Different species and varieties of fruit jelly differ from each other mainly by the process of molding and the exterior.
The most common varieties are:
- tin -products various curved shapes, molded by casting in a hard form;
- Orange and lemon slices - in the form of semi-circular slices of orange and lemon;
- m p l e s a n d s a nd - cut in the shape of a rectangle or rhombus.
Shaped marmalade produce three types of using as a basis studneobrazuyuschey agar, pectin or agaroid.
The production of this grade agar is composed of the following main operations:
- padlock, swelling, flushing agar;
- preparation of agar-sugar-treacle syrup;
- cooled syrup and cutting it;
- casting jelly mass studneobrazovanie (SADC), marmalade, fetching it from the forms and layout on the sieve; vystoyka (predrying) marmalade and dusting it;
- drying and cooling;
- styling, packaging and labeling.
Air-dry agar pre-soaked for 1-2 hours (swelling) in a flow of cold water, which makes it easier to dissolve during cooking. Locks in running water at the same time removed from the agar some unwanted odorous and coloring agents. For the production can also go to the purified water jelly produced in the agar shops confectioneries containing about 1% agar.
The required amount of agar (soaked or gelatinous) is poured into the boiler, with deaf heating or with bubbling steam. By dissolving the agar, the required amount of sugar and then the molasses are introduced. Humidity of agar-sugar-treacle solution 30-33%, Syrup filtered through a sieve with apertures no more than 0,5 mm. The subsequent process of brewing the glutinous syrup is carried out in continuously operating coil hobs, spherical vacuum devices or in universal vacuum cookers. The cooking is carried out approximately as described in relation to the mass for apple marmalade. The final moisture content of the cooked syrup is 26-27%. The content of reducing substances 12-15%.
Due to the sensitivity of the agar to acid at temperatures above 60-70 ° syrup before it is necessary to cool the acidification in mixers with a water jacket below this temperature. It cooled to 55-60 ° syrup added flavoring and coloring agents and an acid with vigorous stirring.
In split jelly mass is poured into molds using the above-described filling machine marmalade or manually.
Due to the low gelling temperature agar-sugar-treacle syrup cage continues 40-90 min., T. E. Much more than the apple jelly. In this connection, it is advisable to save your batch production area to hold jelly marmalade pan on slow-moving conveyors arranged in tiers.
The best conditions for the cages of marmalade has the following parameters of air in the area of finding forms: temperature 10-15 °, relative humidity 60-65%, air velocity 0,5-1 m / s.
The marmalade selected from the molds is exposed at 40 ° for 45-60 min. The purpose of this tincture is to dry the outer surface of the marmalade before sifting it with sugar using a vibrating screen or by hand. Marmalade is laid out on sieves, covered with paper, and served in a dryer. Drying mode: air temperature 50-55 °, relative humidity 20-40%, speed about 0,5 m / s, drying time 6-8 hour. Final moisture 'of marmalade after drying 18-21%, content of reducing substances 14-18%. Dried marmalade is cooled, stacked and packaged in the same way as apple shaped marmalade.
The scheme of a flow production želejnogo jam
VKNII together with workers of the factory "Udarnitsa" developed a scheme of mass production of marmalade jelly pan (Fig. 19). This scheme provides for continuous processes locks - swelling and dissolution of the agar, sugar and molasses, jelly mass cooling and bottling it, cages, sample, dusting, drying and styling marmalade. Dissolution of the agar, sugar and molasses is held to the minimum required quantity of water, which eliminates the need for boiling agar-sugar-treacle syrup.
Shaped jelly marmalade on agaroid
In production processes, this variety does not differ from the tin of marmalade jelly agar, except for some details. When dissolved sugar agaroid and molasses syrup for the preparation of adhesive must first be dissolved
Fig. 19. Scheme of production flow line tin of fruit jelly:
(1-hopper for dry agar; 2-weigher; 3-bucket conveyor; 4-bath locks agar; 5 ^ -dozator for swollen agar; 5-dipstick for water; 7-silo for sugar; 8-sugar dispenser ; 9-boiler for heating pump- patoki- 10-11-solvent; 12-unit for cooling syrup; 13-pump; 14- four sectional mixer shared weight / 5-Finish car; / 5-camera vystoyki; / 7-mechanism for dusting; 18- hanging racks; 19- dryer; 20-pipeline laying marmalade.
sugar, and then introduced into the sugar solution agaroid. This is due to the fact that a purely aqueous agaroid has a high viscosity sticks to the heated surface.
Technologically marmalade production mode agaroid, developed jointly with the Leningrad VKNII Confectionary Factory named after K. Samoilova , provides for the addition of invert sugar in the jelly mass in such an amount to enter 6-8% of invert sugar by weight sahara- sand, relying on recipe. This is due to the need to improve the content of reducing substances in the marmalade on agaroid because of its high propensity for sugarcraft.
Under the proposed regime also provides for the introduction of a mass of jelly in front of her acidification 0,1% of alkaline salts and disodium phosphate (Na2NR04) To the weight of the syrup to give (possibility weaken agaroid hydrolytic cleavage under the action of acid molecule.
The temperature of the syrup as it cools prior to acidification should be brought to 70-72 ° (instead of 55-60 °), which is caused by a high temperature gelling agaroid. Sadko continues 8-10 minutes.
Marmalade on agaroid has a more "zatyazhistoy" lack of consistency and complete transparency.
Formovoy zheleynыy jam pectin
Production of this variety is more simple in comparison with the previous ones. In particular, there disappear gelling agents dissolution step under heating, cooling macsy jelly prior to acidification, invert syrup administration. The duration of rainfall 6-8 minutes. As technological regime, developed in collaboration with employees VKNII Nalchik confectionery factory, adopted the following procedure for handling powdered pectin.
Dry the pectin is mixed with sugar in a ratio 1: 2. Dissolve the mixture in cold water, taken in 25-fold amount by weight of pectin. Add sugar and molasses for the formulation and conduct cooking prescription mixture in the universal vacuum cooking apparatus. The mixture is boiled 5-7 minutes. to a moisture content 30%.
The hot cooked mass injected flavoring and coloring agents and acid (to pH 2,9-3,2).
Casting process, pectin, marmalade sampling, drying, dusting, drying proceed in the same way as in marmalade on agaroid.
In foreign practice using casting pectin jelly marmalade ^ starch.
In its consistency the marmalade nearer to. Natural fruit and berry marmalade and has good stability in storage.
Technology of production of orange and lemon slices
This variety of products produced in the form of sweets, cut in the form of slices of orange and lemon peel with the imitation of these fruits, their flavor and color.
Jelly mass for an orange-lemon slices prepared in the same way as for a tin of marmalade, with the only difference being that it is boiled to a lesser humidity 24- 25%, and the weight of orange slices to embellish s orange or red, and for lemon drops - yellow. In split the mass is poured into semi-cylindrical trough-shaped cross section, cooled with water from the lower side. After gelling mass takes the form of bars of the cross sections of semicircular "loaves".
studneobrazovaniya process continues 50-90 min., then loaves are removed from the forms laid out on boards vystoyki in a dry, well-ventilated area. In the process of long-term (about a day) vystoyki open convex side loaves delayed crystal thin film, after which they can apply crust. Withstand loaves wrapped crust, which is composed of two layers - color and white.
For colored crust layer uses the same mass (orange-red or yellow), and that for the corresponding loaves.
The white crust layer consists of a mass obtained by striking a protein adhesive syrup
Mass for the crust is poured a layer of about 1 mm in trays with smooth bottom stainless steel or plywood coated with Bakelite. Crust is poured into two different colored layers, white and yellow - for lemon drops, white and red - for oranges slices. Crusts removed from the bottom of the pan and put on appropriate loaves, then wrapped in a crust of the loaves are cut into slices semicircular fixed thickness. The following operations - dusting sugar and cloves predrying them at 40-45 °.
Until recently, the main operations for the preparation and wrapping of brown loaves were performed manually. In 1957 of the Moscow "candy factory" Udarnitsa "created and partially mastered continuous line cooking brown and loaves and bonding with the last crust.
The circuit device of this line and its operation is shown in Fig. 20.
The agar-sugar-bagged syrup (1-27% moisture with 28-24% humidity) welded in an 25 continuous coil column enters the 2 temperature machine in which it is cooled to 45-50 ° and subsequently cut (flavored, Appropriate tinting and acidification). From the temperature machine, the syrup is pumped to 3 or 5 bottling tanks with water heating or to a 6 knockdown machine. From the 3 hopper, the syrup for the color layer of the crust is distributed through a slotted tap with a wide thin stream of an even layer of thickness 0,9-1 mm along the surface of the conveyor belt 4. During the time of passing the tape to the second hopper 5 (12 min.), The colored layer of crust has time to turn into jelly due to the high humidity.
Fig. 20. Driving a going machine fast cooking brown and loaves of orange and lemon slices.
At this point, the mass of the white layer downed prepared to shake up the car 6, enters the second tank pouring 5. From the latter, this mass is also distributed as a thin (0,9-L mm) of a white layer on a lower surface of the color layer.
In the period of further passage of the tape, before turning the working branch of the conveyor 4, the white layer manages to become celestial. Above the conveyor 4 at the output of the mass from the pouring bins, 7 knives are installed, adjusting the thickness of each layer. The working surface of this conveyor is lubricated with a special 8 70 XNUMX% solution of invert sugar, which facilitates the crust breaking off the conveyor belt.
hot water is 16 brush mechanism for cleaning the surface of the tape.
The resulting double layer of crust is cut by 9 disk knives into strips of width 70 mm (corresponding to the length of the perimeter of the semicircular surface of the loaf). The cut strips of the double layer of crust are fed to the forming conveyor 10, which carries gutter-shaped forms (water-cooled). The gutters after filling are filled with crust to the brim with jelly syrup for loaves from 11 bunker. Due to high humidity (27-28%>), the syrup has time to get stiff in a relatively short period of time along the way of passing the molds before turning the 10 conveyor. Rounding the last, the loaves closed from the convex side with a crust fall on the lower conveyor 12, on which they are sprinkled with sugar, from there they make a further way on the 13 transporter for the tincture, after which they are transferred to the conveyor of the 14 machine for cutting.
The cut slices and sprinkled on a belt dryer comes 15.
Among the most recent transactions in the continuous process is currently carried out only cutting loaves, slices and dusting their layout on the sieve through the system machines NF Bolshakova and VU Kvasha.
Fig. 21. Machine for cutting orange and lemon slices.
The principle of operation of the machine (Fig. 21) next.
Batons are placed manually on a conveyor belt 1, which intermittent motion supplies the loaves on a step equal to the thickness of the cut-out wedges (5 mm).
At the time of the stoppage of the conveyor on the portion of the tape to the knife falls 3 2 pressing shoe with a cutout in the form of loaves, which supports the latest in cutting. Knife falling at the same time cuts off the ends of loaves slices of equal thickness.
When lifting the blade to its original position rotating puller pulls 4 adhering to the blade slices on a radially curved apron 10 shifts them onto a rotating comb 5. Then the slices are removed and fixed comb 6, dropping downhill by its own weight, linger at the bottom of the comb equalizer 11, the current is automatically and provides a uniform layout on sieve slices moving on the conveyor 9.
Slices sprinkled with sugar is done by vibrating screen 8 7 from a bunker.
Performance Machine is 150 kg / hour.
Sprinkle with sugar slices fed to the dryer. The drying their produce at 40-45 ° within 6-8 hours. Then cooled and placed them in the plywood trays or in boxes round shape small weight, starting from the city of 100
Technology production želejnogo Cardboard boxesWe produce flap jam
Marmalade of the class consists of three layers, two of which have a layer of colored jelly jelly structure and a medium whipped - foam.
Preparation of jelly mass layers in substantially the same manner described above.
Mass for the middle layer is obtained by striking agar-sugar-treacle syrup after cooking and cooling it down to 60 °. Syrup with egg white shake up knock in the car. foaming process is discussed below in the section of production Pastila products. During churning the adhesive syrup is added into it relying on a compounding amount of applesauce, acids and essential oils.
The weight for each layer is poured into trays.
First poured one layer zastudnevet give him, then poured onto the first layer a second (whipped); after gelling of the middle layer is poured on it a third. The thickness of each layer 8-9 mm. After gelling of the three layers of the spread layer of boxes (tray) on the smooth surface of the board and cut into individual sweets. For slitting layer are circular, and for cross - corrugated knives.
Cut candy sprinkle with sugar, spread on a sieve and dried at 30-35 ° within 10-12 hours.
At the candy factory and other large enterprises the process of filling a three-layer jelly mechanized.
Installation is designed for this purpose (Fig. 22), it consists of a hopper 1 for jelly masses with the water heater, the casting 2 3 mechanism and chain conveyor. The latter serves for the trays under the casting head and output trays filled out from under her. Jelly mass is extruded from the hopper through the plungers 1 the casting mechanism, spreads over the surface of the bottom of the pan and forms a first layer 7-8 mm thick.
After gelling the first (lower) layer trays are passed again to the filling of the second (middle), and then the third (top) layer.
During the passage of the casting tray joints under the mechanism of its operation is automatically interrupted and the 4 5 lever devices
After filling each layer separately trays with a mass mounted on racks, providing a strictly horizontal position of the tray, and kept weight from 30 minutes. to 1 hours, t. e. until gelation of the layer.
Fig. 22. Installation for casting three-layer jelly trays.
After filling the trays with a top layer marmalade reservoir maintained at room temperature for 8- 12 hour. to strengthen the structure of the reservoir prior to cutting, and education on the top of the exposed surface of its fine crystalline crust. Then the trays are fed to the cutting station.
For cutting in a machine for orange and lemon slices described above is replaced by a smooth knife pleated.
Separate from the reservoir tray edges with a knife, put the tray on the bottom upward conveyor belt cutting machine, pre-dusted with sugar, remove the empty tray reservoir and passed under the last cutting mechanism. The cut products are mechanically sprinkled with sugar and spread on a sieve, ready made paper.
Sieve with marmalade, mounted on racks, is sent to the dryer where drying is carried out at 55-58 ° within 6-8 hours. After drying marmalade on 2-4 hours enters the cooling chamber.
Three-layer fruit candy are placed in boxes and crates, trays and packed in an outer packaging - plywood or plank boxes .
Among the varieties of fruit jelly, manufactured by our factories, it should be noted the variety "Strawberry", which is the taste, color and shape is similarity of large-fruited strawberry berries. It is made with natural strawberry supplies ,
The use of waste production of fruit jelly
The waste in the production process of fruit jelly on agar agaroid (and pectin) are obtained by stripping from the jelly mass and bottling equipment (sinks, cutting and marmalade from marriage while fetching and installing.
The total amount of waste can be recycled, should be in the amount of not more than 10% by weight of the finished product.
According to studies VKNII, in order to prevent hydrolytic destruction of agar and agaroid an acid recycling of these wastes should be carried out after a preliminary averaging of disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2NR04 • 12Н20). Wastes to which is added 2,5% of the salt, heated to a boil and boiled until 28-30% humidity. Average waste (about 25%) is introduced (in the main adhesive syrup for dark-colored varieties of fruit jelly pan (blackcurrant, cherry and others.).
After adding the neutralized waste syrup into hot adhesive syrup is cooled to 55-60 ° C, injected dye, essence and acid.
Acid and essences dosage should be calculated to the total weight, and taking into account the weight of the added waste.