Different species and varieties of fruit jelly differ from each other mainly by the process of molding and the exterior.
The most common varieties are:
- shaped - products of various curved shapes, molded by casting into rigid forms;
- orange and lemon slices - in the form of semicircular slices of orange and lemon;
- tr of x with l about y n y y - cut in the form of rectangles or rhombuses.
Three types of shaped marmalade are produced using agar, agaroid or pectin as a gel-forming base.
The production of this variety on agar consists of the following main operations:
- padlock, swelling, flushing agar;
- preparation of agar-sugar-treacle syrup;
- cooled syrup and cutting it;
- pouring jelly mass, jelly formation (cage) of marmalade, sampling it from forms and sieve layouts; curing (drying) marmalade and sprinkling it;
- drying and cooling;
- styling, packaging and labeling.
Air-dry agar is pre-soaked for 1 — 2 hours (for swelling) in running cold water, which makes it easier to dissolve during cooking. Some undesirable odorous and dyestuffs are simultaneously removed from the agar by a lock in running water. Purified water jelly produced in agar shops of pastry factories with a content of about 1% agar can also go for production.
The required amount of agar (soaked or gelatinous) is loaded into the boiler, with a dull heating or with bubbling steam. After the agar is dissolved, the required amount of sugar is introduced and then molasses. The humidity of the agar-sugar-solution solution 30 — 33%, the syrup is filtered through a sieve with holes no more than 0,5 mm. The subsequent cooking process of the glue syrup is carried out in continuously operating coil cooking columns, spherical vacuum apparatus or in universal vacuum cooking apparatus. Cooking is approximately as described for the mass of apple marmalade. The final moisture content of the boiled syrup 26 — 27%. The content of reducing substances 12 — 15%.
In connection with the sensitivity of agar to the action of acid at temperatures above 60 — 70 °, it is necessary to cool the syrup before acidifying it in mixers with a water jacket below this temperature. In the cooled to 55 — 60 ° syrup add flavoring and coloring matter and acid with thorough mixing.
The cut jelly mass is poured into forms using the marmalade filling machine described above or by hand.
Due to the low temperature of the agar-sugar-syrup gel, the 40 — 90 min. Lasts, that is, significantly more than that of apple marmalade. In this regard, it is advisable to save the production area of planting jelly tin marmalade on slow-moving conveyors located in several tiers.
The best conditions for the charge of this marmalade are available with the following air parameters in the form location zone: temperature 10 — 15 °, relative humidity 60 — 65%, air velocity 0,5 — 1 m / s.
Selected marmalades are vystoka at 40 ° for 45 — 60 min. The purpose of this vystoyka - to dry the outer surface of marmalade before sprinkling it with sugar using a vibrating sieve or manually. Marmalade is laid out on a sieve, covered with paper, and served in a dryer. Drying mode: air temperature 50 — 55 °, relative humidity 20 — 40%, speed around 0,5 m / s, drying time 6 — 8 an hour. The final moisture of the marmalade after drying is 18 — 21%, the content of reducing substances is 14 — 18%. Dried marmalade is cooled, laid and packaged in the same way as apple tin marmalade.
The scheme of a flow production želejnogo jam
VKNII, together with the employees of the Udarnitsa factory, developed a scheme for the in-line production of tin jelly marmalade (Fig. 19). This scheme provides continuous processes of locking - swelling and dissolving agar, sugar and molasses, cooling the jelly mass and filling it, setting, sampling, sprinkling, drying and laying the marmalade. Dissolution of agar, sugar and molasses is carried out in the minimum required amount of water, which frees from the need to boil the agar-sugar syrup.
Shaped jelly marmalade on agaroid
In terms of production processes, this variety does not differ from tin jelly marmalade on agar, with the exception of some details. When sugar, agaroid, and molasses are dissolved, it is necessary to first dissolve the glued syrup.
Fig. 19. Scheme of production flow line tin of fruit jelly:
(1 — dry agar hopper; 2 — weight dosing unit; 3 — bucket conveyor; 4 — agar squeeze baths; 5 ^ dosing unit for swollen agar; 5 — water measurer; 7 — sugar elevator; 8 — dosage dispenser; ; 9 — boiler for heating syrup-10 — pump-11 — solvent; 12 — syrup cooling apparatus; 13 — pump; 14 — four-section mixer for separating the mass / 5 — casting machine; / 5 — heat chamber; / 7 — mechanism 18 — suspended racks; 19 — dryer; 20 — conveyor for laying marmalade.
sugar, and then enter into the sugar solution agaroid. This is due to the fact that a pure aqueous solution of agaroid has a high viscosity and burns to the heating surface.
In the technological mode of marmalade production on an agaroid developed by VKNII together with the Leningrad Confectionery Factory named after K. Samoylov , it is envisaged to add invert syrup to the jelly mass in such quantity as to introduce 6 — 8% invert sugar to the weight of granulated sugar, which is compounding This is due to the need to increase the content of reducing substances in the marmalade on the agaroid due to its high propensity for sugaring.
According to the proposed regime, it is also envisaged to introduce into the jelly mass before acidifying it 0,1% alkaline salt disodium phosphate a (Na2NR04) To the weight of the syrup to give (possibility weaken agaroid hydrolytic cleavage under the action of acid molecule.
The temperature of the syrup during its cooling before acidification should be reduced to 70 — 72 ° (instead of 55 — 60 °), which is due to the higher temperature of agaroid gelation. The charge continues 8 — 10 min.
Fruit jelly on an agaroid differs in more "tightening" a consistence and lack of full transparency.
Formovoy zheleynыy jam pectin
The production of this variety is more simple than the previous ones. In particular, the stages of the dilution of the gel-forming agent disappear during heating, cooling of the jelly mass before acidification, and the introduction of invert syrup. Duration of precipitation 6 — 8 min. According to the technological regime developed by VKNII together with the employees of the Nalchik Confectionery Factory, the following procedure was adopted for working with powdered pectin.
Dry pectin is mixed with sugar in the ratio 1: 2. Dissolve the mixture in cold water, taken in 25-fold amount by weight of pectin. Add sugar and molasses according to the recipe and cook the mixture in the universal cooking vacuum apparatus. Mix boil 5 — 7 min. to humidity 30%.
Flavoring and coloring matter and acid are injected into the welded hot mass (up to pH 2,9 — 3,2).
Casting process, pectin, marmalade sampling, drying, dusting, drying proceed in the same way as in marmalade on agaroid.
In foreign practice, casting of jelly pectin marmalade ^ in starch is used.
In its consistency the marmalade nearer to. Natural fruit and berry marmalade and has good stability in storage.
Technology of production of orange and lemon slices
This variety of products produced in the form of sweets, cut in the form of slices of orange and lemon peel with the imitation of these fruits, their flavor and color.
Jelly mass for orange-lemon slices is prepared in the same way as for tin marmalade, with the only difference being that it is boiled down to a slightly lower moisture content of 24 — 25%, and the weight for orange slices is tinted with orange or red color, and for lemon slices - in yellow color. The cut mass is poured into trough-shaped semi-cylindrical sections, cooled from the bottom side with water. After gelling, the mass takes the form of bars of a semicircular cross section - “loaves”.
The process of gelation continues 50 — 90 min., Then the loaves are removed from the molds, laid out on a board for vystoyka in a dry, well-ventilated room. In the course of a long (about a day) vystoka, the open convex side of the loaves is tightened with a thin crystalline film, after which a crust can be applied to them. The aged loaves are wrapped in a crust, which consists of two layers - color and white.
For the color layer of the crust, use the same mass (orange-red or yellow) as for the corresponding loaves.
The white layer of the crust consists of the mass obtained by knocking down the glue syrup with protein
The mass for the crust is poured in a layer with a thickness of about 1 mm in trays with a smooth bottom made of stainless steel or plywood, covered with bakelite. The crust is poured into two layers of different colors, white and yellow for lemon slices, white and red for orange slices. The crust is removed from the bottom of the tray and placed on the appropriate loaves, then the crust-wrapped loaves are cut into semicircular slices of a prescribed thickness. The following operations are sprinkling sugar granules and drying them at 40 — 45 °.
Until recently, the basic operations of preparing the crust and wrapping loaves were performed manually. In 1957, an uninterrupted line for preparing crusts and loaves and gluing the past to the crust was created and partially mastered at the Moscow “Udarnitsa confectionery factory”.
The circuit device of this line and its operation is shown in Fig. 20.
The 1 continuous-brewed agar-sugar-syrup syrup (with high moisture 27 — 28% against moisture 24 — 25%) is fed to the 2 temperature machine, in which it is cooled to 45 — 50 ° and then cut (aromatized, appropriate tint and acidification). From the temperature machine, the syrup is pumped to the 3 or 5 bottling hoppers with water heating or to the 6 beater. From the 3 hopper, the syrup for the colored layer of the crust is distributed by a wide thin stream in an even layer 0,9 — 1 mm thick across the 4 conveyor belt through a slit valve. During the passage of the tape to the second 5 bunker (12 min.), The colored layer of the crust turns into a jelly due to the increased humidity.
Fig. 20. The scheme of a continuously operating unit of accelerated preparation of the crust and loaves for orange and lemon slices.
At this point, the mass for the white downed layer, prepared in the 6 churning machine, enters the second 5 casting bin. From the latter, this mass is also distributed in the form of a thin (0,9 — L mm) white layer on the surface of the lower color layer.
In the period of further passage of the tape before turning the working branch of the 4 conveyor, the white layer has time to chill. Equal 4 knives are installed above the 7 conveyor at the mass outlet of the filling hoppers, which regulate the thickness of each layer. The working surface of this conveyor is lubricated using a special 8 70 device with% invert sugar solution, which makes it easier to peel off the crust from the conveyor belt.
For cleaning the surface of the tape with hot water is the brush mechanism 16.
The resulting double layer of the crust is cut with 9 circular knives into strips with a width of 70 mm (which corresponds to the perimeter length of the semi-circular surface of the loaf). The cut strips of the double layer of the crust are fed to an 10 forming conveyor that carries trough-shaped forms (cooled by water). The gutters after filling the crust are filled to the brim with jelly syrup for loaves from the 11 hopper. Due to the increased humidity (27 — 28%>), the syrup has time to sting in a relatively short time along the path of the molds before turning the 10 conveyor. Rounding the latter, the loaves closed on the convex side of the crust fall onto the lower 12 conveyor, on which they are sprinkled with sugar, from there they make a further journey on the 13 conveyor for drying, after which they are shifted to the conveyor of the 14 machine for cutting.
The cut slices and sprinkled on a belt dryer comes 15.
From the number of recent operations in the continuous process, at the moment, only cutting loaves, sprinkling slices and placing them on the sieve using the machine of the N. F. Bolshakov and V. U. Kvasha system are carried out.
Fig. 21. Machine for cutting orange and lemon slices.
The principle of operation of the machine (Fig. 21) next.
The loaves are placed manually on the 1 conveyor belt, the intermittent movement of which provides the supply of loaves for a certain step equal to the thickness of the cut-out lobule (5 mm).
At the time of the conveyor stop, the 3 pressure pad with a cut in the form of loaves, which supports the latter when cutting, is lowered onto the tape section in front of the 2 knife. The knife is lowered, at the same time it cuts off slices of equal thickness from the ends of the loaves.
When the knife is lifted to its initial position, the rotating 4 puller pulls off the slices stuck to the blade along the radially arched apron of the 10 and shifts them to the rotating 5 comb. Then the slices are removed with a fixed comb 6 and, falling on an inclined plane due to their own weight, are stopped in the lower part of the comb by the 11 equalizer, which acts automatically and ensures uniform distribution of the segments to the sieve, moving along the 9 conveyor.
Slices sprinkled with sugar is done by vibrating screen 8 7 from a bunker.
Performance Machine is 150 kg / hour.
Sugar sprinkled slices are sent to the dryer. They are dried at 40 — 45 ° for 6 — 8 an hour. Then they are cooled and placed in plywood trays or in round-shaped boxes of small weight, starting with 100.
Technology production želejnogo Cardboard boxesWe produce flap jam
The marmalade of this variety consists of three layers, of which two colored jelly layers have a gelatinous structure and one medium whipped - foamy.
The preparation of the mass for the jelly layers is basically the same as described above.
The mass for the middle layer is obtained by knocking down the agar-sugar syrup after cooking and cooling it to 60 °. Egg white syrup is churned in a whipping machine. The process of foaming is discussed below in the section of the production of pastille. In the course of churning the glue syrup, the amounts of applesauce, acid, and essences that are given in the recipe are added to it.
The weight for each layer is poured into trays.
At first one layer is poured, they are given a chance to get stoned, then the second is poured onto the first layer (whipped); after the middle layer has gelled, a third is poured onto it. The thickness of each layer is 8 — 9 mm. After gelling all three layers spread the layer out of the box (tray) on the smooth surface of the board and cut into individual candies. For slitting the seam are disc, and for the transverse - corrugated knives.
Chopped sweets are sprinkled with sugar, laid out on a sieve and dried at 30 — 35 ° for 10 — 12 an hour.
At the confectionery factory and other large enterprises, the process of bottling three-layer marmalade is mechanized.
The installation designed for this purpose (fig. 22) consists of an 1 bunker for water-heated jelly mass, a casting mechanism 2 and a 3 chain conveyor. The latter serves to feed the trays under the casting head and remove the filled trays from under it. The jelly mass is squeezed out of the 1 hopper through the plungers of the casting mechanism, spreads over the bottom surface of the tray and forms the first layer 7 — 8 mm thick.
After gelling the first (lower) layer, the trays are skipped again to fill the second (middle) and then the third (upper) layer.
During the passage of the joints of trays under the casting mechanism, its operation is automatically interrupted by the lever devices 4 and 5,
After filling each layer separately, the trays with a mass are placed on the racks, which ensure the horizontal position of the trays, and maintain the weight of 30 min. up to 1 hours, i.e. before the gelation of this layer.
Fig. 22. Installation for casting three-layer jelly trays.
After bottling the top layer, trays with a marmalade layer are kept at room temperature for 8 — 12 an hour. to strengthen the structure of the reservoir before cutting and the formation of its thin-crystalline crust on the upper open surface. Then the trays are fed to the cutting area.
For cutting in the above described machine for orange and lemon slices, replace the smooth knife with a crimped.
Separate the reservoir from the edges of the tray with a knife, put the tray upside down on the conveyor belt of the cutting machine, previously sprinkled with sugar, remove the empty tray from the reservoir and pass the latter under the cutting mechanism. Sliced products are mechanically sprinkled with sugar and laid out on sieves lined with paper.
Sieve with marmalade, installed on the racks, is sent to the dryer, where the drying is carried out at 55 — 58 ° for 6 — 8 an hour. After drying the marmalade on 2 — 4 hours enters the cooling chamber.
Three-layer marmalade is placed in boxes and in boxes-trays and packed in outer containers - plywood or tes boxes .
Among the varieties of jelly marmalade, produced by our factories, it should be noted variety "Strawberry", which in taste, color, and also in form is a kind of berry of large-fruited strawberries. Produced with the addition of natural strawberry supplies ,
The use of waste production of fruit jelly
Waste during the production of jelly marmalade on agar, agaroid (and pectin) is obtained by stripping the jelly mass of the equipment and filling (funnels, cutting the marmalade and from marriage during the selection and installation.
The total amount of waste to be recycled should be no more than 10% by weight of the finished product.
According to the research of VKNII, in order to prevent the hydrolytic destruction of agar and agaroid under the action of acid, these wastes must be recycled after preliminary averaging them with disubstituted sodium phosphate (PA2NR04 • 12Н20). Waste, to which 2,5% of this salt is added, is heated to boiling and boiled to a moisture content of 28 — 30%. The averaged waste (about 25%) is introduced (into the main glue syrup for dark-colored varieties of tin jelly marmalade (blackcurrant, cherry, etc.).
After adding the neutralized waste syrup to the hot glue syrup, the mixture is cooled to 55 — 60 ° C, dye, essence and acid are introduced.
The dosage of acid and essence must be calculated for the whole mass, taking into account the weight of the added waste.