Preparation Pastila weight
The apple puree, intended for knocking down the pastille, is subjected to a preliminary laboratory test. On the basis of these analyzes, a mixture of apple puree, meeting the established requirements for the gel-forming ability, the content of dry substances (substances, acidity, color.
Esli paste zakonservirovano SO2 It is first desulfitized.
Before starting up in production (after desulphitation), apple puree is subjected to a control rub, sugar sand-sifting, molasses - heating and straining in the usual manner.
Dry apple puree is preliminarily ground, soaked in cold water for 2-3 hour. And the water content of the dry matter is adjusted to 14-16%. The reconstituted apple puree should immediately be sent to production due to its weak microbiological resistance.
Air-dry agar is subjected to preliminary washing and soaking, as well as in the production of jelly marmalade.
Egg white is useful to prepare by preliminary easy whipping to break the dense fraction falling in it consisting of a dense plexus of threads of ovomycin.
Homogenous quality of the pastille for the work of approximately one shift is provided by the stock of apple puree harvested in the required quantity. The order of preparation of this mixture is basically similar to that described for the apple-sugar mixture in the production of fruit and berry marmalade, with the only difference that an established amount of processed recyclable waste is introduced into it.
At a confectionery factory, a 40% solution of sodium lactic acid is introduced into the apple sugar mixture in the amount set by the laboratory depending on the acidity of the apple puree. This prevents the ion-bound pectin gel from falling out ^ The same result can be achieved by continuous mechanical stirring of the mixture.
In Fig. 26 shows the scheme of the continuously operating unit for churning pastilles, adopted in large factories.
The 1 formula is pumped to the collector after a thorough mixing and pumped through the metering plunger pump 2 into the receiving hopper of the whisking machine from which the mixture enters (into the upper case of 3.) The same portion of the 4 dispenser receives the first portion of the egg white Moving in the upper case, the mass goes to the middle case 5, where the second portion of the protein mixed with the paint comes from the 6 dispenser.
After passing the upper and middle case of the whisking machine, the knocked-off apple-sugar mass is drained into the 7 mixing bottom case, which is continuously fed with agar-sugar-bagged syrup from the 8 vacuum collector. There, at the same time, the acid comes from the 9 dispenser and from the dropper 10-essence.
Of the outlet opening of the mixing cylinder 12 ready Pastila mass flows into the hopper of the filling machine.
Fig. 26. Driving current is continuously marshmallow beater assembly.
Stretching of air through the mass and suction of gases released during knocking (502 and H20) is carried out by the 13 fan. The productivity of this unit is up to 5,0 t per shift (by ready-made pastille).
In small enterprises, the preparation of pastilles is carried out in batch machines. The machine of this type (Fig. 27) consists of a wooden trough-shaped body 1 with a cover Z, which is opened and fixed at the required angle with the aid of an 4 gonet and a tooth sector 10. When the lid is fully opened, it rests on the 11 racks. On the horizontal axis of the body passes the shaft 2 with the T-shaped blades 9, located along the helical line. Thanks to the rotation of the shaft with the blades, apple puree, sugar and protein are thoroughly mixed and knocked over. At the end of the process, the handle 8 is rotated by the 7 gear on the 6 rack, a flap is provided covering the hole 5 for unloading the finished mass.
The capacity of used machines of periodic action from 100 to 110 kg of pastilles, the number of shaft rotations 200-250 per minute, the productivity of the finished paste from 1,0 to 1,5 t per shift.
When working with intermittent operating machines, the loaded portion of the apple-sugar formula is loaded into the machine, about half of the egg protein required per load is added. Close the lid of the whipping machine and start the mixer.
In the first period of knocking down the apple-sugar mixture, sugar mixing is facilitated by mechanical stirring. At a machine speed of about 200 rpm. Full! Dissolution of sugar in the formula is achieved within 8-12 min.
In 8-10 minutes Open the lid without stopping the stirrers, add the second half of the required amount of protein and continue to be knocked down with a slightly opened lid for more free evaporation of water and better aeration of the mass. After 10-12 minutes Since the introduction of the second portion of the protein, acid, color and flavoring substances (essences, vanillin) are added.
Willingness weight set by the extent of its recovery in the housing of the machine and its viscosity.
If the beating is suspended before the time, the mass turns out to be coarse-porous ("undrawn") and quickly coalesce. In case of tightening the process, an excessively light, too fluffy mass ("peresobitaya") is obtained, which also worsens the quality of the pastille.
At the end of the beating, the amount of hot agar-sugar-treacle syrup required for the formulation is loaded into the machine and the mass is blended for 3-4 min. To evenly distribute the glue in it.
Simultaneously with the beating down of the pastille, prepare the adhesive mass, which is cooked with such a (calculation that the necessary amount of hot glutinous syrup was ready by the end of the knockdown.
The syrup is prepared from 1 by weight of sugar, 0,5 of the molasses and 0,02 of the agar (in terms of air-dry agar) in serpentine cooking stoves, vacuum units or in open steam boilers in the same order as in jelly marmalade production. However, in this case, the syrup is boiled to a moisture content of 21-22%. Concentration of agar in the glutinous syrup is about 1%, counting for the air-dried agar taken in the feed.
The finished syrup is poured at the end of the knockdown in each syringe machine in half amount against the weight of apple puree and sugar taken for loading into the machine. At the same time, according to the recipe, add flavoring substances (supplies, vanillin, etc.), flavoring and coloring substances (essences and dyes), acid for taste and gelatinization.
After the mass is massed to full homogeneity, the gate of the machine's discharge opening opens and let the paste mass flow into the collector in front of the filling machine.
The moisture of the resulting pastilles is about 34-35%, the content of reducing sugars 8-12% and the agar concentration is about 0,3%. The temperature of the mass after kneading with glutinous syrup 45-48 °. The consistency and structure of the adhesive pastille vary depending on the quality and quantity of agar involved in the formulation. The higher the gel-forming ability of agar, other things being equal, and the higher its dosage, the denser the paste.
Not allowing the cooled pasty mass to cool below the temperature of 38-42 ° (the temperature of the beginning of the gelation), they start pouring.
The duration of confusion in horizontal machines with a working capacity of about 100-110 l is 20-25 min.
Pouring mass vystoyka formation and cutting it
Casting of the chopped paste mass must be done immediately when it leaves the punching machine. Pour it into wooden flat trays of rectangular shape, measuring 1300X320 mm, with wooden sides of 25 mm height. The thickness of the cast mass is then equal to the height of the pastel bar (from 15 to 20 mm). Trays are pre-covered with belts from a thin cloth impregnated with food rubber or other waterproof harmless composition. In the latter, tapes made from thin sheet rubber that are less susceptible to wear are used for this purpose.The tapes are cut to the size of the bottom of the tray with a small slit along the length.For the pouring and cutting of the mass, the continuous machine of the Udarnitsa factory system is used.
The principle of operation of this machine is shown in Fig. 28.
If the mixing station is located above the filling machine, the mass enters the last gravity flow, otherwise the mass is fed to the hopper 1 with a vertical screw 10 from the 11 collector, to which it is delivered in a mobile bowl from the whiskers. The 1 bunker is equipped with a jacket with water heating.
Fig. 28. Apparatus for casting Pastila weight trays.
Trays 12, pre-lined with a cloth, is installed on the chain conveyor 5, where they are pushed through special scallops into the filling cassette 3 and continuously filled with mass from the hopper through the slit dispenser 2.
The pouring cassette has inside steel knives 4 for aligning the layer of mass in the tray and removing its excess. The cassette is equipped with appropriate devices consisting of 8 spring rollers, side strips 6 and 7 slides, which seal the sides of the tray during its passage through the cassette, thus eliminating the outflow of mass.
Upon emerging from the cartridge, due to push after reaching the tray, the tray with Pastila mass proceeds to roller 9, from which comes oіn further racking trolley vystoyki before cutting.
performance car around 2 t Pastila weight per hour.
Trays with pastel mass set in a horizontal position on the rack trolleys. In this form, the layered layers go to a dwell, during which the pastel mass hardens and a thin crystalline coating forms on its surface.
The paste mass contains pectin, sugar and acid in the necessary proportions for gelatinization, which proceeds in the same way as in the marmalade mass, but a longer period is required for the filling of the paste, from 1 to 2 hour. This is caused by a more delicate porous structure of the paste mass, the presence of minute air inclusions in the jelly layer, which weaken the strength of the system. Completely gusseted bedding is easily removed from the box and can be cut with a knife.
The formation of a sugar-pectin crust on the surface of the paste mass requires, in ordinary room conditions, a longer time than the setting process.
To accelerate the formation of crust when the pasty is exposed, it is necessary that the latter, being in the trays, be subjected to intensive airing by dry air. In this regard, the trays with a pasty mass spread in them are installed on racks located in closed chambers with a certain temperature, humidity and circulating air speed.
According to the VKNII, the most favorable air parameters for pasty pastes are: temperature 38-40 °; Relative humidity 30-40%.
During the first hour of air remains in the rest of the second hour, and more air velocity is about 1 m / sec.
The duration of the pastilles under these conditions is from 2 to 2,5 hours.
In the absence of closed test chambers, the pastel layers are kept in trays mounted on open shelves on all sides. Ambient air parameters should be possible * closer to the norms specified above.
During the aging, the moisture of the paste mass decreases by 2-4%.
At the end of the vystoyka remove trays from the shelves, choose from them layers. With the help of the released free ends of the tape, which is covered with the tray, the bedding layer is laid out on the belt of the loading conveyor of the pastiller machine. Plast is placed on this tape with a crust down. The lining is separated from the wet surface of the formation, which is in the tray facing its bottom. The tapes are sent to a mechanized sink.
Thus laid layer is cut in the form of bars of rectangular cross section weighing 15 to 20 2.
A continuous machine for cutting pastilles was designed by SA Kozlov and others (Fig. 29).
From the 1 feed conveyor, the stratum passes to the narrow 2 conveyors, advances to the 3 longitudinal cutting machine, which is cut (along one equal length), with the side edges of the seam cut with extreme knives and retracted by 4 tapes into the scrap box.
The cut strips fall on the divergent conveyors, move apart and enter at some angle into the cross-cutting mechanism. Knives 5, reinforced on endless steel bands with a step corresponding to the width of the cut pastila, gradually cut into a right angle into the pastille and cut it on the surface of the 6 support roller, which has an elastic coating.
Fig. 29. Machine for cutting pastes.
The cut pieces, held between the knife blades due to sticking, come under the drum with punches 7, are automatically pushed out last and "spread out in equal rows, crusted down, on the sieves moving on the 8 belt conveyor.
The sieve, covered with perforated aluminum sheets, passing under the vibrating screen 9, is seeded with a thin layer of powdered sugar. The productivity of the machine can be varied by varying the speed of the conveyors, ranging from 450 to 800 kg / hour.
For manual cutting, the stylish layer is removed from the tray in the same way as above, and laid down on a table covered with a rubber "gasket, the surface of which is sprinkled with powdered sugar. Using a tinplate, strip the stripes to a width equal to the length of the pastel bar, cut the stripe into strips with a knife, rotate the longitudinally cut formation at an angle of 90 °, strip the widths of the pastel bar and cut them into individual pieces. The latter with the same knife is laid down in a sugar-dusted "powder sieve, which is installed on rack trolleys and sent to dryers.
Drying, powdering, styling, packaging and storage of pastes
In "the result of drying glutinous pastille, its moisture is brought to 14-18"%. It takes a shorter time to dry the pastille than for marmalade, since the diffusion of water from the inner layers is greatly facilitated by the porous structure of the pastille. However, its delicate structure and slight susceptibility to deformation place special demands on the drying regime.
The main factors affecting the drying of the pastille are the quality of apple puree, the ratio of apple puree, sugar and agar in the recipe, the presence of molasses and the quality of work during the preparation of pastilles.
Apple puree, which has a strong pectin with a high water binding capacity, acts retardingly on the drying process. To the same result results the excess of the share of apple puree, agar glue and molasses in the recipe. In these cases the pastille turns out to be more protracted and harder to give away its water, but it forms the jelly of the required degree of strength. On the contrary, when working with mildly gel-forming mashed potatoes or with a lack of puree, agar or molasses, a sugar paste is obtained, which is difficult to handle in cutting, but the drying process is significantly reduced.
It is necessary to direct the drying process so that the removal of moisture from the paste layer and from the surface layer is as uniform as possible. During the drying of the pastille, the development of a thick and coarse crust or the formation of it too quickly should be avoided. This leads to clogging of moisture coming from the inner layers. Pastila comes out of drying with a hard crust and with a moist median layer. Often, this produces a marriage due to the formation of vomit and voids due to the accumulation of water vapor inside the pastille.
In case of excessively fast drying (sharp and strong heat or excessively strong air circulation) deformations of the pastille can occur: retraction of the sides, warpage and curvature of individual pieces or abnormal hardening ("hardening") or consolidation of consistency ("tightening").
Based on study data VKNII  proposed the following two-stage drying treatment pastille:
1 period (from 2 to 2,5 hours) -Temperature 50 °, relative air humidity 40-45%, speed 1 m / s;
2 period (about 1 hours) -Temperature 65 °, relative air humidity 20-25%, speed 1 m / sec.
The air moves horizontally along the longitudinal axis of the bar.
|Initial moisture pastes||30-32%|
|The content of reducing substances ...||8-12%|
In a confectionery factory, drying pastes is carried out in continuously operating tunnel type dryers (Figure 30), which enable drying control by controlling the drying properties of the air.
The duration of drying pastes in them is from 3,0 3,5 to an hour.
Shelving trolleys with sieves, on which the dried pastille is located, are sent to the cooling chamber, which is a continuation of the dryer. In this chamber the pastille is aged 1 for 25-30 °.
Fig. 30. General view of the continuously operated dryer pastes.
In the absence of mechanized dryers, the pastille is dried on racks installed in chamber or cabinet dryers at an air temperature of 45-55 °. The drying time under these conditions is 5-6 hour. The dried pastille is cooled in the workshop room at 20-25 ° for 1-2 hour.
After cooling, sprinkle with powdered sugar candy that gives the product a better appearance and eliminates the sticking of individual pieces together by stacking them into boxes.
The sieve with chilled pastille is transferred to a mechanized dusting plant. The latter consists of a hopper with a metering roller for the distribution of powder and a belt conveyor, which feeds the sieve with the powdered under powder, an aspirating device for trapping the sugar dust. Next, the pastille is processed by means of a mechanism for sweeping away excess powder from its surface. The mechanism consists of a tape stretched over two drums, with hair brushes attached above it. It is enclosed in a closed casing, the working space of which is connected to an aspiration device serving the whole plant for dusting the pastille. The entrained particles of powder settle in the bag filter of the aspirator.
In the absence of a mechanized installation, the floor is sprinkled with powder using a hand sieve with a hole diameter of 0,5-1 mm.
The consumption of powdered sugar in cutting operations (sowing with sifting powder) and dusting of the pastille is 4-6% of the weight of the finished pastille.
Fig. 31. Driving device for the stacker conveyor pastes.
In boxes weighing from 100 to 1000 g most often lay the pastille of two tastes (pure apple and strawberry - white and pink). Single pieces are placed face up. The lining of tare and lining of individual rows with waterproof paper, as well as the external design of the containers, do not differ from those described for piece marmalade.
Weighty pastille is placed in plywood trays or in cardboard boxes weighing up to 5 kg.
At large enterprises for the laying of pastilles are specially equipped conveyors. The conveyor used for this purpose in the Moscow confectionary factory "Udarnitsa" (Figure 31) consists of three conveyors. On the 1 and 2 extreme conveyors, sieves with a paste are installed, coming from the cooling chamber of the drying plant. Above them are mounted dusting mechanisms 4 and 5. From these conveyors, the paste is transferred to the middle 3 conveyor, which feeds the pastilles first under the mechanism for sweeping the excess powder from the surface of the pastille, and then to the 6 and 7 sections for packing it in boxes or containers.
The sieves released from the pastilla are sent (after proper cleaning) to the conveyor of the pastill machine.
Candy, laid in a box or in plywood and Kapto nnye-boxes, is transferred to a conveyor belt, or otherwise to the packaging or the expedition for packaging and shipment.
In the storage of pastilles, the stance with respect to wetting is greater than that of marmalade, but it is more quickly sugared and "hardened". Thanks to its porous structure, which creates a broader contact of the pastel mass with air, the crystallization of sugar, if it starts from the outside, spreads easily throughout the layer (the candy is sugared, dries). Optimum storage conditions for a pastille: air temperature no more than 20 ° (without sudden fluctuations), relative humidity 75- 80%. Under these conditions, the toothpaste may persist for 1,5-2 months without significant deterioration in quality.
The chemical composition of the glued carved paste is of standard quality: water 14-18%, total sugar not more than 85%, reducing substances 7-14%, total acidity 0,35-1,0% (according to malic acid).