Dried apple tin marmalade of standard quality contains 22 — 24% water, 20 — 28% reducing substances.
Marmalade is placed in cardboard boxes weighing from 100 to 500 2 or in drawer trays net in weight up to 5 kg for a weighted sale. In each packaging unit, marmalade is packed “in a complete set”, that is, in equal quantities of marmalade of all tastes and colors, which are relied on by the standard. To better protect marmalade from humidification by outside air and from drying out, boxes and boxes are covered with waterproof paper on top, bottom and sides. The most suitable for this waxed paper. Each horizontal row of stacked marmalade is also covered with waxed paper to prevent sticking. Marmalade is laid manually on conveyors or on ordinary tables.
In laying the tables arranged in tiers, making it possible to prepare for ukladchitsy sieve with a full set of marmalade all colors required for each box and tray.
Fig. 17 is a diagram of the laying of the conveyor device.
Boxes and boxes-trays with marmalade laid in them are labeled in accordance with the requirements of the standard and give them the appropriate external design (bandaging with tape, wrapping in paper). Then pack the boxed goods in crates or cardboard boxes with a capacity of up to 50 kg. If the marmalade is intended for long-distance shipments, then it is packaged in an outer packaging that must meet existing technical conditions. Wet packaging is not allowed, as it can lead to dampening of boxes and marmalade.
On the outer packaging the required markings. Packed marmalade is transferred to the expedition. The optimal mode of air in the expedition's room for marmalade: the temperature is not higher than 20 ° and the relative humidity of the air is 70 — 75%. Properly prepared and packaged marmalade
Fig. 17. Scheme of work on the packing conveyor for marmalade:
1-sieve with marmalade; 2-boxes or trays for marmalade; 3- empty sieve; 4-boxes or trays are stacked in their products.
may persist under specified conditions without noticeable changes for 2 months or more. At temperatures below zero, marmalade can be stored indefinitely. However, as with all other confectionery products, sharp fluctuations in temperature have a detrimental effect on the marmalade (especially a sharp transition from cold to heat).
If, during the production of marmalade are any mistakes were made, you may get wet during storage or candy marmalade.
Wet marmalade can be caused by the lack of pectin's ability to retain the liquid phase of the jelly. In this case, the liquid phase of the marmalade is separated, a process that is determined by the colloidal chemical term syneresis. The insufficient ability of pectin to bind the liquid phase may depend on the inappropriate choice of applesauce, weakening of pectin during prolonged cooking or drying, too high a concentration of hydrogen ions of marmalade mass (pH below 2,0-2,5), as well as from an increased content of reducing sugars resulting from improper formulation, improper conduct of cooking or drying processes.
Marmalade can also get wet due to the increased humidity of the surrounding air, wet containers, packing too warm goods, a sharp change in temperature.
Sugarcake marmalade is due to a high concentration of sucrose and a low content of reducing sugars or insufficient moisture of marmalade, or excessive dryness of the surrounding air. The poor quality of mashed potatoes and weakness of pectin can cause, under appropriate conditions, either sugaring of marmalade or its wetting.
Marmalade, prone to namokaniyu or sugared, can not withstand long-term storage. After a relatively short time, the marmalade “soaks”, i.e., its surface becomes wet and sticky, or it loses its luster, forms a dull and rough crust, then gradually sweeps across the entire layer.
Flowsheet mass production of apple marmalade pan
The positive decisions obtained in recent years on the basis of the work of VKNII and others in the field of the continuous process at the main production sites (cooking marmalade mass, casting it, curing, sampling and drying marmalade) provided the necessary conditions for the production flow (Fig. 18).
Applesauce from individual barrels (or tanks 1 is sucked into the vacuum collector 2, in an amount necessary for about one shift. Then all the mashed potatoes from the vacuum collector are transferred to one of the mixers 3, in which it is thoroughly mixed. From there, the puree is pumped by pump 4) in the intermediate collector 5. From the last puree enters the control wipe 6. The mashed puree is sent through the collector 7 and the pump 8 to the upper collector 9.
In the 10 mobile bowl installed on the 14 scale, mash is weighed in the amount necessary for one-hour feeding of the continuously operating cooking column, and the contents of the bowl are tilted into the 15 mixer.
Sugar is transported to the receiving hopper of the elevator 11, equipped with a rocker for sifting sugar and a magnetic apparatus. The elevator picks up the sugar and puts it in the collector 12, from where it is needed (It is taken into the bowl 13 mounted on the scales 14 and weighed out in the quantity required by the recipe to the amount of applesauce taken in the mixer 15. The weighed portion of sugar is tipped over the same mixer 15. From the latter, the apple-sugar mixture is taken by a plunger pump into the cooking column 22.
Molasses is drained from the barrels washed from the outside into the collector 16 with heating, from where it through the filter 17 and the pump 18 enters the collector 19, and from it through the meter 21 is supplied in the required quantity to the collector 23 after cooking. The cooked marmalade mass is discharged into a lower collection 23, to which is also added the "second" sugar, supplies, dyes,
Fig. 18. Flowsheet mass production of apple jelly pan.
essences with the help of continuously operating dispensers. After mixing, pump the mass with the 24 pump into the filling head of the 25 unit. The latter produces the casting, shaping and sampling of marmalade sweets and sizing them.
Sieve with marmalade on 26 racks are sent to the chamber of a continuously operating 27 dryer. The sieves with dried marmalade are transferred to the 28 packing conveyor, then the goods in boxes or in plywood boxes go to the 29 table for decoration, from there to the 30 packaging table and on an expedition.
The total duration of the whole cooking cycle of apple shaped marmalade is from 8 to 12 an hour.
Variety of fruit-jam âgodnogo
In addition to apple shaped marmalade, our factories produce some other varieties of fruit and berry marmalade: carved, lumpy (or plastic), etc.
The fundamentals of production of fruit and berry marmalade outlined above are common to all its varieties, the properties of which are based on the gelling of pectin of fruit and berry raw materials with sugar. The differences are mainly in relation to minor components of the formulation, methods of finishing, design of finished products.
This type of marmalade differs from the form in that the individual candies are obtained by cutting with a knife of the marmalade layer. The welded marmalade mass for the carved goods is poured into wooden boxes with sides of height about 1,5 — 2, see. After gelling, the marmalade layer is cut into standard-sized bars weighing up to 20 g, which are laid out on a sieve and then sent to the dryer, and the humidity of the marmalade is adjusted to 18 — 20%. Packed in boxes or boxes.
This marmalade is prepared in the form of a pure apple or in the form of black currant, rowan, raspberry, etc., depending on the various types of fruit and berry supplies added to the apple puree.
Carved marmalade is sprinkled with sugar or powdered sugar.
Carved marmalade in circulation is obtained in the same way as carved, with the difference that marmalade in this case is glazed in the so-called "lottery" syrup. Sugar syrup for replication is prepared in the form of a highly concentrated and supersaturated sugar solution. The latter is allowed to slightly crystallize in a hot state and pour marmalade on it from all sides.
As a result of the rapid cooling of the syrup from contact with the cold surface of the marmalade, a fine-crystalline film is formed on the latter. The thin coating obtained by this method (A beautiful coating, if properly made, without bubbles, blistering or other flaws, gives the marmalade an attractive appearance and gives it stability in storage against wetting and sugaring. Sometimes the surface of tin marmalade is treated with the same method.
Lump (Formation) marmalade
The composition of the apple-sugar mixture for such marmalade does not differ from that intended for the marmalade. Marmalade mass is cooked in a coil cooking apparatus or spherical vacuum apparatus. The mass is poured directly after cooking into plywood boxes-trays with a capacity of up to 5-7 kg, which serve as packaging for this marmalade. Drawer trays are lined with parchment or parchment inside. Marmalade mass is poured using a machine that automatically dispenses volume by volume. Boxes-trays with marmalade mass are installed on special racks, on which they stand with an unclosed upper surface for gelation, cooling and obtaining a thin-crystalline crust on the open face of the formation. For this purpose, formulated marmalade is kept in a dry, well-ventilated room for 12-24 hours.
After cooling and the formation of a normal crust on the open surface of the marmalade, the latter is covered with a parchment, waxed or cellophane sheet, the boxes are closed with lids, hammered and labeled  according to GOST.
An important requirement regarding the quality of this type of marmalade is to obtain a dry crust on its surface. The latter serves to protect against mold and pests. The danger of developing microbiological spoilage is present here to a greater extent than that of piece marmalade, since the humidity of the finished product (29–33%) in this case is higher than the humidity of carved and molded marmalade.
Equally important for a piece of marmalade is the correct recipe (selection of gelatin mashed potatoes). When working with poorly gelatinous mashed potatoes, marmalade gives a weak cage or does not stiffen at all. Meanwhile, for a piece of marmalade it is necessary to have a dense, strong cage, since it has a tendency to separate the liquid phase. Under the influence of the jelly's own weight, cast in a high layer, a sugar-acid solution may be pressed out of the jelly, the marmalade starts to “leak”.
Sometimes for the production of lumpy marmalade use applesauce mixed with cranberry, cornel, plum and other gelatinous fruit and berry puree. Chunk marmalade is also made from two or more alternating layers of different taste and color. This marmalade is called cranberry, plum, two-layer, three-layer, etc.
Under this name combine a group of fruit products with apricot base. There are also less common special varieties of stalemates: cornel, rencloth, with a base of corresponding stone fruit.
Due to the specific properties of apricot pectin (as well as pectin from other stone fruits), which gives a jelly, different from the jelly from apple pectin, cooking stakes has its own characteristics. Apricot pectin does not give this marmalade jelly. Apricot jelly turns out more "long", badly gives in to cutting with a knife and is not chosen from rigid forms.
Prescription mixture for staves is usually cooked in open cauldrons. Recipe for stalemates provides a significant preponderance of sugar versus fruit puree. To boil a stalemate, it is necessary to have heating steam of a higher pressure than for apple marmalade, since with weak heating, the boiling point may take too long. The mass for the stalemate is usually adjusted to a thick consistency with a final moisture content of 10 — 15%.
The cooked mass is molded in the form of sweets weighing from 5 to 20 g, more often in the form of hemispheres by casting in granulated sugar or icing. For this purpose, a layer of dry sand or powder is applied using a stamp of the corresponding cell shape into which hot cooked fruit and sugar mass is poured. After gelation for 30-40 minutes. sweets are additionally sprinkled with sugar or powder on all sides and sent to the rack, then - to lay.
Typically, to prepare Patov take a mixture of apricot puree with apple, plum or other fruit puree. For added flavor, fruit and berry supplies or essences.
Some other varieties of confectionery fruit and berry products, known as "colored peas", "abrikotin", "Bukhara dessert", etc. are also close to the stakes in the method of preparation and physicochemical properties.
In relation to these “types of products, the same principles of preparation apply (strong boiling of fruit and sugar mass before a sample for pat, followed by molding in sugar or in powder), but they differ in their external design (in the form of large peas, round or oval cakes) with various surface finishes - sprinkling with powdered sugar, coating - sugar crust, etc.
Waste, marriage and the loss in the production of fruit and berry marmalade
Special attention in the production of marmalade requires the question of waste, marriage and loss. The greatest amount of waste, rejects and losses is obtained by the manual processing of piece goods (casting and selection of them into shapes, cutting, drying, laying of marmalade).
Waste at these stages are obtained in the form of remnants of marmalade, not selected a form of cells, scraps from the cutting formations-smёta sugar in transit, sprinkled and other operations.
The amount of waste produced depends on the degree of mechanization of the processes and on the quality of work at the relevant stages of production, as well as on the size of the enterprise.
We present the actual quantities of the most important production wastes of apple shaped marmalade from the Udarnitsa factory based on the materials of the VNII research (in% of the weight of the finished product).
Vyterki from secondary wipe applesauce 0,31%,
Waste during casting, sampling apple shaped marmalade from farms and layout on sieves 2,9%.
Waste during drying and packing of apple shaped marmalade 1,5%.
Secondary wipes are used as indicated in the chapter on mashed fruit. Sugar-smut is a food suitable for bees.
The remaining waste is returned to production in most cases after direct rubbing or overcooking, followed by rubbing through the machine. The resulting rubbed mass is added to the prescription mixture of certain types of products. In most cases, the waste prepared by this method is added to the lumpy marmalade and dark colored varieties of tin or carved apple marmalade. Recycled waste is introduced into the recipe, taking into account their constituent parts.
Marriage of marmalade (marmalade with a too long or sugary texture, sticky surface, etc.) is used in the same way as indicated above for returnable waste.
The main sources of losses in the production of marmalade are smearing and sticking of the marmalade mass in the production inventory, residues on the walls of the boilers and the rest of the equipment.
Acceptable standards of losses n waste on individual varieties of products regulated by the approved formulations  and technological conditions .
Losses of marmalade production should be minimized by further mechanization of production and the development of cost-effective methods for the disposal of waste and wash water from washing equipment and equipment.