Zephyr is different from carved adhesive pastes the fact that he has not given a rectangular shape, and spherical or oblong rounded.
In addition, it has a fluffy consistency
In accordance with the features of the marshmallow is modified and the order of the work in its manufacture. Applesauce to take churning richer in pectin and dry substances. Bringing marshmallow masses are to achieve a higher recovery than the ordinary pastes. This leaves plenty of marshmallow more lush and light than Pastila. Specific weight of the weight of about 0,4. Adhesive marshmallow syrup is boiled to a dry matter content 84-85% at a concentration of agar 1,0-1,2%. The resulting syrup is added at the end of the churning in an amount equal to the weight of the total raw material loading.
Ready marshmallow mass (after mixing with adhesive) contains up to 28 30% of water, 8-10%, and reducing substances of up to 0,5 0,6% agar.
Owing to the higher content of the agar and a lower water content compared to the weight Pastila marshmallow mass before gelling has a higher viscosity and plasticity, so that it can be easily molded by casting.
Ready marshmallow mass is drained from the shake up in the collections of machines from which it goes to the casting (depositing marshmallow).
Next zephyr mass is directed by gravity (or by using a special charging device) into the hopper of the machine system zefirootsadochnoy SA Rabinovich and V. Sokolov (Fig. 32).
In the lower part of the hopper with a water jacket 1 dosage-mounted depositor mechanism consisting of piston fillers 2 ferrules and jagged 3, fixed on the movable frame and connected with excipients flexible rubber hoses.
Trays for jigging of zephyr mounted on chain conveyor 4. With scallops, fortified to the chains, they are fed continuously under the machine hopper.
Fig. 32. Zefirootsadochnaya machine.
Through a sequence cycle of operations performed Dosing-jigging mechanism using the system eccentric cam and gear, marshmallow mass is deposited in equal portions on 6 trays.
At the same time frame with reinforced rubber hoses it makes complex cross-longitudinal translational motion, in which each portion of the molded mass takes a circular or oval in shape with fluted (corrugated) (surface (Fig. 33).
Trays with a cast on them marshmallows (n on n on n and in a m and) go on roller 5 (see. Fig. 32), where they are removed, mounted on a rack trolley and sent to vystoyku. Performance of the machine about 300 kg / hour zefir finished.
Fig. 33. jigging of zephyr on trays.
Trays directed to jigging of zephyr, after using special knives are subject to a thorough clean-up of adhering to them zephyr mass of the particles.
In small enterprises, which do not have a mechanized installation for stripping trays and marshmallow jigging, cast marshmallow by hand using special funnels made of rubberized cloth (zephyr envelopes). The outlet of these funnels ends with a tin-shaped tip with serrated edges. The toothed edges of the tip leave a corrugated pattern on the surface of the cast candy. Separate products are planted in rows on boards, previously sprinkled with a thin layer of powder. The marshmallow is an ordinary wooden shield, smoothly planed, measuring 1400X400 mm. On each board there are about 90 halves of round shape and 60 halves of elongated shape with a total weight of about 1,3 kg. On the lower side, this board has two supports with an embroidered height of about 10 cm. The latter allow you to create stacks like racks from individual boards filled with marshmallow.
Vystoyku marshmallow halves is carried out in cells in which for the first 3-4 hours. support 20-25 temperature °, and in the next 5-6 hours. 33-36 °; relative humidity 50-60%. In the process of going vystoyki studneobrazovanie zephyr mass, as well as a drying up of it, contributing to the formation of a crust on the surface. By the end of vystoyki humidity marshmallow 20-23%.
In the absence of special vystoechnyh cameras stand halves marshmallow on the indoor plant. It should maintain a temperature not lower than 25-30 ° and provide enhanced ventilation. Duration vystoyki in these conditions, about 24 hours.
After vystoyki set trays with marshmallows on a chain conveyor, which brings them under the mechanism for dusting with icing sugar, from which they are moving further bonding portion halves. In this area of the tray surface manually separate the two halves and connect their flat sides.
If a variety of marshmallow with a filling is made, before gluing the halves inside the marshmallow, fill this or that stuffing, consisting of marmalade figured items, pieces of sugared fruit or whole brewed in sugar syrup berries. The glued, molded marshmallow is transferred to sieves, covered with paper, moving along the belt conveyor. Filled sieves are removed from the conveyor and installed on rack trolleys, which are sent to the tide. Marshmallow is kept to dry it on racks in a dry room with relative humidity of air no higher than 60-65% for 8-12 hour.
The final moisture content of marshmallow before laying must be from up to 16 20%. Marshmallows are placed in boxes, cardboard or plywood boxes, trays. Boxes and plywood trays packed in an outer packaging.
Technological scheme carved marshmallow and marshmallow (Fig. 34)
Applesauce different parties on the instructions of the lab is drawn from the barrels in a vacuum collection 1, where drained by gravity into 2 mixer. After kneading the mixture until smooth puree is pumped pump 3 4 in the collection, from which it enters the car wiper 5. Pureed applesauce merges into the collection and pumped 6 7 19 pumps in the collection, mounted on prescription station.
Return waste production pastilles and marshmallows served in 8 bunker, over which set locks 9 mixer and mixing dry waste. The waste is then passed through a wiper car 10 in the form of grated mass merge into a collection of 11, 12 from the pump is pumped into the collection 22 prescription station.
Sugar is loaded into the hopper of the bags bucket elevator 14 where sieved to Tryasunov 13 and 23 enters the bunker.
Agar after steeping it in the form of jelly is pumped into the collection 25 on the cooking station.
Molasses comes in on the overpass 15 barrels where drained into a collection 16 heated and then sent through a filter 17 18 31 pump in the collection at the cooking station.
Sugar-apple mixture for the production of pastes with the addition of waste is prepared їv mixers 35 and 36. In this case the components of the mixture are loaded using 20 measuring tanks for apple sauce and waste and sugar measuring tank 24 for traveling on the monorail with the weighing scales at 21.
After obtaining a homogeneous mixture through the latest collection of 37 39 plunger pump is pumped to the upper body continually shake up the current aggregate 43. From feeders 33 last served egg white, and from collections 34- essences and dyes.
In parallel, the process of knocking down on the cooking station is prepared agar glue.
Agar with sugar and molasses are spread in an open cooking pot 26, and the sugar fed through dipstick 24 and 21 scales, agar-25 of the collection, and molasses-through dipstick 32.
Agar-sugar-molasses solution is discharged through the filter and pump 27 28 pumped s collection 29u where gravity fed into a continuously operating 30 cooking column for the cook to the desired density.
Ready agar glue of cooking columns 30 directs smiling gravity into a collection of 44, where it flows into the lower body continually shake up the current unit (for pastes) or in a batch shake up the machine (for marshmallow).
After mixing Pastila mass of the lower housing unit or marshmallow shake up the mass of the unloading openings shake up machines is discharged into the hopper 40 41 and filling machine through a slit valve it fills trays, pre-blanketed rubberized cloth on the table 42.
After filling the trays with grazing on weight rack trolleys sent to the tunnel vystoyku 45, where the reservoir is supplied in trays to "46 the cutting machine to cut and pastes layout on sieve mounted on the rack trolley
pastes Drying is carried out in tunnel kilns 47; After cooling the candy comes to laying the pipeline 48 with dusting device. The laid and weighted products are transferred to 49 packing table, and then give up the expedition.
For the production of marshmallow prescription sugar-apple mixture is prepared without waste.
Using the measuring device is loaded into the 38 50 shake up the machine. There also 52 of the measuring device is fed egg white. Pos le pouring adhesive syrup through dipstick 34 and kneading it with the weight of the latter knocked zephyr merges into 51 hopper and fed into the machine zefirootsadochnuyu 54. From the latter half cast on trays arrive on the conveyor belt from which trays to rearrange 53 carts.
Carts come with marshmallows in 55 tunnel vystoyki, then marshmallows on trays sprinkled with powdered sugar in a special installation 56 or table trays mounted on the trans 57 porters for gluing the halves and overlaying of products on a conveyor belt 58, 59 vystoechny passing through the channel. After that dried products moving to the laying belt conveyor 60. Placed and weighted goods in boxes supplied to 61 packing table and then on the expedition.
Varieties of marshmallow and marshmallow
Of the species carved pastes should be noted the so-called brew candy. Its production is composed mainly of the same operation as the production of the adhesive pastes. The main difference is the type of custard pastes that cooking adhesive syrup is replaced in this case by cooking marmalade masses.
The resulting hot mass of jelly immediately goes to mix with cooked simultaneously knocked weight.
Fig. 34. Technological scheme carved marshmallow and marshmallow.
Consumption of apple sauce, necessary for the production of custard paste, on 32-35% higher than that of the adhesive paste, which is explained by the replacement of the latter part of the mashed studneobrazuyuschim agar.
For vystoyki and drying pastes custard takes more time than the adhesive, due to its slower return of water.
Tendency to sugarcraft when stored in the brew pastes expressed somewhat weaker than that of the adhesive.
Custard candy generate mainly in the form of carved piece goods rectangular shape - bars or squares in size and taste similar adhesive pastes.
According to GOST  chemical composition boxed pastilles custard should be as follows: water content 15-14%, reducing agents 12-18%, total acidity 0,4-1,2% (by malic acid).
Custard candy produced in the form of n l and from then on the second, which is close in type to the so-called Belevsky She pastes made from Pastila and marmalade mass in the form of alternating layers with a different color or in the form of elongated loaves of helically coiled layers.
Belevsky candy made of apple puree obtained from baked apples. It is produced in the form of bars of rectangular or trapezoidal section or rolls weighing up to 5 kg. The surface of these bars have daubed Pastila mass in the form of a white glaze.
Average humidity Belevsky pastes standard quality 20-23% and the content of reducing substances 20-24%.
Marshmallow and marshmallow. The adhesive paste and marshmallows are quite suitable object for glazing of chocolate. Marshmallow and marshmallow have a high taste and product quality. Chocolate glaze protects candy and marshmallow on saccharification and staling. Operation enrobing chocolate is no different from that described for other sweets (see. "The production of chocolates" section).
Waste, marriage and the loss in the production of products Pastila
In the production process waste pastes are obtained, which constitute the bulk of the crop (the ends) with the cutting stage Pastila formation, and then candy, marriage, deformed (drawn from the sides, crumpled, sticky, and others.) From the stage of drying and styling.
In the production of marshmallow waste consists mainly of defective appearance pieces and halves marshmallow, culls on "various stages, as well as from scrapings from the trays and other equipment.
Benign sanitary against the rejected products are used as grazing production of recyclable waste.
In a particular method of waste processing protein contained therein is impaired in relation to its foaming properties; agar, a part of the grazing and marshmallow crumbs, until recently depreciated in terms of its ability to studneobrazovaniyu.
In order to protect the agar contained in these wastes, by hydrolytic cleavage under the action of acid present in them at the Moscow confectionery factory "Udarnitsa" adopted a new method of processing, based on the principle to neutralize their acidity. Using weak alkaline salts and then boiling them.
To waste in special collection mixer, water is added in an amount of about 20% of their weight.
They are thoroughly mixed until a homogeneous semifluid mass and passed through the grinding machine.
The shredded waste is added 0,5% by weight of the total weight of disodium phosphate waste (Na2NR04* 12Н20)
Said salt is administered in the form 20% solution (1 part by weight of salt per weight part of water 1). The mixture is stirred thoroughly, then charged in its vacuum apparatus or outdoor digester, heated under vacuum 400- 500 mm vacuum gauge or under atmospheric pressure for 30-40 min. to achieve fusion and 25-27% humidity.
The treated waste in a hot liquid state is sent to collections of which are in the form of continuous jets arrive in a continuous whipping apparatus.
Adding allowed to return waste 15% (based on equivalents contained therein purée and sugar) from the weight of the load in the car shake up.
Due to the large number of wooden stock, a multiplicity of manufacturing operations, including individual transactions associated with spray powder, the loss of production of large size can take from insufficient attention to them.
Carried out in recent years, most of the mechanization of production sites pastes (churning, casting, cutting, drying, powdering) gave a significant effect in terms of reducing the loss of marriage, and in these areas.
References throughout the section "Pectin plant, the role of pectin in plants"
- Prof. FV Tserevitinov, Chemistry and merchandising of fresh fruit and vegetables, Gostorgizdat, 1949.
- LB C on a tio n with a and d, Modern problems of chemistry pectin, Colloids in the food industry, II of the collection, Pischepromiz- dates, 1949.
- SA Chapter and m and n, colloidal properties of pectin acid, Scientific notes GUS XXIV 57, 1949.
- SI Orlov, Supervisor prof. SA Chapter and m and n, "Influence of some physical and chemical factors on studneobrazuyuschuyu spo lities pectin". Dissertation Research Institute of Chemistry, Saratov State University, 1953.
- L. I. Kertesz, The pectic substances, New York, 1951.
- B. Hotte nroth, the pectins and their use, Munich, 1951.
- H. M a a s s, Die Pektine, Braunschweig, 1951.
- AH Samsonov sulfitation fruit Pshtsepromizdat, 1956.
- LB C on a tio n with a and d, MA F and L w to about in a, The experience of chemical and technological characteristics of the forest apples different regions of the USSR, TSKNII Proceedings, vol. 89, 1937.
- LB On the basis of the cue, MA and Phi hatches, Preservation of vitamin C in the manufacture of confectionery, fruit and berry products, VNITOKOND, 1940.
- D, M. Znamensky, technological equipment of sugar factories, Pishchepromizdat, 1952.
- M. Ya Wild, the AH M a l lis h, Technological equipment con servnyh plants Pishchepromizdat, 1953.
- LB with the UN, MA Phi hatch in about a, M. E. The K at p Sushko and Mr. and Guo ryachaya sulfitation applesauce, VKNII Proceedings, vol. 56, 1936.
- B. Ha nk e HIV, Storage of fruits and berries in ice piles. Series "Sharing best practices" MPPT RSFSR, 1955.
- LB Sosnowski, Study losses applesauce at different storage conditions, VKNII Proceedings, vol. III, 1941.
- Formulations in the marmalade-Pastila products. The official publication of the Soviet Union, WFP, Pishchepromizdat, 1952.
- Technological mode of production of fruit and berry marmalade, official publication of the Soviet Union, WFP, 1952.
- LB Sosnowski, study the drying process tin of apple jelly *, VKNII Proceedings, vol. VIII, 1953.
- SA Kozlov, advanced experience in the pastipo-marmalade factory "Udarnitsa" From "Sharing best practices" MPPT USSR Pi schepromizdat, 1955.
- NA T o m d e b r a n d t, new manufacturing tin apple marmalade technology From the "exchange of best practices" MPPT USSR Pishchepromizdat, 1955.
- AL Sokolovsky, LS Kuznetsova, processes studneobrazovaniya fruit candy masses MTIPPa Proceedings, vol. X, 1957.
- GOST 6442-52, Marmalade.
- SA Chapter and m and n, IG W y e n a c a, Research in the field of Physics and Chemistry of agar, Colloid Journal XIX, Vol. 2, 1957.
- Technology of production of fruit jelly mode, the WFP official publication of the USSR, 1952.
- B. X and u to e and h in manufacturing marmalade varieties "Strawberry". From the series "Sharing best practices" MPPT RSFSR, 1956.
- LB C on a tio n with a and d, optimal conditions for the use in the production of jelly agaroid tin of marmalade, Collection of informa- tion technology VKNII Vol. 2 (8), 1957.
- MA F and L w to about in a, Effect of drying egg white on its foaming capacity, VNITOKOND, 1940.
- Filiukov MA, EM Kurush kin, VS Seydak, role of individual physical and chemical factors in the process of churning pastes, VKNII Proceedings, vol. 109, 1938.
- Technology grazing manufacturing production mode. Official publication MG1P USSR, 1953.
- LB Sosnowski, VG X and u to e and h in a, SA Kozlov, rational technological scheme of production of pastes, VKNII Proceedings, vol. XI, 1955.
- GOST 6441-52, Pastilla
In 1958 was VKNII together with the Moscow confectionery factory "Udarnitsa" developed an improved method for processing waste Pastila and marshmallow described below.