitation of their taste and color. The mass for orange and lemon slices is prepared in the same way; as for shaped jelly marmalade. The mass is acidified with citric acid and aromatized with natural lemon or orange oil. For lemon slices, the mass turns yellow, and for orange slices red.
The finished mass is poured into steel molds-gutters with water cooling, cooled in the gutters for 2 hours. The cooled loaves are removed from the molds, placed on trays and stand in the workshop for about 8 hours to dry the surface of the loaf.
In parallel with the preparation of the loaves, a crust is prepared from the same mass as the loaves, but the lower white layer is obtained by churning agar syrup with egg white, and the upper is painted yellow or orange. The mass is poured into trays or spread on the conveyor. The conveyor, designed by the workers of the Udarnitsa factory, consists of a rubberized tape stretched over two drums. The length of the conveyor is 10 m. The thickness of the layers is regulated by knives installed in the filling funnels. First, one of the colored layers is poured with a thickness of about 2 mm. The layer is cooled by air and fed to the second funnel. Here a second layer is applied to it and is also cooled. The loaves are manually wrapped with a crust sprinkled with sugar and laid on a sieve. After standing in the shop for 4 hours, the loaves are cut.
A unit for the production of orange and lemon slices is currently in operation (Fig. 10). The unit prepares a crust for the slices. First, a white layer is prepared, and then a transparent one. The crust after gelling is cut into 12 strips - respectively10
Fig. 10. The unit for the production of marmalade-type orange and lemon slices:
/ - bed, 2 - belt conveyor, 3 and 4 - casting heads for crust formation ^, 5 - cutting mechanism, 6 - casting head for forming a loaf, 7 - grooved conveyor for forming a loaf, 8 - device for sprinkling sugar with products, 9 - belt conveyor for standing loafs.
the number of molded loaves. The strips are laid in the gutters of the molding conveyor. From the casting head into the gutters, the mass for the loaves is dosed. Continuous billets, consisting of a crust with a mass of loaves poured into it, pass under a cooling jacket, where they are cooled to a temperature of 8 ° C. The billets are continuously fed to a conveyor belt, where they fall onto a layer of granulated sugar and sprinkled with sugar on top. Sugar loaves sprinkled with sugar go to the conveyor for standing, and then to the cutting machine. Unit productivity 240 kg] h.
The loaf is cut on a cutting machine designed by W. W. Kwash, similar to a machine for cutting three-layer marmalade. Sliced ​​slices are sprinkled with granulated sugar and fed for drying. Drying is done in chamber or cupboard dryers at a temperature of 40–42 ° C. After drying, the slices are cooled in the workshop to a temperature of 18–20 ° C and placed in boxes or trays (a set of two varieties — orange and lemon slices — is packed). Ready orange and lemon slices have a moisture content of 15-19% and a content of reducing substances of 20-25%.
Waste and scrap in the production of marmalade
In the production of apple marmalade and stew with the secondary rubbing of mashed potatoes, waste in the amount of 0,31% is obtained, which is not used in production. Wastes obtained in the manufacture of apple shaped marmalade (during cooking, pouring into molds, sampling from molds and drying) are used in the manufacture of formation marmalade.
The waste obtained in the manufacture of jelly marmalade must necessarily be dissolved in water and filtered. However, agar is destroyed by the action of the acid contained in jelly marmalade.
Based on the work of VKNII and confectionery factories, the processing of these wastes is carried out after averaging them with disodium phosphate Nа2NR04• 12Н20. To add waste 2,5% of the salt, heated to a boil and then boiled until 28-30% humidity. The treated waste is added in an amount 25% to the adhesive syrup in the manufacture of varieties of dark-colored tin fruit jelly.

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