A marshmallow differs from a carved gum pastila in that it is not given a rectangular shape, but a spherical or oblong rounded shape.
In addition, it has a more lush consistency.
In accordance with the peculiarities of the marshmallow, the order of work during its manufacture is modified. Apples for churning mashed potatoes take richer in pectin and dry substances. Knocking down the mass of marshmallow leads to a higher rise than the ordinary marshmallow. Due to this, the marshmallow mass is more lush and lighter than the pastila. The weight of the mass is about 0,4. The marshmallow glue syrup is boiled down to a solids content of 84 — 85% at an agar concentration of 1,0 — 1,2%. The resulting syrup is added at the end of churning in an amount equal to the weight of the entire load of raw materials.
The finished marshmallow mass (after mixing with glue) contains from 28 to 30% water, 8 — 10% reducing substances and from 0,5 to 0,6% agar.
Due to the higher content of agar and a lower water content compared to the paste mass, the marshmallow mass before gelation has a higher viscosity and some plasticity, due to which it can be easily molded by molding.
Ready marshmallow mass is drained from the shake up in the collections of machines from which it goes to the casting (depositing marshmallow).
Next, the marshmallow mass is sent by gravity (or using a special boot device) to the bunker of the Marshall Marshackle System of the S. A. Rabinovich and V. N. Sokolov systems (Fig. 32).
At the bottom of the 1 hopper with a water jacket is mounted a dosing-jigging mechanism consisting of 2 piston fillers and metal tips with 3 serrated edges fixed on a movable frame and connected to the fillers with flexible rubber hoses.
The marshmallow jigging trays are installed on the 4 chain conveyor. With the help of scallops, fortified to chains, they are fed continuously under the machine hopper.
Fig. 32. Zefirootsadochnaya machine.
Through a sequence cycle of operations performed Dosing-jigging mechanism using the system eccentric cam and gear, marshmallow mass It is deposited in equal portions on 6 trays.
At the same time, the frame with rubber hoses fixed in it makes a complex transverse-longitudinal translational movement, as a result of which each molded portion of the mass assumes a round or oval shape with a corrugated (corrugated) surface (Fig. 33).
Trays with a cast on them marshmallows (n on n on n and in a m and) go on roller 5 (see. Fig. 32), where they are removed, mounted on a rack trolley and sent to vystoyku. Performance of the machine about 300 kg / hour zefir finished.
Fig. 33. jigging of zephyr on trays.
Trays directed to jigging of marshmallow, preliminarily using special knives, are thoroughly stripped of particles of marshmallow mass adhered to them.
In small enterprises where there is no mechanized installation for stripping trays and jigging of marshmallow, marshmallow is poured manually using special funnels from rubberized cloth (marshmallow envelopes). The outlet of these funnels ends with a tin tip with jagged edges. The jagged edges of the tip leave a corrugated pattern on the surface of the molded candy. Individual products are deposited in rows on the boards, pre-sprinkled with a thin layer of powder. The marshmallow board is an ordinary wooden shield, smoothly planed, measuring 1400X400 mm. Each board houses about 90 halves of a round shape and 60 halves of an oblong shape with a total weight of about 1,3 kg. From the bottom, this board has two stands with height around 10, see the latter. It is possible to make stacks like racks from separate boards filled with deposited marshmallow.
The marshmallow halves are held in chambers in which during the first 3 — 4 an hour. maintain the temperature 20 — 25 °, and in subsequent 5 — 6 an hour. 33 — 36 °; relative air humidity 50 — 60%. In the process of drying, the gelation of marshmallow mass occurs, as well as some drying, which contributes to the formation of a crust on the surface. By the end of the heat, the humidity of the marshmallow 20 — 23%.
In the absence of special vystoyechny chambers, halves of marshmallow are kept in the air in the workshop room. At the same time it is necessary to maintain the temperature not lower than 25 — 30 ° and to ensure enhanced ventilation. The duration of vystoyka in these conditions about 24 hour.
At the end of the curing set trays with marshmallows on the chain conveyor, which brings them under the mechanism for sprinkling with powdered sugar, from where they move further to the area of gluing halves. In this area, two halves are manually separated from the tray surface and connected with flat sides.
If a sort of marshmallow with a filling is made, then before gluing the halves inside the marshmallow, one or another filling consisting of marmalade figured products is put from pieces of candied fruit or from whole berries cooked in sugar syrup. Glued, molded marshmallows shift on the sieve, covered with paper, moving on a belt conveyor. Filled sieves are removed from the conveyor and installed on rack trolleys that are sent to the rack. The marshmallow is kept to dry it on racks in a dry room at a relative air humidity not higher than 60 — 65% for 8 — 12 an hour.
The final moisture content of the marshmallow before laying should be from 16 to 20%. Marshmallow is placed in boxes, cardboard or plywood boxes-trays. Boxes and plywood trays are packed in outer containers.
Technological scheme carved marshmallow and marshmallow (Fig. 34)
Apple mashed potatoes of different batches, according to laboratory instructions, are sucked from barrels into a vacuum collector 1, from where they are drained by gravity into an 2 mixer. After kneading until a homogeneous mixture is obtained, the mash is pumped by the 3 pump into the 4 collector, from which it flows into the 5 cleaning machine. The grated applesauce is poured into the 6 collection and pumped to the 7 pumps into the 19 collection installed at the prescription station.
Return waste production pastilles and marshmallows served in 8 bunker, over which set locks 9 mixer and mixing dry waste. The waste is then passed through a wiper car 10 in the form of grated mass merge into a collection of 11, 12 from the pump is pumped into the collection 22 prescription station.
Sugar is loaded from the bags into the funnel of the 14 bucket elevator where it is sieved on the 13 shaker and fed to the 23 bunker.
Agar after locking it in the form of jelly is pumped into a collection of 25 at the cooking station.
Molasses comes in on the overpass 15 barrels where drained into a collection 16 heated and then sent through a filter 17 18 31 pump in the collection at the cooking station.
Sugar-apple mixture for the production of pastila with the addition of waste is prepared in mixers 35 and 36. At the same time, the components of the mixture are loaded using the 20 measuring device for applesauce and waste and the 24 measuring device for sugar moving along the monorail, weighed on an 21 balance.
After a homogeneous mixture is obtained, the latter, through the 37 collector, is pumped by the 39 plunger pump into the upper body of the continuously operating 43 sbivannaya unit. Egg white is supplied from 33 dispensers to the latter, and essences and dyes are supplied from 34 collections.
In parallel with the process of churning, agar glue is prepared at the cooking station.
Agar with sugar and molasses is dispersed in an open 26 digester, while sugar is loaded through the 24 measuring device and 21 scales, agar from the 25 collection, and molasses through the 32 measuring device.
Agar-sugar-molasses solution is discharged through the filter and pump 27 28 pumped s collection 29u where gravity fed into a continuously operating 30 cooking column for the cook to the desired density.
The finished agar glue from the 30 brewing columns is directed by gravity to the 44 collection, from where it enters the lower body of the continuously operating sbivannogo aggregate (for pastila) or into periodically operating knocking machines (for marshmallow).
At the end of the mixing, the pastille mass from the lower body of the sbivannogo aggregate or the marshmallow mass from the unloading orifice of the whittling machines is poured into the 40 hopper of the 41 filling machine and through the slotted faucet in it fills the trays previously covered with a rubberized sheet on the 42 table.
After bottling, trays with spreading weight on rack trolleys are sent to the 45 tunnel ramp, from where the formation in the trays goes to the “46 cutting machine for cutting and laying pastila on sieves mounted on rack trolleys
Drying pastes is carried out in tunnel dryers 47; after cooling, the pastille enters the 48 stacking conveyor with a dusting device. The packed and weighed items are transferred to the 49 packing table and then surrendered to the expedition.
For the production of marshmallow prescription sugar-apple mixture is prepared without waste.
With the help of the 38 measuring device, it is loaded into the 50 blending machines. Egg white is fed from the 52 measuring device. After pouring the glue syrup through the 34 measuring device and kneading it with the whipped marshmallow mass, the latter is poured into the 51 hopper and enters the 54 zephyro-shedding machine. From the latter, the cast halves arrive at the conveyor, from which the trays are moved to 53 trolleys.
Marshmallow carts enter the 55 tunnel for drying, then the marshmallows on the trays are sprinkled with powdered sugar in a special 56 installation or on the table, the trays are installed on the 57 conveyors for gluing the halves and transferring the products to the 58 conveyor belt passing through the XNUM channel. After that, the dried products are transferred to the 59 conveyor belt. The packed and weighed goods in the boxes arrive on the packing table of the 60 and then on the expedition.
Varieties of marshmallow and marshmallow
Of the varieties of carved pastes should be noted the so-called choux pastila. Its production consists mainly of the same operations as the production of adhesive marshmallow. The main difference of the custard paste is that the cooking of the glue syrup in this case is replaced by the cooking of the marmalade mass.
The resulting hot marmalade mass immediately goes for mixing with the simultaneously cooked mass.
Fig. 34. Technological scheme carved marshmallow and marshmallow.
The consumption of apple puree, necessary for the manufacture of custard pastes, by 32 — 35% is higher than for glue pastila, which is explained by the replacement in the latter case of part of the mashed potatoes with a jelly-forming agar.
For vystoyki and drying pastes custard takes more time than the adhesive, due to its slower return of water.
The tendency to sugaring during storage of custard pastes is somewhat weaker than that of glue.
Choux pastilles are produced mainly in the form of carved pieces of rectangular shape - bars or squares, in size and taste like glue paste.
According to GOST , the chemical composition of the piece custy marshmallow must be as follows: water content 15 — 14%, reducing substances 12 — 18%, total acidity 0,4 — 1,2% (for malic acid).
Choux marshmallow is also produced in the form of a plateau, which is similar in type to the So-called Beleva marshmallow. It is made from pastila and marmalade mass in the form of alternating layers with different colors or in the form of elongated loaves of spiral layers.
Belevskaya marshmallow is made from applesauce made from baked apples. It is produced in the form of bars of rectangular or trapezoidal section or rolls weighing up to 5 kg. The surface of these bars is coated with a pastelium in the form of white glaze.
The average humidity of the white pastilles of standard quality 20 — 23% and the content of reducing substances 20 — 24%.
Candy and marshmallows in chocolate. Glue marshmallow and marshmallows are quite suitable object for glazing with chocolate. The marshmallow and marshmallows in chocolate have high taste and commodity qualities. Chocolate glaze protects pastes and marshmallows from sugaring and stale. The operation of chocolate glazing does not differ from that described for other candies (see the section “Candy Production”).
Waste, marriage and the loss in the production of products Pastila
In the production process of pastes, waste is obtained, the main mass of which consists of trimming (ends) from the cutting stage of the pastille layer, and then the candy is scraped, deformed (with retracted sides, rumpled, stuck, etc.) from the drying and stacking stage.
In the production of marshmallow, waste consists mainly of pieces and marshmallow marshmallows that are defective in appearance, rejected at different stages, as well as from cleaning from trays and other equipment.
Benign sanitary against the rejected products are used as grazing production of recyclable waste.
With a particular method of processing these wastes, the protein contained in them is depreciated in relation to its foaming capacity; The agar, which is part of the crusty and marshmallow crumbs, until recently depreciated in the sense of its ability to gelatinization.
In order to protect the agar contained in these wastes from hydrolytic decomposition under the action of the acid present in them, a new processing method was adopted at the Moscow confectionary factory Udarnitsa based on the principle of neutralizing their acidity c. using weakly alkaline salts and their subsequent boiling.
Water in an amount of about 20% to their weight is added to the waste in a special collection mixer.
Thoroughly mix them until a homogeneous semi-liquid mass and pass through a grinding machine.
The shredded waste is added 0,5% by weight of the total weight of disodium phosphate waste (Na2NR04* 12Н20)
The specified amount of salt is administered in the form of an 20% solution (1 weight portion of salt per 1 weight portion of water). Stir the mixture thoroughly, then load it into a vacuum apparatus or into an open digester, heat under vacuum with 400 — 500 mm using a vacuum gauge or under atmospheric pressure for 30 — 40 minutes. before melting and reaching a humidity of 25 — 27%.
The waste treated in this way in the hot liquid state is sent to collections, from which they in the form of a continuous jet enter the apparatus of continuous churning.
It is allowed to add up to 15% returnable waste (according to the equivalent of mashed potatoes and sugar) based on the weight of the entire load in the whipping machine.
Due to the large amount of wooden inventory, the multiplicity of production operations, of which individual operations are associated with powder spraying, the loss of this production with insufficient attention to them can take on large sizes.
The mechanization of most of the production sites of pastes (churning, casting, cutting, drying, and dusting) in recent years has had a significant effect in terms of reducing scrap and losses in these areas.
Literature on the whole section “Pectic substances of plants, the role of pectic substances in plants”
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- MA Filraku, Effect of drying egg white on its foaming ability, VNITOKOND, 1940.
- M.A. Filyukova, E.M. Kurush kina, V.S. Seydak, The role of individual physicochemical factors in the process of churning marshmallow, Proceedings of VKNII, vol. 109, 1938.
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- L. B. Sosnovsky, V. G. Kakhtsev, S. A. Kozlov, Rational technological scheme for the production of marshmallow, Proceedings of EKNII, vol. XI, 1955.
- GOST 6441-52, Pastilla
In 1958 of VKNII, together with the Moscow confectionary factory "Udarnitsa", a more advanced method of processing pastille and marshmallow wastes, described below.