Puree of different pome (quince, pear, loquat, rowan, wild apples) are produced similarly to the apple with small modifications.
Locking fruit is not made. The length of the cork allows for wide variations depending on the degree of maturity, the structure of the pulp and the size of the fruit. The dosage of preservative is also changed depending on the natural chemical composition of the fruit: acidity, tannin content, total dry matter content. In most cases, a lower concentration of preservative is sufficient for these types of fruit than for applesauce.
Puree of medlar, rowan, quince has jelly-forming properties, less pronounced than that of apple puree. Pear mashed potatoes are even less valuable in this respect.
The production of mashed potatoes from these types of pome seeds (with the exception of wild apple) is carried out for the needs of the confectionery industry in small sizes.
Puree stone fruits, berries and melons
Stone fruits and summer berries require special attention during storage due to their poor persistence. The incoming raw materials are folded on the shelves of covered raw material platforms or in well ventilated rooms. This raw material must be put into production immediately after collection and no later than the day it is brought.
Freed from the fruits of packaging (sieves, baskets and so on. N.) Must be immediately rinsed, and dried proshparit.
The sorted fruits are washed in clean cold water until complete removal of contaminants.
When washing delicate stone fruit and berries, care should be taken not to damage the fruit.
For delicate stone fruits and berries apply the fan washers described above.
Some types of stone fruits (cherries, cornels, cherries, certain varieties of plums) in the mature state allow the possibility of rubbing them on mashed potatoes without a cork or any other preparation. Other types of stone fruit, such as apricot, cherry plum, peach, require pre-sharpening before rubbing.
For cherries, they use conventional wiping machines, since, thanks to the spherical shape of its bones, they easily roll out of the car. The remaining stone fruits (plums, cornels, etc.) are passed first through a special cleaning machine, and then a second time through an ordinary wipe. Wiping machines for stone fruits (Fig.10) are built on the same principle as for pome seeds, and differ from them only in that they have rod or brush bilings or spring rollers instead of paddle blades for a softer impact on the fruits, in order to avoid crushing the stones. The body of the machine is attached to the slope, contributing to the sliding of the bones to the exit.
The release of the pulp from the bones with the help of machines with “soft” bilia is obligatory for fruits with bones with sharp ends (plum, apricot, peach and others), since these ends break off easily, which creates the danger of their falling into mashed potatoes.
Fig. 10. Wiping machine for stone.
After rubbing stone mashed potatoes, they are treated similarly to apples puree. The dosage of preservative in canning this puree varies depending on the natural persistence of a particular type of fruit. Sweet cherries, for example, deteriorate rapidly, so it requires an enhanced dosage of preservative.
Plum, cherry and other types of mashed potatoes, obtained without pre-crimping the fruit, should be preserved with sulfurous acid. Preserving this puree with sodium benzoate is not appropriate because of its browning tendency.
When making mashed potatoes from such berries as strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, black, red or white currants, it is necessary to pre-clean them from stalks, sepals or twigs, since rubbing these berries in an unpurified form causes a significant deterioration in the quality of mashed potatoes.
Due to the soft texture of the flesh, low-visible berries: strawberries, raspberries, blackberries - are easy to wipe without pre-splicing.
The puree obtained from them is distinguished by its low resistance due to its low acidity and liquid consistency. For the confectionery industry, these berries are harvested mainly in the sulfated form or by cooking the mashed potatoes of them with sugar. Puree harvested from summer berries, you must immediately after leaving the wiping machine preserve the maximum dose of preservative. The content of sulfuric anhydride for raspberry and strawberry puree is set by the Academic Medical Council of the USSR Ministry of Health in the amount up to 0,2%.
High-fruit berries - black and red currants, gooseberries - have dense flesh, so in most cases they must be pre-cooked before wiping. The method of canning mashed potatoes of these berries is the same as for applesauce.
Fresh cranberries and lingonberries are fairly stable due to the natural content of benzoic acid. When mature, they can be processed into mashed potatoes using cold and hot methods, i.e., without a cork and after a cork. In production, it is often practiced to pre-cook these berries before rubbing. According to VKNII, cranberry and lingonberry mash, obtained in a cold way, has a higher resistance and higher gelatinous properties than the same mash, obtained in a hot way. The quality of cranberry and lingonberry puree, cooked in a cold way, is better in terms of color, flavor and taste. The preservation of this puree is possible both with sulfuric anhydride and sodium benzoate. The dosage rate of sulfur dioxide for cranberry puree 0,05%, sodium benzoate - 0,07%.
Of practical interest for the confectionery industry is the melon puree, which is used to make a special melon filling. The production of melon puree compared with fruit puree proceeds along a somewhat modified scheme. Melon fruits are subjected to sorting, washing, then removing the stem, cut into pieces. The latter go to the sink, the scar and from there to the wiping machines, at which the pulp is simultaneously wiped and the seeds are separated. Due to its liquid consistency and poor resistance, melon puree is unsuitable for chemical preservation, and its preparation is carried out mainly by cooking with sugar.
Preparation of fruit puree sulfited
In the post-war period, mashed sulphitated fruits became widespread in confectioneries. Features of the production of mashed potatoes in this case are that the sulphitized fruits are preheated for desulphurisation and partial thickening of the mixture. This process is carried out in double-sided vacuum apparatus with agitators or in closed conventional (or auger-type) vaporizers working under atmospheric pressure and heated deaf steam. Preferably use vacuum apparatus in which the best conditions are created for the removal of S02 and to preserve the gelatinous ability of pectin fruits. Then, adhering to the milder regime possible, the fruit is subjected to sharcoa, taking into account the partial hydrolysis of pectic substances in the processes of storing sulfitated fruits and preheating them for desulfurization and thickening. Depending on the size and conditions of production, it seems advisable to combine the process of preheating the sulfitated fruits with their cutter in one apparatus.
Scalded fruits are fed to the rubbing. The resulting puree is sent for immediate use in the production of marmalade-pastille products, toppings, etc. In order to avoid the need for cooling and re-canning of puree of sulphite fruit, it is prepared in an amount not exceeding two-shift requirement.
Production of compressed and dried fruit and berry puree
Compressed applesauce is different from the usual high content of solids - 16 — 18% instead of 10 — 12%. Such mashed potatoes are now successfully used for the production of pastila.
Businesses that consume compacted puree get it by thickening regular apple puree; sometimes for this purpose they use double-sided vacuum apparatus heated by steam.
ECNII studies have shown that boiling mashed potatoes in this way leads to a decrease in its gel-forming ability. Therefore, thickening of the puree should be carried out in special devices designed to boil the heat-sensitive puree products.
As such devices can serve, for example, concentrators used for boiling tomato products, working on secondary compressed steam (compression) under a vacuum of 650 — 680 mm and at a boiling point of mass 52 — 58 ° . Roller vacuum dryers are also suitable for this purpose, as reported below.
It is advisable to boil applesauce not at confectioneries, but at fruit processing factories located in the areas where apples are harvested. Only at the same time it is possible to use the economic benefits of compacted puree in the sense of reducing the cost of packaging costs, transportation, etc.
In addition, when organizing the production of compressed mashed potatoes in the southern regions of Ukraine, in which apples grow with good studenobrazuyuschey ability and with a high content of solids (on average 15 — 17%), you can get an apple puree with a high content of solid residue without boiling. Technological processes for the production of apple puree should be carried out in such a way as to minimize the dilution of the mashed potatoes during the squeezing of apples. According to VKNII, the degree of dilution of mashed potatoes with condensation when squeezing fresh apples is approximately equal to 1,2, and when squeezing frozen apples it is approximately equal to 1,3 — 1,35. To reduce the dilution of the puree, it is advisable to warm the apples before the seasoning to 50 — 60 ° in special apparatuses heated with deaf steam. When sharpening apples, it is necessary to use steam with minimum humidity, carefully select the drain from the evaporator (a mixture of condensate with apple juice), and preserve the mashed potatoes with bottled gas, not sulphurous acid.
Significant interest in terms of cost savings on packaging and transportation, reducing storage space and improving the production technology of jelly-pastilles is dry fruit and berry puree.
Preparation of dry mashed potatoes is reduced to obtaining from the finished liquid puree dry concentrate with a water content of 5 — 15%. By removing the bulk of the water from the puree, it acquires sufficient resistance against microbiological deterioration without preservation by chemical means.
Industrial production of dry mashed potatoes was organized by the Moscow confectionary factory "Udarnitsa". Drying the mash was carried out on a two-drum dryer operating under atmospheric pressure. Duration of mashed potatoes on the heating surface of the rollers ranged from 5 to 14 seconds.
The available research data on the drying of applesauce under these conditions characterizes the effect of drying the mashed potatoes on its chemical and technological properties as follows. Freshly dried mash is easily dissolved in cold water. Recovered after drying, the liquid puree has a darker color than the usual liquid puree. The taste of mashed potatoes does not change significantly. The chemical composition undergoes slight changes (the absolute content of acid, protein and sugar partially decreases). However, changes in the chemical composition of freshly dried mashed potatoes are so insignificant that they have no significance either technologically or economically. The gelatinous ability of mashed potatoes remains almost unchanged.
The content of methoxyl groups in the pectin extracted from the puree before and after drying, is not changed.
The viscosity of dry mashed potatoes after its recovery is slightly lower than that of the original liquid mashed potatoes.
Significantly better indicators of product quality can be obtained by drying fruit and berry puree on roller vacuum dryers.
Driving device two-roll vacuum dryer is shown in Fig. 11. It consists of a closed steel housing, inside
Fig. 11. Driving device two-roll vacuum dryer.
which are mounted two hollow drying rollers 1, heated by steam and rotating in opposite directions. The outer shell of the rollers is made of metal, indifferent to the puree. On forming cylinders of the rollers 2 knives are installed with stop bolts that press the knives to the surface of the rollers. Knives are used to remove dried mash film from the rollers. The liquid puree fed into the dryer enters the gap between the two rollers, spreads out in a thin layer on the surface of the rollers as they rotate between the gap and the edge of the knife blade. For 3 — 4 seconds the path of rotation of this layer, he manages to dry. Dry mash taken from the rollers with 2 knives is reset
in foster trolley 3} that as they fill with dry mashed potatoes roll out of the dryer discharge.
The inconvenience in the operation of the described roller vacuum dryers consists in the frequency of unloading of dry mashed potatoes, with which the vacuum break and the discontinuity of the process are connected. In order to avoid partial weakening of the pectin in the receiving trolley, it is necessary to shorten the time spent dry mashed potatoes in the trolley, and after cooling, cool it as soon as possible.
At present, roller vacuum dryers with continuous unloading are being produced.
For drying the fruit and berry puree, spray disc dryers can be used, which work on the principle of splashing the liquid mass of the dried product on rotating disks under the action of centrifugal force.
By changing the amount of water that is taken to restore the dry mashed potatoes, or by mixing the dry mashed potatoes to the liquid, you can get the compacted mashed potatoes with a high content of dense residue.
Dry fruit and berry puree with a water content of not more than 15% can be packed in wooden or cardboard boxes or compressed into briquettes. Dry mashed potatoes solves a radical question about the loss of product in storage (from the absorption of wood barrels, leakage and perebroda).
Powdered mashed preferably stored in a sealed package, otherwise there is a darkening (browning) it.
Storage in non-hermetic packaging should be carried out in rooms with relative air humidity not higher than 70%. At humidity of dry mashed potatoes above 20 — 22% its further storage is inadmissible.
Due to the high concentration of acid in dry mashed potatoes, sucrose inversion occurs in it during storage. For the same reason, during long-term storage of dry mashed potatoes, additional hydrolysis of pectin and some changes in its colloid-chemical state (“aging”) are possible.
Waste production of fruit puree
The amount of waste produced in the production of fruit-profitable mashed potatoes varies depending on the type and variety of fruits, their size, degree of maturity, etc.
The rejected, unfit for production of fresh fruits (strongly affected by pests, rot) are disposed of in the bulk as feed.
Limits of other waste processing fruits and berries make in%:
|Garden apples (vyterki)||to 5|
|(rubs, stalks, bones)||
Waste of these mostly are suitable for recycling.
Rubbing down after the second rubbing of the berries is immediately used in food or for drying.
According VKNII of primary vyterok cranberry sauce can be obtained, wherein almost as clearly expressed ability to studneobrazovaniyu as applesauce.
Primary cranberry rubs are filled with fresh water (on the 1 the weight part of the 2 rubs are water) and spilled, for 10 — 15 min. Then the mass is rubbed through a sieve with a diameter of holes 1,5 mm. The resulting puree canned in the usual way. Secondary wiping go to feed. The yield of gelatinous mashed potatoes under these conditions is about 200% by weight of the dried extracts.
Available data show that the treatment of apples and other fruits with sulfuric acid in the range of concentrations up to 0,1% S02 gives you the opportunity to save much germination of seeds. Therefore, seeds and bones obtained by processing the pome and stone fruit using the cold method (i.e., without a spike) should be used as seed material. For this purpose, wiping together with seeds or raw stones as they are received should be dried at a temperature not higher than 40 — 45 °
Separated after rubbing the fruit and the seed stones are crushed to extract from them the kernel. The latter can be effectively used. Sweet apricot kernel is replaced by sweet almonds in confectionery. The cherry kernel and the bitter apricot kernel can be used to produce edible or technical oil. Oil yield ranges from 25 to 36% of the weight of the core. The shell of pits is utilized in the chemical industry (production of activated carbon, etc.).
The average yield of applesauce, calculated from the chemical and technical reports of a number of enterprises, is 85,75% by weight of apples.