Puree of different pome (Quince, pear, loquat, mountain ash, wild apples) produce similarly apple with slight modifications.
fruits steeping is performed. The duration of scalding admits wide variation depending on the degree of maturity, and fruit pulp structure sizes. Dosage preservative also vary depending on the chemical composition of natural fruits: acidity, tannin content, total solids. In most cases, these types of fruits adequate preservative concentration lower than apple puree.
Puree medlar, rowan, quince has studneobrazuyuschimi properties expressed weaker than apple sauce. Pear puree in this respect is even less value.
Production of puree of these types of pome fruits (with the exception of crab apple) is conducted for the needs of the confectionery industry in small amounts.
Puree stone fruits, berries and melons
Stone fruits and summer berries require special attention during storage due to their weak resistance. Incoming raw materials stacked on shelves covered commodity areas or in well-ventilated areas. These raw materials must be going into production immediately after the harvest, and not later than the date of its importation of.
Freed from the fruits of packaging (sieves, baskets and so on. N.) Must be immediately rinsed, and dried proshparit.
Sorted fruits are subjected to washing in clean, cold water until the complete removal of contaminants.
When washing delicate stone fruit and berries, care should be taken not to damage the fruit.
For delicate stone fruit and berries used fan sink above.
Some species of stone fruit (cherry, dogwood, cherry, some varieties of plums) at maturity is subject to wipe them on the puree without scalding or any other training. Other stone fruit such as apricot, plum, peach, require pre-scalding before wiping.
For cherries use conventional wiping machines, because thanks to the spherical shape of its bones, they easily roll out of the machine. Other stone fruits (plums, dogwood, etc.) are passed first through a special wiping machine, and then again - through an ordinary rub. Wiping machines for stone fruit (Fig. 10) are built on the same principle as for pome fruits, and differ from them only in that they have, instead of lobed bar or brush beads or springs, to soften the fruit, in order to avoid bone crushing. The body of the machine is given a slope, which helps the bones to slip to the exit.
The release of the flesh from the bones with the help of machines with "soft" beaters is mandatory for fruit with pits with sharp ends (plum, apricot, peach and Ap.), Since these ends easily break off, posing a risk of their falling into the puree.
Fig. 10. Wiping machine for stone.
After wiping mashed stone treated similarly mashed apples. Dosage preservative in the preservation of the puree varies depending on the natural resistance of a particular type of fruit. Sweet cherries, for example, perishable, requiring enhanced dosage preservative for her.
Plum, cherry and other kinds of mash obtained without pre-scalding the fruit should be conserved sulfurous acid. Preservation of mashed sodium benzoate is impractical because of its tendency to bronzing.
In making a puree of berries such as strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, black, red or white currants, you must make a pre-cleaning them from the stalks, sepals or branches, as rubbing the berries in the raw form causes a significant deterioration in the quality of puree.
Due to soft consistency pulp malopektinnye berries: strawberries, raspberries, blackberries - easily wiping without prior scalding.
The resulting puree are different low resistance due to low acidity and liquid consistency. For the confectionery industry these berries they prepare mainly in the sulfated form or by podvarivaniya mash them with sugar. Mashed potatoes harvested from summer berries, you must immediately upon exit from the cleaning machines to conserve maximal doses of preservative. The content of sulfur dioxide to puree raspberries and strawberries set the Academic Medical Council of the USSR Ministry of Health up to 0,2%.
Vysokopektinnye berries - black and red currants, gooseberries - have firm flesh, so in most cases they must be subjected to pre-scalding before wiping. A method of preserving fruit puree same as for apple puree.
Cranberries and cranberries in their fresh form are quite stable due to the natural content of benzoic acid. In a mature state, they can be processed on puree in cold and hot ways, that is, without scrap and after scalding. In production, it is often practiced to pre-bake these berries before rubbing. According to the VKNII, cranberry and cranberry mashed potatoes, obtained in a cold way, are distinguished by higher resistance and higher gel-forming properties than the same puree obtained by the hot method. The quality of cranberry and cowberry puree, cooked in a cold way, is better in terms of color, aroma and taste. Preservation of this puree is possible both with sulfur dioxide and sodium benzoate. The dosage norm of sulfurous anhydride for cranberry puree 0,05%, sodium benzoate is 0,07%.
Practical interest for the confectionery industry is a melon puree, which goes for making a special melon filling. The production of melon puree in comparison with fruit and berry puree proceeds according to a somewhat modified scheme. Melon fruits are sorted, washed, then, removing the stems, cut into pieces. The latter go to the sink, shparku and from there - to wiping machines, which at the same time wiped the pulp and the seeds are separated. Due to its liquid consistency and poor durability, melon puree is not suitable for chemical preservation and its preparation is carried out mainly by welding with sugar.
Preparation of fruit puree sulfited
In the post-war period, mashed potatoes from sulphated fruits were spread in the confectionery factories. The specific features of the mashed potatoes production here are that the sulphated fruits are pre-heated for desulphurization and partial thickening of the mixture. This process is carried out in two-stage vacuum stirrers with agitators or in closed conventional (or screw) stirrers operating under atmospheric pressure and heated Deaf steam. Preferably vacuum devices are used in which the best conditions for removing S0 are created2 and the ability to save studneobrazuyuschey fruit pectin. Then, perhaps adhering softer regime subjected to scalding fruit, given the partial hydrolysis of the pectin in the fruit during storage sulfited and pre-heating them to desulfitatsii and condensation. Depending on the size and production conditions it seems appropriate to combine the process of pre-heating sulfited fruit of scalding them in a single unit.
Proshparennye fruits fed to rubbing. The resulting puree is sent for immediate use in the manufacture of marmalade-Pastila products, fillings, etc. Etc.. To avoid the need for cooling and re-canning fruit puree sulfited, it is cooked in about an amount of not more than two-shift needs.
Production of compressed and dried fruit and berry puree
Dense applesauce different from the usual high solids content - 16-18% instead 10- 12%. This smoothie is successfully used today for the production of Pastila products.
Companies who use sealed puree, get it by thickening the usual applesauce; sometimes it dvutelnymi use vacuum devices, heated by steam.
VKNII Studies have shown that boiling mash manner leads to a decrease in its ability studneobrazuyuschey. Therefore, thickening mashed potatoes must be carried out in special devices designed for boiling heat sensitive puree products.
As such devices can be, for example, hubs, boiling tomato products used for operating a pair of secondary compressed (compression) under vacuum 650-680 mm and a mass reflux 52-58 ° . For this purpose, also suitable roller vacuum dryer, as reported below.
It is advisable to boil down applesauce not confectioneries, and fruktopererabatyvayuschih enterprises located in areas of apple harvesting. Only in this way it is possible to use the economic advantages of compacted puree in the sense of reducing the cost on packaging costs for transportation and so on.
In addition, in the organization of production of compacted puree in the southern regions of Ukraine, in which apples with good stalking capacity and high solids content (on average 15-17%), apple pulp with an increased content of dense residue without boiling can be obtained. The technological processes for the production of apple puree should be carried out in such a way so as to minimize the dilution of mashed potatoes during the squashing of apples. According to the VKNII, the degree of liquefaction of the puree with condensate when the freshly squeezed apple is squared is approximately equal to 1,2, with the ice cream of the frozen apples 1,3-1,35. To reduce the dilution of mashed potatoes, it is desirable to preheat the apples before shearing to 50-60 ° in special apparatus heated with deaf steam. When milling the apples, it is necessary to use steaming steam with minimal moisture, to make a careful selection from the drainage siphon (a mixture of condensate and apple juice), to preserve the condensed puree with balloon gas, and not sulfuric acid solution.
Of considerable interest in terms of cost savings on packaging and transportation, reducing storage space and improve the marmalade-Pastila products manufacturing technology is a dry fruit and berry puree.
Preparation of dry mashed potatoes is to obtain from the finished liquid mashed dry concentrate with a water content 5- 15%. By removing the bulk of water from the mash it acquires sufficient resistance to microbial spoilage without preserving its chemicals.
Industrial production of dry mashed potatoes was organized by the Moscow confectionery factory "Udarnitsa". Drying was carried out on a double roll puree dryer working under atmospheric pressure. Length of stay puree on the heating surface of the roller was to 5 14 seconds.
The available data on the drying of apple puree under the specified conditions characterize the effect of drying the puree on its chemical and technological properties as follows. Freshly dried puree easily dissolves in cold water. Restored after drying liquid purée has a darker color than regular liquid puree. The taste of mashed potatoes does not change noticeably. The chemical composition undergoes slight changes (the absolute content of acid, protein and sugar is partially reduced). However, changes in the chemical composition in freshly dried purees are so insignificant that they do not matter in technological or economic terms. The nucleus-forming ability of mashed potatoes is preserved almost unchanged.
The content of methoxyl groups in the pectin extracted from the puree before and after drying, is not changed.
The viscosity of the mash dry after its recovery is slightly lower than that of the liquid mash.
Significantly better product quality indices may be obtained by drying the fruit and berry puree on a roller vacuum dryer.
Driving device two-roll vacuum dryer is shown in Fig. 11. It consists of a closed steel housing, inside
Fig. 11. Driving device two-roll vacuum dryer.
Which are mounted two hollow drying rolls 1, heated by steam and rotating in opposite directions. The outer shell of the rolls is made of a metal that is indifferent to puree. 2 knives with thrust bolts are installed along the generatrix of the rollers of the rollers, pressing the knives to the surface of the rollers. Knives serve to remove the dried pulp from the rollers of the film. The liquid puree that is delivered to the dryer falls into the gap between the two rolls, spreads a thin layer over the surface of the rolls as they rotate between the gap and the edge of the blade of the knife. During 3-4 seconds The path of rotation of this layer he manages to dry. Dry mashed potatoes removed from the 2 knives are discarded
in foster trolley 3} that as they fill with dry mashed potatoes roll out of the dryer discharge.
The disadvantage of the operation described roller vacuum dryers is the frequency of unloading of dry mashed potatoes, which are associated with vacuum interruption and disruption of continuity of the process. In order to avoid a partial easing of pectin in receiving the trolley must be possible to reduce the residence time of dry mashed potatoes in the trolley and after unloading cool it as quickly as possible.
Currently produced vacuum roller dryer with continuous discharge.
Length of drying fruit and berry puree can be used spray disc dryers, which operate on the principle of spraying a liquid mass of the dried product of the rotating disks by centrifugal force.
By changing the amount of water that is taken for the restoration of dry mashed potatoes, or mixing in dry mashed potatoes to the liquid, can be obtained necessary for the production of products Pastila sealed mashed with a high content of solid residue.
Dry Fruit puree with a water content of not more than 15% can be packed in wooden or cardboard boxes or compressed into briquettes. Powdered mashed permits radically the question of loss of product in storage (by soaking the wood barrels leaking and fermented).
Powdered mashed preferably stored in a sealed package, otherwise there is a darkening (browning) it.
Store in hermetically packaging must be carried out not more than 70% in areas with a relative humidity of the air. When the humidity of dry mashed above 20-22% further deposit of its unacceptable.
Due to the high concentration of acid in dry mash during storage in sucrose inversion occurs therein. For this reason, long-term storage of dry mashed possible additional hydrolysis of pectin, and some changes of colloid-chemical state ( "aging") it.
Waste production of fruit puree
The amount of waste generated in the production of purees fruktovoyagodnyh varies depending on the type and grade of the fruit, their size, degree of ripeness, etc..
Culling unfit for the production of fresh fruits (strongly affected by pests, rot) disposed in the bulk as animal feed.
Limits of other waste processing fruits and berries make in%:
|Garden apples (vyterki)||to 5|
|(Vyterki, stalk, bone)|
Waste of these mostly are suitable for recycling.
Vyterki after secondary wipe berries immediately used in the food or for drying.
According VKNII of primary vyterok cranberry sauce can be obtained, wherein almost as clearly expressed ability to studneobrazovaniyu as applesauce.
Primary vyterki cranberry pour fresh water condition (in 1 2 vyterok part by weight of the water) and proshparivayut during 10-15 minutes. The mass is then forced through a sieve with a hole diameter 1,5 mm. The resulting puree canned in the usual way. Secondary vyterki go to the feed. Out studneobrazuyuschego mashed under these conditions is about 200% by weight of combined vyterok.
Available data indicate that treatment of apples and other fruits sulfurous acid concentration in the range up to 0,1% S02 It makes it possible to largely maintain germination. Therefore, seeds and pits of the processing of pome and stone on the cold process (ie. E. Without scalding), are to be used as seed. For this purpose, vyterki with seeds or raw bones as they are received should be kilned at a temperature no higher than 40-45 °
The separated after wiping and scalding the fruit is crushed bones for the extraction of the core. The latter can be used effectively. Sweet apricot kernel replace the sweet almonds in confectionery. The core of cherry and bitter apricot kernel can be used for food or technical oil. Oil yield is up from the 25 36% of the kernel weight. The shell of seeds is utilized in the chemical industry (preparation of activated carbon, etc..).
Average yield of apple puree, calculated according to the chemical-technical reports of a number of enterprises, is 85,75% by weight of the apples.