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Production of marmalade-Pastila products

Production of pastes (marshmallow).

 Pastille is a product obtained by churning a mixture of fruit and berry puree with sugar and egg white. The broken mass is mixed with agar syrup or marmalade mass. Fruit and berry supplies, food acids, essences, dyes are used as additives in the production of pastille. Pastila prepared with the addition of agar syrup is called adhesive pastille. Pastille, prepared with the addition of marmalade mass, is called custard.

Confectionery industry of the USSR produces mainly glue candy.
Glue paste is prepared in the form of products of various shapes and sizes: carved in the form of rectangular bars and squares (checkers) and cast (marshmallows). Choux pastille is carved and plastic.
In addition to these basic types of pastes, produced Belevsky candy and some other kinds of pastes, manufactured relatively rare.
Abroad similar produce from our fruit candy product called "marshmelou". Marshmelou prepared from molasses and agar supplemented with egg white and gelatin, but no apple sauce.
          Glutinous massacre mouth
The raw materials for the preparation of glutinous pastilles are applesauce, sugar, molasses, egg white or other blowing agents, such as blood albumin or VNIRO (fish protein). In addition to applesauce, apricot, mountain ash, cranberry and other types of mashed potatoes and fruit and berry supplies can be used to prepare the corresponding varieties of pastille: apricot, mountain ash, cranberry, tangerine, etc.
Fruit and berry supplies, acids and essences are used as flavoring additives. Food coloring is used to impart a suitable color.
Preparation of raw materials for the production of marshmallows. Applesauce used for the preparation of marshmallows must contain at least 12-14% dry matter and have a good jelly-forming ability. The use of puree with a lower moisture content makes it possible to shorten the production cycle (holding and drying the marshmallow). At a confectionery factory, for the production of pastilles, compacted puree with a dry matter content of 15-17% is used. Compacted applesauce is made from ordinary puree or pulp.11
For the preparation of compacted puree, a production line is installed at the factory (Fig. 11) Applesauce or pulp using a barrel dumper 1 is discharged from the barrels into an open digester 2 with a stirrer, where they are heated to desulfite. Desulfitated puree through the discharge nozzle enters the vacuum scalder 3, where the pulp is scalded. The moisture is removed by means of a condensing unit 4. The same vacuum scalder is also used to evaporate moisture from the puree. The mass from the vacuum scalder is squeezed out into the funnel of the cleaning machine by compressed air coming from the pump 5 and receiver 6 into the vacuum scalder. Puree from the pulverizing machine 7 flows by gravity into the cooler 8, equipped with a water jacket and a horizontal stirrer. The chilled applesauce is drained by gravity into the collection container 9, and from there it is fed into the workshop using the pump 10.
In the absence of special equipment, compacted mashed potatoes can be obtained by boiling applesauce in an ordinary filling vacuum apparatus. The mashed compacted puree is sent for blending into a mixer with a mechanical stirrer.
Studies of VKNII on the use of compacted mashed potatoes show that as a result of compaction (boiling) of mashed potatoes, the gel-forming ability of pectin deteriorates and the strength of the jelly decreases by 14-20%. This disadvantage can be eliminated by increasing the vacuum in the evaporator and reducing the cooking time.
  Preparation Pastila mass. Glutinous pastille is mainly agar jelly, and custard pastille is pectin jelly. Pastilny jelly is very different from marmalade. Jelly marmalade is a homogeneous mass, pastil jelly has a finely porous foam-like structure. Foam consists of a dispersed phase - a gas formed in the form of relatively large air bubbles, and a continuous phase - a dispersion medium, a liquid that forms the shell of air bubbles, or a foam frame. In this case, the gas phase can be 99% of the total foam volume. According to the theory of P. A. Rebinder, foam can be considered as a roughly concentrated emulsion of gas in a liquid or as a plate-like deformed liquid in a gas.
All liquids have more or less foaming ability. However, the stability of the resulting foam is very different and depends on the viscosity of the liquid and its surface tension. To obtain stable foam in the gas-liquid system, the presence of a third component, a stabilizer, increases the stability of the foam. Such stabilizers in the production of pastilles are egg white, blood albumin, milk protein, etc. These proteins are high molecular weight surfactants that form hydrophilic colloidal systems with apple puree water.
In the absence of stabilizers, the forces of surface tension tend to reduce to a minimum the total interface of the entire system, to make it smallest. Individual liquid droplets forming a foamy emulsion tend to contract under the influence of surface tension forces. The air bubbles in the foam tend to unite into a common mass, while the film of bubbles breaks, as a result of which the foam collapses. This phenomenon of arbitrary destruction of the foam is called coalescence.
Surfactants, collecting in the surface layer of the bubble film, increase the mechanical strength of this layer, which prevents the breakthrough of the bubble film and aggregation of the latter. Reducing the size of the bubbles gives greater strength to the foam. The resulting foamy mass has a specific gravity of 0,5 with a specific volume of 2,0.
The beaten mass after aging forms a weak jelly in the layer of the film enveloping the air bubbles. The layers of such a mass are very sticky, therefore, they are poorly cut, they easily release the liquid phase (the phenomenon of syneresis), quickly dry and sugare. In order to fix the foamy and jelly-like structure and give the mass sufficient strength necessary for further processing, the whipped apple-sugar mass is mixed with agar syrup or marmalade mass. Agar or pectin after aging forms a strong jelly.
Hot agar syrup or hot marmalade mass added to the whipped mass with a temperature of 30 ° C fills the air spaces between the individual bubbles of the whipped mass and displaces air from them. The temperature of the mixture reaches 50 ° C.
Adsorbed albumin gel at a temperature of 50 ° C, close to the clotting temperature of albumin, coagulates and thereby gives strength to the shell. As the mass cools, agar or pectin forms a solid gelatin, which differs from the marmalade with a finely porous structure due to tiny air bubbles.
In the practice of pastel production, obtaining a foamy structure is achieved by churning a mixture of applesauce, sugar and egg white. Of great importance for the quality of the foam is the density of the apple-sugar mixture and the amount of egg white. The higher the density of the mixture, the better the foam will form.
The optimum humidity of the apple-sugar mixture, at which a lush foam is formed, ranges from 42–44%. In order to obtain the indicated moisture content of the recipe with a moisture content of applesauce of 88%, the ratio of applesauce to sugar weight should be 1: 1.
To improve the quality of foaming, and mainly to reduce the drying time of the pastille, it is desirable to have a lower moisture content of the prescription mixture, which is achieved by using compacted mashed potatoes.
When the solids content in the compacted puree is 17%, the moisture content of the recipe is 41–43% due to a decrease in the moisture content of the compacted puree and an increase in the amount of sugar in the recipe to 1,2 parts per 1 part of the puree. The amount of fresh egg white is from 1,0 up to 1,5% by weight of the prescription mixture.
The presence of fat in the churning mass increases the surface tension of the liquid and thereby impairs foaming. Fat can get into the mass with insufficiently careful separation of the protein from the yolk. The presence of alcohol in the churned mass when using fermented puree causes partial denaturation of proteins and leads to a deterioration in foaming. Raising the temperature of whipping above 60 ° C leads to coagulation - coagulation of proteins.
Preparation Pastila "mass produced machines in batch and continuous.
A pastil-sowing machine of periodic action (Fig. 12) consists of a wooden trough-shaped case with a lid and a semicircular bottom, inside of which a shaft with T-shaped blades rotates. The shaft makes 200-250 rpm] min. In the lower part of the body there is a fitting with a flap for draining the downed mass. The amount of mixture loaded into the machine is 100-110 kg.
A weighed portion of the apple-sugar mixture is loaded into the machine and about half the protein required per load is added. Then close the lid and float the shaft with the blades. As a result of mixing, the sugar dissolves in applesauce and foams the mass. After 10 minutes, add a second portion of the protein and continue churning for12
            Fig. 12. Shake up the machine.
8-10 minutes with the lid open, which contributes to better mass aeration and water evaporation. The end of the churning of the mass is determined by the change in volume, which is approximately doubled compared to the original, as well as by the increase in the viscosity of the mass.
With insufficient knocking down, the mass turns out to be roughly porous - undershot. In the case of prolonged churning, the mass turns out to be excessively lush - over-knocked, which also negatively affects the quality of the pastille.
In parallel with the churning of the apple-sugar mixture, agar-sugar-syrup syrup is prepared. A syrup is obtained by boiling 1 part sugar, 0,5 part molasses and 0,02 parts agar in coil cooking columns, batch vacuum apparatuses or open cooking boilers. The syrup formulation and boiling process are the same as in the manufacture of syrup for jelly marmalade. Humidity syrup. 20-22%. Ready syrup with a temperature of 85-90 ° C is added to a whipping machine to the whipped apple-sugar mixture in an amount of 50%, by weight of the mixture.
At the same time, flavoring, aromatic substances and coloring agents are added. The mass is kneaded with the lid open for 3-4 minutes, and then unloaded into a metal bowl on wheels or a special collection. The moisture content of the finished pastile mass, cooked on ordinary mashed potatoes, 38-40% on the compacted 33-34%. The content of reducing substances is 7-10%. The temperature of the mass is 44–46 ° С. A correctly knocked down mass should have a specific gravity of 0,6–0,65.
The preparation of the paste in batch machines has a number of significant disadvantages:
 shake up a small performance car - 180-200 kg / h;
 manual loading and unloading of vehicles;
 * depending on the operating mode you may receive inadequate or knocked over knocked mass.
Units continuous designed SA Kozlov, working on a number of confectioneries.
The whipping unit (Fig. 13) consists of a two-body whipping apparatus U, intended for churning the apple-sugar mixture with egg white or other foaming agent, and mixer 2, which serves to mix the whipped mass with agar-sugar-syrup syrup and flavorings.
Shake up apparatus comprises two horizontally disposed one above the other with a circular casing hoppers and discharging nozzles. Within each housing axis are fixed on the shafts with their crosses. A blade crosses skipped stainless steel rods, serving for churning mass. The blades of the cross installed with a gradual increase in the angle of inclination of up to 5 15 ° to move the mass along the cylinder knocks.
The mixer 2 is a cylindrical body of the same design as for knocking down the mass, but on the shaft of the mixer there are 4 pairs of T-shaped blades at an angle in the direction of rotation, which also contributes to the movement of the mass along the cylinder. The whipping apparatus and mixer have a water jacket for tempering the whipped mixture.
The recipe mixture prepared in the recipe department, consisting of applesauce, sugar and recyclable waste, is loaded into the collector 3 and from there, using a plunger pump, it is continuously fed into the first section of the whipping apparatus. There, egg white is continuously supplied from collection 5. Downed mass by gravity merges into the second section of the whipping apparatus, where the second portion of egg is added
protein and dye from the collection 6. The beaten mass is gravity drained into the funnel of the mixer 2, agar syrup, as well as the acid and essence from the collections 8 and the dropper 7 are fed using the plunger pump 9 from the vacuum collector 10.
In the mixer, the whipped mass is mixed with agar syrup, acid and essence. The finished mass is poured into a special funnel and gravity flows into a pastilochny filling machine.13
                               Fig. 13. Shake up the unit of continuous action:
1 - shake up the apparatus, 2 - mixer, 3 - a collection of apple-for-sugar mixture.
4 and 8 - plunger pumps, 5 and 6 - collectors with feeders for dosing egg white, 7 - vacuum collector for agar syrup, 9 - collector and feeder for acid, 10 - dropper for dosing essences, 11 - fan for removing sulfur dioxide .
When working on a continuously operating pastilosilivny unit, the correct dosage of egg white and agar syrup has a great influence on the quality of the pastilles mass.
Pouring pastel mass into trays. Ready-pastel paste is poured on a pastilochny machine into trays made of plywood or duralumin. The dimensions of the trays depend on the size of the filling mechanism, as well as on the size of the cutting mechanism of the cutting machine, since if these sizes do not match, the amount of waste during cutting will increase.
The trays have the following internal dimensions (in mm): length 1360, width 312, height 20. The trays are covered with double-sided oilcloth or rubberized canvas. The canvas is slightly moistened so that it fits snugly on the surface of the tray and does not form wrinkles.
The pastel mass by gravity or with the help of a screw is loaded into the hopper 1 of the filling machine (Fig. 14). Gravity loading is possible if the whipping unit is installed above the filling machine. Otherwise, the mass of metal bowls is loaded into the receiving hopper 5 and14
      Fig. 14. Pastilorazlivochnaya machine.
from there the spiral of screw 6 is fed into hopper 1, which has a water jacket for tempering the mass during casting. The trays for casting the pastel mass are pre-coated with a rubberized cloth and placed on a chain conveyor 3, which feeds them under the filling mechanism 2, where they are continuously filled to the edges with the pastel mass. Thanks to the special spring rollers, the trays are tightly pressed against the filling mechanism, as a result of which the flow of the pastel mass is eliminated. Excess pastel mass in the tray is removed using three inclined steel knives installed in the casting box. Trays filled with pastel mass on the conveyor 4 are transferred to the rack. Productivity of the car is 1800 kg of pastel mass per hour.
Vystoyka pastes. During aging, jelly (cage) is formed due to the presence of agar and partly pectin, evaporation of moisture and the formation of a thin-crystalline crust on the surface of the formation. In the process of gelation, the pastel mass loses fluidity, passes from a liquid to a semi-solid state, as a result of which the layer is easily selected from the tray and cut. The crust on the surface of the formation prevents it from sticking to the surface of the conveyors of the cutting machine and from deformation in the process
cutting. The main influence on the processes of maturation has air temperature. Relative humidity and air velocity have less impact. Low air temperature accelerates the process of jelly formation due to a slowdown in the thermal motion of agar and pectin particles. However, at low temperatures, the evaporation of moisture and the formation of a crust on the formation surface slows down. On the other hand, during curing, the temperature should not exceed 40-50 ° C, that is, the temperature of agar gelation.
In the practice of decking, separate maintenance of the curing process is often used. The first stage — the formation of jelly — is carried out in the workshop at a temperature of 18–20 ° C and the second stage, crust formation, is at a temperature of 38–40 ° C.
Currently, the stand is held at a temperature of 36-38 ° C in special chambers, first, in the absence of air movement for 1 h, and then at an air speed of 1 m / s for 1,5 h. During the curing process, the moisture of the pastel layer decreases by 3-4% due to evaporation of moisture.
In the absence of chambers, alignment can be carried out in the workshop at a temperature of 25-30 ° C and enhanced air circulation. In this case, the duration of the curing varies from 6-8 hours. After curing, the trays with pastel layers are transferred for cutting.
Currently, the confectionery factory operates a production line for trammellless casting and milking. The pastel mass is poured onto a rubberized tape, which passes through a cooling cabinet, where jelly is formed, and then through a heated cabinet, where crusting occurs, after which the layer enters the cutting machine.
cutting pastes. The cutting of pastilles is carried out on cutting machines of the Kalach system and others.15
On the cutting machine of the factory structure (Fig. 15), the layers laid down on the conveyor belt 2 of the cutting machine, enter the conveyor 3 (six- or four-strand, depending on the number of knives in the machine) and fall on the cutting-cutting mechanism 4 of the cutting machine, consisting from circular knives. The layer is cut into 4 or 6 longitudinal strips with a width of 73 mm, which are pushed apart by a special mechanism and fall under the knives of the transverse cutting mechanism 5. The transverse cutting mechanism consists of straight knives mounted on endless chains of the conveyor. The step of the knives is equal to the width of the bar pastila.
The conveyor drive head has a drum with punches 6 for automatically pushing products from the inter-knife gaps onto the sieves. The knives of the transverse cutting mechanism, cutting at right angles into the strips of the pastel layer, finally cut them into individual products. • Sliced ​​products are initially held between the blades of the knives due to their tack • and then pushed by the front drum punches onto the sieves supplied by conveyor 1.
Due to the difference between / ^ the linear speeds of the cutting chain and the conveyor, intervals are formed between them when laying the products on the sieve.
Sieve filled with pastille with the correct rows of products are installed on carts and sent to the dryer. Crumbs cut from the sides of the pastel layer are discharged into the auger, where they are rubbed through holes in the end part of the auger. The rubbed mass flows into the hopper, from which it is periodically pumped to the whipping station for processing.
The productivity of a 6-strand cutting machine ranges from 450 to 790 kg] h. Sliced ​​pastilles have a moisture content on uncompacted puree of 34–36% on compacted 30–32%.
Dry pastilles. Sliced ​​pastille due to significant moisture has a delicate structure and a sticky surface. To remove excess moisture and obtain a crystalline crust on the surface, the marshmallow is dried to a moisture content of 16-18%.
Due to the porous structure of the pastille, it takes less time to dry than marmalade, since moisture diffusion is faster. But the marshmallow is easily deformed during drying, so the marshmallow should be dried under different conditions than marmalade.
The main factors affecting the drying time of the pastille are the quality and quantity of gelatinous substances contained in the pastille, i.e., agar and pectin, as well as the amount of molasses dextrins.
As you know, pectin and agar jellies retain moisture well, therefore, an increase in the proportion of mashed potatoes, agar and molasses in the pastille formulation gives the pastille a protracted structure and slows down the drying process. An increase in the proportion of sugar in the pastille formulation by reducing the amount of mashed potatoes and agar gives the pastille a sugar structure with a thick crust on16
        Fig. 16. Tunnel dryer for pastilles (cross section):
1 - drying corridor, 2 - diffuser for supplying hot air, 3 - diffuser for removing moist air,
4 - air guides, 5 - air heater, 6 - fan, 7 - trolley for sieves, 8 - chain conveyor,
9 - rails.
surface, which is deformed when cutting, but the drying time is significantly reduced.
Drying pastes is carried out on sieves in chamber or cabinet dryers, as well as in continuously operating tunnel dryers.
The tunnel dryer (Fig. 16) consists of a drying chamber and a cooling chamber. Rails are laid on the floor of the chambers, along which rack trolleys move with sieves with pastille mounted on them. The trolleys are moved along the chamber with the help of a chain conveyor with tabs that capture them. The chain conveyor is switched on periodically.
The products are dried with hot air, which is heated in air heaters. Air is supplied by fans to the drying chamber through special openings - diffusers. The drying chamber has two zones with different temperatures.
Drying in continuously operating dryers is carried out in two stages. In the first zone, the air temperature is 40–45 ° С, its relative humidity is 50% and the speed is 1 m / s. The air flow is directed perpendicular to the movement of the rack trolleys with sieves. The drying time in the first section is 2–2,5 hours. In the second zone, the air temperature is maintained at 55–60 ° С, its relative humidity is 20–25% and the speed is 1 m / s. The drying time in the second section is 1 hour
The dried pastille on the rack trolleys enters the last section - the cooling chamber, where the pastille is kept for 30 minutes at an air temperature of 25-30 ° C. The humidity of the dried pastille is 17-19%, the content of reducing substances is 8-12%.
The chamber dryer is a chamber with an area of ​​10 to 24 g2. On the walls of the chamber are steam batteries. The chamber has an exhaust fan to remove humid air. The sieves are loaded into the chamber on rack carts.
The air temperature in the dryer is maintained at the beginning of drying 45 ° C, at the end 55 ° C. Such a gradual heating of the air contributes to good evaporation of moisture and prevents premature crust formation. Duration of drying is 5-6 hours. Dried pastille on rack trolleys is exported to the workshop where it is left to stand for 1-2 hours at a temperature of 20-25 ° C.
Dusting pastes, laying in boxes and trays. Dried pastille is sprinkled with powdered sugar. Powdered sugar prevents pastilles from sticking together and gives the product a good appearance. Spreading the pastille is done on a special dusting unit. The dusting unit consists of a hopper with a metering roller for distributing the powder and a conveyor belt for feeding the sieves with marshmallows under the sprinkling mechanism. The unit is also equipped with a brush mechanism for sweeping excess powdered sugar. The brush mechanism is a tape stretched over two drums. Brushes made of soft hair are reinforced on the tape.
Pastille from sieves is unloaded onto a conveyor belt and passes under the hopper, where it is sprinkled with powdered sugar, and then, using the same conveyor, it falls under the brush mechanism, which sweeps away the excess powdered sugar. The consumption of powdered sugar is 6-8% of the weight of the pastille. Ready marshmallow contains 14–18% moisture and 7–14% reducing substances. The proportion of pastilles is 0,7.
Sometimes pastilles are glazed with chocolate. Chocolate improves the appearance and taste of pastille, and also protects it from drying out.
The finished marshmallow is placed in boxes of 250 or 500 g of no more than two rows in height. In the manufacture of white and pink marshmallows, a mixture of white and pink marshmallows is placed in a box. Boxes are lined with paraffin or parchment paper from the inside. Each row is also covered with waxed paper.
Weight candy is placed in plywood boxes or trays of not more than 6 rows height and a total weight of no more than 5 kg. Trays and boxes of fruit candy packaged in boxes made of boards or plywood.
      Casting marshmallow (marshmallow)
Cast pastille, or marshmallows, is a type of adhesive pastille. It differs from carved pastilles in shape and a more magnificent consistency. The technological process of making marshmallows is also slightly different from the preparation of carved pastille.
Apple puree for churning the marshmallow is taken with a solids content of about 15% and a high pectin content of up to 1,2%, egg white is added up to 8% relative to the weight of the apple-sugar mixture. Due to the greater amount of protein and prolonged churning (22–25 min), the apple-sugar mixture is more fluffy.
Glutinous syrup for marshmallows is boiled to a higher density than for pastilles - up to a dry matter content of 84-85%. Ready agar syrup with a temperature of 90-95 ° C is introduced into the beaten apple-sugar mixture in a ratio of 1: 1, after which flavoring and aromatic substances are added.
The finished marshmallow has a specific gravity of 0,4, a moisture content of 28-30% and a content of reducing substances of 7-9%. Marshmallow mass has a higher viscosity than pastel mass, which is explained by a higher agar content and lower mass moisture. This makes it possible to mold the marshmallow mass by casting. Marshmallow mass can be brought down not only in periodically operating machines, but also in continuously operating pastilosilivny machines.
Otsadka Zefira. Depositing zephyr mass produced on machines zefirootsadochnyh System SA and Rabinovich:
VN Sokolov, manufactured by the Kiev Mechanical Plant.
The machine (Fig. 17) has a hopper 1, a dosing and depositing mechanism 2 and a conveyor 3 for feeding trays mounted on a composite frame of the machine. The hopper is equipped with a water jacket to maintain the temperature of the marshmallow17
          Fig. 17. Zefirootsadochnaya machine.
flax level. The dosing and depositing mechanism 2 consists of a six-cylinder housing with a spool box with an appropriate number of plungers attached to a common traverse. Six flexible hoses are mounted in the lower part of the body under the spool box, the hoses of which are passed through a common cross-arm and have mechanical gear tips.
Marshmallow mass is loaded into the hopper 1 by gravity or using a special loading device. When the plungers and the corresponding slide valve move, the mass is first sucked into the cylinders, and when the plungers move backward, the mass from the cylinders is deposited through flexible hoses with tips on the trays moving along the conveyor. During the jigging of the traverse, through which the hoses with tips are passed, it makes a complex transverse-longitudinal translational motion, as a result of which the mass acquires a spherical shape with a spirally corrugated surface.
At the moment of passage of the joints of the trays under the jigging mechanism, the jigging is automatically interrupted to form free gaps at the ends of the trays necessary for their installation in stacks. The machine sits 78 rows per minute and has a capacity of 375 kg of marshmallow mass per hour.
In addition to round marshmallows, oblong-shaped marshmallows - “pies” are planted.
Vystoyka modeling and marshmallow. Trays with the halves of marshmallow set down are placed on the rack trolleys and sent to the storage chamber, where the marshmallow is left to stand for 8-10 hours. During the first 3-4 hours, agar and pectin jelly are formed, therefore the temperature is maintained within 20-25 ° С Over the next 5-6 hours, marshmallow is dried and a crystalline crust of sucrose is formed on the surface of the marshmallow, therefore, the temperature in the chamber rises to 33–36 ° С and the relative humidity is maintained at the level of 50–60%. In the absence of chambers with a certain temperature regime, alignment can be done in the workshop at a temperature of 25-30 ° C and enhanced air ventilation. However, the duration of the maturation increases to 24 hours.
After maturing, the halves of marshmallows have a moisture content of 21 - 23%. Trays with halves of marshmallows are sent for gluing - molding. Marshmallow is glued on a special conveyor designed by the workers of the Udarnitsa factory
S. A. Kozlov, N. F. Bolshakov and I. A. Gvozdik. Trays with marshmallow halves are placed on the conveyor chain, using a special vibrator, the marshmallow is sprinkled with powdered sugar, and then glued.
The freed trays go under the mechanism for stripping, are cleared of the remnants of the marshmallow. The cleaned trays are continuously fed to the marshmallow machine.
After gluing, marshmallows stand in sieves in the workshop at a temperature of 18–20 ° С and relative humidity of 60–65% for 3-4 hours. Standing is necessary so that the halves of the marshmallow stick together and a stronger crust forms on the surface of the marshmallow.
In addition to the described type of marshmallows, make marshmallows stuffed with apple marmalade mass. The cooked marmalade mass is cast on trays in the form of cakes. After the formation of jelly, the marshmallow is precipitated on them, and then, after gelation and crusting, the halves of the marshmallow are glued together.
Zephyr, as well as candy, sometimes glazed with chocolate.
Ready marshmallow having humidity 16-20%, comes to styling. marshmallow specific weight of not more than 0,6. Marshmallows stacked in boxes weighing 259-500 grams, and fits in a box of white and pink marshmallows with the appropriate flavor.
Mandarin, honey, creamy marshmallows are placed in boxes by grades.
Currently, the confectionery factory operates an AZM machine of the Ideal plant for wrapping marshmallows in cellophane (packs of 100 g). The machine wraps 60 packs per minute.
In addition to boxes, marshmallows are placed in plywood trays no more than three rows in height, with a total weight of not more than 5 kg.
  Custard and candy Belevsky
A variety of adhesive pastilles are custard and Belevsky pastille. Choux pastille differs from glue preparation of pastilles.
Instead of agar glue, hot marmalade mass, prepared according to the recipe for apple marmalade, with a moisture content of 32–35% and a temperature of at least 95 ° C is added to the whipped apple-sugar mixture. The marmalade mass is added in a ratio of 1: 1 to the weight of the apple-sugar mixture. Further processing of custard pastille is done in the same way as glue.
Choux pastille contains 15–19% moisture and 12–18% reducing substances.
As a result of adding more weight marmalade candy brew a less opulent than the adhesive, and has a specific gravity of about 0,9.
Choux pastille can be prepared in the form of a piece or layer of marshmallow, consisting of alternating layers of pastel or marmalade mass, topped with a pastel mass. Plastil can also be prepared in the form of a piece consisting entirely of pastilles. Plastic marshmallow contains from 16 to 23% moisture and 10-20% of reducing substances.
Belevskaya pastille is prepared by churning a mixture of applesauce and sugar with egg white, followed by molding the beaten mass in the form of rectangular layers and drying. Applesauce is made from baked apples.
      Waste and scrap in the production of pastes
In the manufacture of carved pastilles, the main type of waste is scraps obtained by cutting pastilles on a cutting machine. In the production of casting pastilles, waste is obtained in the form of deformed products during casting and drying of marshmallows, as well as in the form of mass obtained by cleaning equipment and trays.
The processing of waste is as follows. Waste in a special collection mixer is diluted with water in an amount of 20% by weight of waste. The mass is mixed and passed through a mixing wiper (Fig. 18). 0,5% Na is added to rubbed waste2NR04 * 12Н20 20% in the form of solution, and mixed well. The mixture was then heated and boiled in a vacuum apparatus batch under vacuum to 25- 27% humidity.
Fig. 18. Machine for cleaning returnable waste:
1 - housing, 2 - screw, 3 - wiping net, 4 - loading funnel, 5 - discharge pipe, 6 - propeller knife for cleaning the mesh, 7 - pulley.
Such processing, as with the use of jelly marmalade waste, protects the agar from decomposition when boiled in an acidic environment. The waste processed in this way is added in an amount of 15% to a pastil-sieve machine or fed as a continuous stream to the second section of the apparatus for continuous churning. When making marshmallows, waste is not added.
REFERENCES
  1.  Confectionery technology. Edited by prof. A.L. Sokolovsky. Food Industry Publishing, 1959.
  2.  Collection of technological instructions for the production of candies, chocolates, toffee, chocolate, cocoa powder, marmalade-Pastila products, pills and halva. Pishchepromizdat, 1960.
  3.  Kozlov SA Advanced experience in the Pastila-marmalade factory "Udarnitsa". "Sharing best practices" series. Pishchepromizdat, 1955.
  4.  Directory confectioner. Part 1. Raw materials and technology of confectionery production. Pishchepromizdat, 1958.
  5.  Directory confectioner. Part 2. Technological equipment for the confectionery industry. Pishchepromizdat, 1960.
  6.  Formulations in the marmalade and candy. Pishchepromizdat, 1952.
  7.  Lunin O. G., Smolyanitsky M. E. Production lines for the production of confectionery. Pishchepromizdat, 1961.

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