Dried apple marmalade tin standard quality contains 22-24% water, 20-28% of reducing substances.
Fruit jelly is placed in cardboard boxes weighing from 100 to 500 2 or in trays of net weight up to 5 kg for loose sale. In each packing unit, put the jujube "full set", i.e. equal quantities of marmalade of all tastes and colors, which are according to the standard. For better protection of marmalade from humidification by external air and from drying, boxes and boxes are covered from above, from below and from the sides by waterproof paper. The most suitable for this is paraffined paper. Each horizontal row of laid marmalade is also restyled with waxed paper to avoid sticking. The marmalade is laid manually on conveyors or on ordinary tables.
In laying the tables arranged in tiers, making it possible to prepare for ukladchitsy sieve with a full set of marmalade all colors required for each box and tray.
Fig. 17 is a diagram of the laying of the conveyor device.
Boxes and crates, trays packed in them marmalade labeling in accordance with the requirements of the standard and give them the appropriate look and feel (bandaging tape, wrapping in paper). Then packaged boxed product in plank or cardboard boxes with a capacity up to 50 kg. If the marmalade is intended for long-distance shipments, it is packed in an outer packaging, which must meet the current specifications. Not allowed wet plank container, since it can lead to soggy boxes and marmalade.
On the outer packaging the required markings. Packed marmalade transferred to the expedition. Optimal air conditions in the room for the expedition of marmalade: the temperature not higher than 20 ° and relative humidity 70-75%. Properly prepared and packed marmalade
Fig. 17. The scheme of work on the packing conveyor for marmalade:
1-sieve with marmalade; 2-boxes or trays for marmalade; 3- empty sieve; 4-boxes or trays are stacked in their products.
It can be stored under these conditions without noticeable changes during 2 months or more. At temperatures below zero jellies can be stored indefinitely. However, as with all other confectionery products, sharp fluctuations in temperature have an adverse effect on the jujube (in particular sharp transition from cold to heat).
If, during the production of marmalade are any mistakes were made, you may get wet during storage or candy marmalade.
The wetting of marmalade can be caused by the lack of the ability of pectin to retain the liquid phase of jelly. This separates the liquid phase of marmalade, a process that is determined by the colloid-chemical term syneresis. The inadequate ability of pectin to bind the liquid phase can depend on the inappropriate selection of apple puree, the weakening of pectin during prolonged cooking or drying, the too high concentration of hydrogen ions of marmalade mass (pH below 2,0-2,5), and also the increased content of reducing sugars resulting from Improper formulation, improper handling of cooking or drying processes.
Marmalade can also get wet due to the high humidity of the ambient air, raw container, stacking too hot commodity, sudden change in temperature.
Sugarcraft marmalade is due to the high concentration of sucrose and a low content of reducing sugars, or lack of humidity of marmalade, or excessive dryness of the surrounding air. Low quality purees and pectin can cause weakness under appropriate conditions or sugarcraft marmalade, or a wetting.
Marmalade, prone to wetting or sugarcraft, can not withstand long-term storage. After a relatively short time marmalade "soak", ie. E. Its surface becomes wet and sticky, or it loses its luster, dull and rough forms a crust, then gradually prosaharivaetsya throughout the bed.
Flowsheet mass production of apple marmalade pan
The results obtained in recent years on the basis of work VKNII et al. Positive decisions in a continuous process in the main production areas (cooking marmalade mass, casting her, cages, marmalade sampling and drying) to ensure the necessary conditions for the implementation of assembly-line production (Fig. 18).
Applesauce of individual barrels (or 1 drawn tanks in a vacuum collection 2, in the quantity required for approximately one shift. Then, all mashed vacuum collection is transmitted to one of the 3 mixer, where it is thoroughly mixed. From there, the pump 4 mash is pumped in the interim collection 5. The last mash is fed to a control rubbing 6. pureed mashed directed through a collection of 7 and 8 pump into the upper collection 9.
The mobile bowl 10, 14 installed on the scales, weighed puree in an amount necessary for a one-hour power continuously operating cooking column, and upset the contents of the bowl in the mixer 15.
Sugar is brought to the 11 elevator receiving bin, equipped with a shaker for sifting sugar and a magnetic device. The elevator lifts the sugar and falls asleep into the 12 collection, from where it is as needed (taken in the 13 bowl mounted on the 14 scale and weighed in the same mixer 15.
Molasses drained from obmytyh outside in the collection barrels 16 heating, where it through the 17 and 18 pump filter comes in a collection of 19, and from there via the dipstick 21 in the required amount is fed into the collection at the end of cooking 23. Welded jelly mass is discharged to a lower collection of 23, which also added to the "second" sugar supplies, dyes,
Fig. 18. Flowsheet mass production of apple jelly pan.
essences using continuously operating dosing. After stirring pumped mass 24 25 in the dispensing head of the unit. Last produces casting, molding and sampling jelly sweets and layout them in a sieve.
Sieve with marmalade on racks 26 sent to the camera continuously operating 27 dryers. Sieve with dried jelly transferred to laying the pipeline 28, then items in boxes or plywood boxes are on the table for decoration 29, 30 out on the packing table and expedition.
The total duration of the cooking cycle apple marmalade tin is from 8 12 to an hour.
Variety of fruit-jam âgodnogo
Besides apple tin of marmalade, our factories produce several other varieties of fruit and berry marmalade: carved, lump (or formation), and others.
The above basis of the production of fruit and berry marmalade are common to all its variants, the properties of which are based on studneobrazovanii pectin fruit and berries with sugar. The differences are mainly in relation to the minor constituents of the formulation, finishing techniques, processing of finished products.
This species differs from the tin of marmalade that individual candies are obtained by cutting with a knife marmalade formation. The cooked marmalade weight for slaughter product is poured into wooden boxes with boards in height about 1,5- 2 cm. Jelly mass in the form of gelled layer of appropriate thickness. After the gelling layer of marmalade cut into bars in standard sizes up to 20 g, which is spread on a sieve and then sent to the dryer, and bring the humidity of marmalade before 18-20%. Pack it in a box or boxes.
This marmalade is prepared in the form of pure apple or as black currant, Rowan, raspberry and others., Depending on the added to the apple mash of various kinds of fruit supplies.
Carved marmalade produced sprinkled with sugar or powdered sugar.
Marmalade carved in circulation is obtained in the same manner as that of carving, with the difference that in this case, jujube glazes in a so-called "lottery" syrup. Sugar syrup is prepared for replication in the form of highly concentrated and a supersaturated sugar solution. The latter gives a slightly crystallize in the hot marmalade and pour them on all sides.
As a result of rapid cooling of the syrup from the contact with the cold surface of marmalade produced fine-grained film on the latter. Obtained by this method a thin (Beautiful cover, if it is done correctly, no bubbles, blisters or other defects, marmalade gives an attractive appearance and gives it resistance against wet in storage and saccharification. Sometimes the same way the surface is treated with tin of marmalade.
Lump (Formation) marmalade
The composition of apple-sugar mixture for this marmalade does not differ from that intended for molding. The marmalade mass is cooked in serpentine cookers or spherical vacuum apparatuses. The mass is poured directly after cooking into plywood boxes up to 5-7 kg, which serve as packaging for this marmalade. Tray boxes are lined internally with parchment or parapet. Dilute the jelly mass with a machine that automatically doses the mass by volume. Box-trays with marmalade mass are installed on special shelves, which are kept with an unclosed top surface for gelatinization, cooling and obtaining a fine-grained crust on the open face of the formation. For this purpose, keep the floating marmalade in a dry, well-ventilated room for 12-24 an hour.
After cooling and the formation of a normal crust on the exposed surface of marmalade last covered parchment, waxed or cellophane sheet, close the lid, and label spikes  according to GOST.
An important requirement for the quality of this type of marmalade is to get on the surface of a dry crust. The latter serves to protect against mildew and insects. The danger of microbiological spoilage are present there are more than a piece of marmalade, since moisture of the finished product (29-33%) in this case is higher than the humidity of marmalade carved and tin.
Equally important for lump marmalade has the correct recipe (selection studneobrazuyuschego puree). When working with weakly studneobrazuyuschim mashed jujube gives your batch weak or not gelled. Meanwhile, for lump marmalade need to have a dense, strong SADC as it has a tendency to separate the liquid phase. Under its own weight, jelly, cast high layer, pressing off the sugar-acid solution of jelly can occur marmalade begins to "leak."
Sometimes, for the production of lump marmalade use applesauce mixed with cranberry, cornel, plum and other studneobrazuyuschimi Fruit puree. Lump marmalade manufactured as two or more alternating layers of different tastes and colors. This is known as cranberry marmalade, plum, two-layer, three-layer, and so on. D.
Under this name combined group of fruit products with apricot basis. There are also less common varieties of special Patov: cornel, renklodovy with the base of the respective stone fruit.
Because of the specific properties of apricot pectin (pectin and other stone fruits), which gives the jelly, jelly, different from apple pectin preparation Patov has its own characteristics. Apricot pectin makes this marmalade jelly. Apricot Jelly is a more "zatyazhistym" poorly to cutting knife and is selected from the rigid forms.
The blended formulation was for Patov usually cooked in open kettles. Recipe for Patov provides a significant preponderance of sugar against the fruit puree. For cooking, you must have a stalemate heating steam of a higher pressure than the apple jelly, since at low heat cooking stalemate may be delayed for too long. Mass for the stalemate is usually adjusted to a thick consistency with the ultimate moisture 10-15%.
Cooked weight is molded in the form of candy weighing up to 5 20 g, often in the form of hemispheres by casting in sugar or powdered. For this purpose, on a layer of dry sand or powder applied with a punch suitably shaped cell, which is filled with hot cooked fruit and sugar mass. After gelling during 30-40 minutes. candy sprinkle with additional sugar or powdered from all sides and directed to vystoyku, then - on the packing.
Typically, to prepare Patov take a mixture of apricot puree with apple, plum or other fruit puree. For added flavor, fruit and berry supplies or essences.
Close to patamu by the method of preparation and physico-chemical properties are, and some other varieties of confectionery, fruit and berry products, known as "color dots", "Abrikotin", "dessert Bukhara" and others.
With regard to these "kinds of products subject to the same preparation principles (strong boiling fruit and sugar mass to sample at a stalemate, followed by molding sugar or powdered), but they are different exterior design (in the form of large peas, cakes round or oval) with various surface finishes - dusting with powdered sugar, coating - brown sugar and others.
Waste, marriage and the loss in the production of fruit and berry marmalade
Particular attention in the manufacture of marmalade demands the issue of waste, marriage and loss. The largest amount of waste, marriage and losses obtained by the manual handling of piece goods (casting into molds and sample of them, cutting, drying, styling jellies).
Waste at these stages are obtained in the form of remnants of marmalade, not selected a form of cells, scraps from the cutting formations-smёta sugar in transit, sprinkled and other operations.
The amount of waste produced depends on the degree of mechanization processes and performance for the respective production stages, and generating from the plant sizes.
Here is the actual number of major waste generation apple tin of marmalade factory "Udarnitsa" Materials research VKNII (in% by weight of the finished product).
Vyterki from secondary wipe applesauce 0,31%,
Waste in the casting, the sample pan of apple marmalade and layout of the farms on the sieve 2,9%.
Waste when drying and styling apple marmalade pan 1,5%.
Secondary vyterki used as described in the section on fruit and berry puree. Smёt Sugar is a food suitable for bees.
The remaining waste is returned to production, in most cases directly after wiping or rubbing with subsequent perevarki through the machine. The resulting mass is added to the mashed formula mixture of different types of products. In most cases, prepared in this manner are added to the waste lumpy marmalade and dark-colored varieties of tin or carved apple marmalade. Recycled waste is introduced into the formulation, as at these parts.
Marriage jelly (marmalade too zatyazhistoy sugary or consistency, and so sticky surface. D.) Is used in the same manner as described above with regard to returnable waste.
The main sources of losses in the production of jellies are spreading and sticking of marmalade mass production on inventory balances on the walls of the digesters and the rest of the equipment.
Acceptable standards of losses n waste on individual varieties of products regulated by the approved formulations  and technological conditions .
Marmalade production losses must be minimized by further mechanization of production and the development of cost-effective waste management practices and wash water from cleaning equipment and apparatus.