Chocolate and cocoa

Characteristic parts of cocoa beans

 Oil cocoa is the most significant part of the seed reaching 48- 50% by weight of a dried fermented cocoa beans.
At room temperature, cocoa butter is hard and brittle. This property is highly regarded as due to him chocolate, in which a third of the weight of oil- cocoa and turn possesses a characteristic hardness and friability.
Another feature of cocoa butter is that it melts at 32 °, ie. E. Below human body temperature, and therefore easily and completely melts in the mouth, leaving no typical high melting fat salistosti.
The third feature of cocoa butter is that it can be stored for a long time without visible traces rancidity.DESCRIPTION OF PARTS OF COCOA BEANSThere are indications of the researchers that cocoa butter rancidity were observed even after storage for 5-6 years.
Resistance-cocoa butter against rancidity even at the end of the last century attracted 
the attention of Russian scientists.
It can be assumed that the cocoa butter contains antioxidant retards processes fat oxidation reactions and its rancidity. It is very likely that the antioxidant is included in the composition of the unsaponifiable fraction, the cocoa butter. To test this hypothesis, ALRapoport put the experience showed that the alcohol subjected to cocoa butter extraction soon it reveals clear signs of rancidity, and a control sample, cocoa butter It retains its full flavor dignity. The above experience shows that in masle- cocoa apparently contains a substance that prevents rancidity and spoilage it 
With proper cooling conditions below the freezing temperature solidified cocoa butter is reduced in volume. This property is important in the molding chocolate: cocoa butter reduction volume promotes easy squeezing chocolate form.
   theobromine - A characteristic component of the cocoa beans. Its content reaches up from the 1,5 1,7% by weight of the beans. Theobromine belongs to the group of alkaloids, many of which have physiological effect on the human body.
Theobromine was first opened in 1842, the Russian scientist prof. A. Resurrection. For producing theobromine he subjected ordinary commercial grade cocoa beans long extraction with boiling water. The filtered aqueous extract theobromine it processed lead acetate for removal of impurities. The filtrate was freed from excess lead and subjected to repeated filtration. at followed by evaporation of the filtrate and recrystallization was obtained pure 
white crystalline powder, called Resurrection theobromine. At the same time they were We studied the elemental composition and the basic properties of theobromine.
theobromine(С7H8N4O2) is a white microcrystalline powder, with slowly manifested bitter taste one part by weight of theobromine is dissolved in 1700 weight. h. Cold and 150 hours. hot water in 4300 hours. 430 hours and cold. Hot 
absolute alcohol and 105 hours. The cold chloroform, dissolve well in tetrachloroethane and in boiling acetic acid, n alkalis and acids. Insoluble in petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride.
According to the literature, theobromine sublimates without melting at 290 ° and melts at 330-350 °.
According to experiments conducted in our laboratory, theobromine begins to sublimate at 308 °.
For many properties theobromine is close to another alkaloidu- caffeine, contained in coffee beans. The amount of caffeine contained neznachitelnyhyh also in cocoa beans.
Goobromin and caffeine can be regarded as xanthine derivatives and the latter into its turn is a derivative of purine. 
Purine produced synthetically in a laboratory and may be regarded as a starting substance occurring number and nature of compounds (xanthine, theobromine, caffeine, guanine, adenine, uric acid, etc.), and purine derivatives which are referred to in Chemistry purine compounds.
 Xanthine derivatives which are theobromine and caffeine, is regarded as a derivative of purine - 2,6 dioksipurin. 
Theobromine and caffeine are by methyl xanthine derivatives: theobromine has 3,7- theobromine and caffeine - 1,3,7-Trimetilksantin.Strukturnye formulas show great similarity of these two alkaloids, and each of them can be obtained from another by methylation or demethylation.
Caffeine (С8H10N4O2*H2O) is a white, flexible, shiny crystal needles with a bitter taste. As a base, it forms salts with acids.
Caffeine is characterized by a greater solubility than theobromine. It dissolves in 80 hours. Cold water and 2 hours. The boiling water. Caffeine dissolved organic solvents lighter than theobromine. In contrast, theobromine caffeine dissolves in the hot air. 
The latter property is used in the analysis to separate it from the theobromine. Caffeine is sublimated at 180 °, but begins to evaporate at temperatures above 100 °. Melting point 235 °.
The most important natural source containing theobromine is cocoa beans. Small amounts of theobromine are also found in the leaves of the cocoa tree. Theobromine is contained not only in the cotyledons of the beans, but also in the outer shell enveloped by them (from 0,5 to 1% to the weight of the shell). Theobromine and caffeine exert a pronounced physiological effect on the human body, for example , an exciting way affect the activity of the heart. In large doses they are poisonous. Since theobromine has a weaker solubility than caffeine, its stimulating effect on cardiac activity is manifested in a weaker and milder form. It has been established by observations that theobromine increases the ability of the heart to withstand 
increased loads. Theobromine and some of its compounds cause vasodilation. In diseases of the cardiovascular system as a remedy widely used compounds which include theobromine.
The most widely as a raw material for producing a theobromine, cocoa bean shell, which is a waste product in the production of chocolate and cocoa. As a raw material for producing theobromine may also be used beans and cocoa powder
   organic acids, Which are part of the beans, consist of volatile and non-volatile acids. According to most researchers, the composition of non-volatile acids of cocoa beans includes malic, tartaric and oxalic acids. There are indications of the presence in the beans of a certain amount of citric acid. The total content of all free organic acids ranges from 0,71 to 2,33% in terms of tartaric acid. Analyzes made in the laboratory of the Department of Confectionery Technology of the Moscow Technological Institute of the Food Industry showed that the titrated acidity of cocoa beans Accra is 15,3 °, or in terms of tartaric acid 1,15%. Regarding the pH of the aqueous extract of cocoa beans, it is between 5,4 and 5,7.
    Carbohydrates. Of carbohydrate group of the most significant place and cocoa beans takes 
starch, the content of which attains 7% in the nucleus.
The starch contained in the cells of the cocoa kernels. Holding on to the department works on the study 
cocoa beans microstructure found that starch in the cells distributed in the form of grains odnoyadernyhnyh. Each cell contains three to eight іsrsn sizes of up to 3 8 m in cells located near the periphery, the starch grains are larger. These findings are consistent with those given in the Belyaeva .Saharistyh substances in cocoa beans contains about 1% to the weight of the beans; They consist mainly of reducing sugars.
In the nuclei of the cocoa bean contains about 2,5% fiber and pentosans 1,5%; coated fiber content reaches 16,5%, and pentosan - 6%.
   Protein substances cocoa beans insufficiently studied. The bulk of the protein consists of albumin and globulins. By literaturnymnym data content of proteins in the nucleus of cocoa 10,4%, and the shell-13,5%. By definition, held in our department, the content of proteins in the nucleus of the cocoa beans is Accra 11,44%. In the literature there are indications of low digestibility of proteins contained in cocoa beans.
    aromaticsContained in the cocoa beans and representing one of the most valuable parts of the product are also poorly understood.
There are indications that cocoa aroma substance consists essentially of d-linalool in admixture with lower fatty acids and their esters (caprylic, capric and 
valeric acid, amyl acetate, amilbutirat et al.).
Some researchers have reported that found in cocoa powder diacetyl
and mstilatsetilkarbinol
CH3 - CO - CH (OH) - CH3.
The aromatic substances of cocoa consist of easily and hardly-volatile products. The first of them mostly evaporate when roasting beans and during the finishing of chocolate. They refer to foul-smelling substances, and their removal favorably affects the flavor and taste of the beans. A number of studies indicate that at high temperatures roasting cocoa beans (above 110 °), there are losses of cocoa flavor. The aroma, formed during roasting cocoa beans, is not identical with the aroma characteristic of high-quality chocolate. The hard part of chocolate products has a high value 
aromatic cocoa solids; this part dissolves in cocoa butter. From a thin layer of oils-cocoa fragrance is slowly evaporates during heating above 100 °. When it is completely distilled water distillation; stripping from it can be extracted with ether.
Some researchers have reported the presence in the composition of cocoa flavoring isoamyl spirta.Vstrechayutsya indication chocolate flavor can be simulated by using different compounds, most commonly from the group of esters - amyl cinnamic acid ester, isoamyl ester of phenylacetic acid, and others.
    Minerals. The average ash content in cocoa beans ranges from up to 2,5 3%; obolochke- in an average 6,5% to make up the .Among cocoa beans ash (nucleus) is dominated by mineral K, P and Mg, the content of which corresponds to the following amounts (in% by weight of the total ash) 
Cocoa nibs contain about 0,01–0,03% iron (PerOXNUMX) in the ash. In cases where a higher iron content is found in cocoa products, this should be considered as evidence of an impurity in the shell or as a result of ingestion of iron from 
wearing parts of machines. Among the trace elements contained in the cocoa beans, copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, arsenic and molybdenum.
¹ Some of the theobromine is also found in cola nuts — the seeds of the Cola vera and Cola aciminata trees. These nuts contain on average 2,16% caffeine and 0,053% theobromine. The assortment of chocolate products includes a variety of chocolate called "Cola". The latter is a medicinal variety, characterized in that a certain amount of powdered cola nuts is added to the usual chocolate. 

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